Published on October 4, 2007
Reconstructing sociolinguistic situations: Test case East Africa: Reconstructing sociolinguistic situations: Test case East Africa Maarten Mous Leiden University, RCLT, La Trobe Structure of talk: Structure of talk Introduction Language contact <> language change East African contrasting examples Parameters of contact situations Options for multidisciplinary approaches Credo: historical linguistics: Credo: historical linguistics contact linguistics presumes the comparative method and does not aim at questioning it contact linguistics adds to a fuller understanding of the linguistics history; comparative method shows only part of the story and may give wrong impression of neat split scientific robustness of regular sound change in comparative method is absent in contact linguistics Situations of language contact: Situations of language contact mixed population and bilingualism migration: expansion in small jumps expulsion (ostracism as punishment) economic links (group and individual) client groups growing up in other area (Cameroon) generational language (Bonek) Situations of language contact: Situations of language contact mixed marriage (Gorwaa) marriage pattern (e.g. women from outside), temporary emigration refugees trade captives of war charismatic founder of group (Saygilo doo Magena) Situations of language contact: Situations of language contact registers and special languages register of respect, initiation language argot of hippo-hunters spirit-possession language taboo Situations of language contact: Situations of language contact re-settlements multilingualism in the city seasonal work education radio Patterns (stable?) of language policy: Patterns (stable?) of language policy mono-lingualism (Maasai) interpreters dominant language neutral lingua franca maximal multilingualism shift gene flow and language contact: gene flow and language contact expulsion (ostracism as punishment) occasional sex (e.g. ritual: outside group) ritual expert (high status, founder of group) marriage pattern (e.g. women from outside) war (women from outside) refugees (e.g. masters in problems in client hunter group, pygmies, Aasax) contact <> change testcases: contact <> change testcases comparable sociolinguistic linguistically comparable economically comparable culturally comparable different results East Africa: East Africa 4/5 language families. A lot of contact is across language family. extreme geographical differences language density/diversity is not extremely high; enough to have plenty of contact, not so much that it becomes unmanagable economic differences Test cases: Test cases Ma’á <> Taita Aasáx <> Akiek Iraqw <> Alagwa Datooga <> Maasai Slide13: Southern Cushitic Southern Nilotic Eastern Bantu Northern Tanzania: Northern Tanzania Ma’á <> Taita: Ma’á <> Taita Usambara and Taita mountains: Two mountain areas not far from each other. Once a Cushitic language was spoken. In Taita, now only Bantu; in Usambara a mixed language Ma’á. Taita : Taita Two Bantu languages Saghala, Davida Two former occupants: W-asi, Bisha several hunter-gatherer groups around: Degere, Vuna, (A)Laa, (A)Langulu, Waata. Bisha agriculturalists; burial sites Massive sets of Cushitic loans some common with Cushitic lexemes in Ma’a Saghala had a lateral fricative Lateral fricative: Lateral fricative Wray (1894) used a trigraph tly in Sagala now it is an implosive (palatalised?) voiced velar stop written as g (Philippson) Harris (1978) about Mbale-Davida: voiced lateral fricative in positions where other dialects have a voiced alveolar fricative Williamson (1943) writes Philippson: lateral realisation of r some correspond with ɬ in Ma’a Ma’á: Ma’á Mbugu or Ma’á in the Usambara mountains they speak two languages. these two languages share one grammar the vocabulary is parallel. “normal” Mbugu language is very similar to the Bantu language Pare both in grammar and in lexicon. “inner” Mbugu language (or Ma’á) has a lot of deviant lexical material which is partly Southern Cushitic in origin it does not differ in grammar from “normal” Mbugu; it is a parasite of Normal Mbugu (Mixed Language) History scenario: History scenario Pare mountains there was once an (Old Kenyan) Cushitic speaking group shifted to Pare (Chasu) some left the Pare mountains for the Maasai plains. other remained and completed the shift fully some went to the Usambara mountains later History scenario: History scenario Mbugu formed a servant group among the Maasai expansion of the parallel lexicon of language death situation considerable influx of Gorwaa people fled to Usambara mountains reconstitution of one single ethnic group with (other) Mbugu norm: cattle culture initiation language in Vudee "Maasai"-Mbugu Differences Taita/Pare - Ma’á : Differences Taita/Pare - Ma’á two groups fused into one extra (Maasai, Gorwaa) foreign input influx from deviant culture, looks Aasáx <> Akiek: Aasáx <> Akiek Two “dorobo” groups, i.e. subservient hunter-gatherer or people without cattle among the Maasai. One lost their language (Aasáx) the other retained their language (Akiek). Akiek : Akiek In the middle of the Maasai plains about 50? honey specialists beehives are made by the Cushitic Burunge a Southern Nilotic language