Control and coordination, Brain and its functions

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Information about Control and coordination, Brain and its functions

Published on February 26, 2014

Author: SarwarAzad



how brain controls and coordinates our body, central nervous system, neurons and its types, brain and its parts with function.

Control & Coordination

The Nervous System Neurons Central Nervous System Brain •Spinal Cord • Peripheral The Senses Nervous System

OO BODY A collection of systems SYSTEM Several organs working together; each system has one major role ORGAN A distinct body part that carries out one or more main functions TISSUE A group of similar cells that carry out a specialized job CELL ORGANELLE The basic building block of all living things, plant or animal Specialized structures inside a cell that have specific functions

Helps the body adjust to changes in your environment

Stimulus Any change inside or outside your body that brings about a response Homeostasis Regulation of steady conditions inside the body

Neurons Building blocks of the nervous system 100 billion neurons in your brain alone 30,000 on a pinhead They communicate with each other thousands of times a second. Bundles of neurons make up nerves

 Central Nervous System = Brain + Spinal Cord  Peripheral Nervous System = Nerves to rest of body

3 Types of Nerve Cells Sensory Neurons Receive information form a sensory receptor and send impulses to the CNS Interneurons Relay impulses from sensory neurons to motor neurons Motor Neurons Carry impulse from the CNS to muscles and glands through out the body

Parts of a Neuron 3 MAIN PARTS  Dendrites - receive messages from other neurons  Cell Body – nucleus is found here  Axon - sends messages to other neurons

Dendrites Parts of a Neuron Cell Body Axon

Space between each neuron Neurotransmitters are the messengers that travel across each synapse They are chemical signals that neurons use to talk to each other, which is what makes your brain work. They help determine how you feel, think and act.

Neurotransmitters  Serotonin - involved in mood (such as helping you to feel happy), sleep, mental health, blood pressure and heartbeat.  Dopamine - important in helping to regulate physical movement, pleasure, and thought.  Missing in patients with Parkinson's Disease.

Neurotransmitters • Acetylcholine - involved in regulating muscles, memory, mood, sleep, and organs (like the heart). – Lowered amounts associated with Alzheimer’s Disease

Central Nervous System (C.N.S.)

Cerebrum  Largest part of the brain  Interprets impulses from the senses Responsible for:  thinking and learning  creativity  five senses  memory and emotion  problem-solving  decisions

Cerebellum  Coordinates voluntary muscle movement  Helps maintain balance  When a ball is thrown to you, the cerebellum coordinates the proper response to prevent injury

Brainstem  Controls involuntary actions  Connects the brain to the spinal cord  Regulates heart rate, breathing, swallowing, blinking, and more Made up of: the midbrain Pons medulla

 Made up of bundles of neurons  Carries impulses to and from the brain  Together, the brain and spinal cord make up the Central Nervous System (C.N.S.) Fun fact:  The spinal cord is about 45 cm long in men and 43 cm long in women.

Peripheral Nervous System (P.N.S.)  Connects the C.N.S. with the rest of the body • sensory nerves take impulse from stimulus (sensory receptors) to the CNS • motor nerves take impulse from the CNS to the muscles and glands that take action.

Reflex  REFLEX An involuntary, automatic response to a stimulus controlled by the spinal cord  Like when the doctor uses the rubber mallet on your tendon below your knee  Movement when someone unexpectedly throws something at you

Reflex Arc When the body receives a painful stimulus (stepping on a nail, touching a hot surface, etc), the body responds super-fast. Path of reflex arc: STIMULUS sensory receptor sensory nerve spinal cord (interneuron) motor nerve muscle RESPONSE An impulse continues up to the brain to be interpreted by the cerebrum, BUT, meanwhile the affected area has already produced a response!

Senses Vision Sensory Receptors Rods sense brightness Cones sense color The retina, in the back of your eye, has cells that are sensitive to light. They connect directly to your brain.

Senses Hearing  Sound waves make your eardrum vibrate.  Small bones in your ear vibrate (hammer, anvil, stirrup)  Vibrations go through the snail-like cochlea, which turns them into nerve impulses to your brain.

Taste  10,000 taste buds in your mouth  Your tongue picks up four types of taste: • • • • sweet sour bitter salty  Sweet and salty are least sensitive  Bitter ones are most sensitive Senses

Senses Smell  Odor particles drift into your nose  Stimulate sensory receptors – olfactory cells – in nasal passages  Sensory receptors send impulses to your brain to be interpreted.

TOUCH There are at least six types of touch receptors in your skin: • Hot • Cold • Pain • Pressure • Touch • Fine touch Senses

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