very close/identical to the Okiek in Kenya a bee hunting dorobo group. no knowledge about their “brothers”. contact with the Maasai in Maasai no language death homogeneous Aasáx (Winter 1979): Aasáx (Winter 1979) Hunter-gatherers; dorobo among Maasai Story of the loss of their language: Rinderpest Maasai join Aasax as survival option Maasai daytime village language Aasáx acquired cattle dominant language in settlement had changed cultural identity had changed when Maasai left the village; so did the others. dorobo: dorobo such groups attract drop-outs, adventurers and criminals can be ethnically very heterogeneous Difference: Difference Shift cultural goal and economy Alagwa <> Iraqw: Alagwa <> Iraqw 10-20.000 vs >500.000 Iraqw come from Alagwa area no dramatic linguistic changes recent bilingualism in Swahili Alagwa : Alagwa widespread bilingualism in Bantu Rangi but not in interior Rangi neighbours once dominant political power (really?) slowly decreasing influx of Burunge women few centuries ago some admixture of Datooga Lexical influence: Lexical influence Burunge > Alagwa (double reflexes) Rangi > Alagwa Alagwa > Rangi Alagwa > Sandawe (economic influence) pre-Alagwa <> pre-Sandawe Structural transfer: Structural transfer word order influence: Rangi > Alagwa no pronunciation influence on Alagwa morphology: loss of final suffixes (Burunge) Iraqw: Iraqw from 3 to 27 clans: immigrant society linguistically and culturally: history of Iraqw-Datooga contact several Bantu clans > Iraqw, Alagwa > Iraqw Sandawe > Iraqw, + Suule: What did the Suule speak? No recollection shift without trace history of Iraqw-Datooga contact: history of Iraqw-Datooga contact highland plains were once Datooga but Iraqw before Datooga Iraqw-Datooga conflicts Hegemony: Iraqw, Datooga, Iraqw Iraqw bilingualism in Datooga in certain area More Datooga bilingualism in Iraqw now Datooga become farmers and Iraqw Iraqw: Iraqw little dialect differentiation, no central organisation, migration within no neighbours some non-recent Bantu borrowings chupa > tupa > chupa Datooga > Iraqw: Datooga > Iraqw cultural vocabulary sentence connector indirectly, shape of “selectors” prepositions of space structural conditions > morphophonological reductions Pre-Datooga > Pre-Iraqw lexicon: Pre-Datooga > Pre-Iraqw lexicon warfare <cry to gather people to fight>, leather work ‘leather bag for meat or honey’, metal work ‘pair of metal spiral earrings’, cow colours ‘brownish’, cattle disabilities, ‘barren cow’, ‘cow without a womb’, flora ‘acacia sp.’, ‘Acacia nilotica’, ‘tree sp.’, fauna ‘tape worm’, ‘mythical giant snake’, ‘ostrich’, body parts ‘beard’, ‘vagina’, ‘mane of lion’. Datooga > Iraqw: Datooga > Iraqw warship and acquisition of glory: ‘sing songs to acquire glory’, leather garments and decoration metal and iron work: ‘neck ring of brass’ cattle colours and cattle terminology: of shining colour’, ‘multicoloured cow with white sides’, ‘cow with a head of a different colour than the rest of the body’, ‘cow with huge black and white spots’ cattle diseases: ‘cattle disease that involves immobility’, ‘rinderpest’ cattle names: ‘cow acquired by ivory’, ‘cow acquired by a donkey’, ‘cow acquired during war’, ‘cow found on the road’, ‘cow with white tail’, ‘cow acquired to settle a debt’ flora, fauna body parts: ‘front of upper leg’, ‘collarbone’ culture: ‘dance in a circle’ Iraqw > Datooga: Iraqw > Datooga cultural vocabulary reinterpretation of vowels and vowel harmony phonological contrast of two voiceless dorsal obstruents as reanalysis of ATR vowel harmony development of preverbal clitic cluster: transfer of structure, not of form pre-Iraqw > pre-Datooga lexicon: pre-Iraqw > pre-Datooga lexicon agriculture ‘beans’, ‘sweet potatoes’; ‘flower on the top of the maize plant’, ‘pestle’ furniture and utensils in the house, ‘mat’; ‘bed’; ‘beer filter’ cultural practices such as seclusion psychological concepts: ‘intelligence, soul’, ‘worry, grieve’ communication: ‘greet’ Datooga and Maasai: Datooga and Maasai In common two cattle complex people transhumance age sets Slide44: Profound influence of Datooga on farming communities without economic shift: Iraqw, Nyaturu cattle acquired from Datooga Maasai no influence on farming communities Maasai: war, hatred, fear, disrespect Maasai more radical cattle people Southern Nilotes cattle+farming Prehistory: Sirikwa, Engaruka Sprachbund Abflussloses Gebiet: Sprachbund Abflussloses Gebiet Tanzanian Rift Valley Sprachbund: Tanzanian Rift Valley Sprachbund Tanzanian Rift Valley Sprachbund: Tanzanian Rift Valley Sprachbund Tanzanian Rift Valley Sprachbund: Tanzanian Rift Valley Sprachbund Tanzanian Rift Valley Sprachbund: Tanzanian Rift Valley Sprachbund Linguistic manipulation in the area: Linguistic manipulation in the area respect registers: Datooga, Nyakyusa other taboo: limited initiation/secret society languages: unknown reconstructing past contact situations: reconstructing past contact situations Assumption: contact situations in the past are not different from those now If all things equal the simplest wins Propose scenario to explain present outcome problems with the scenario game: problems with the scenario game limits of imagination never are all other things equal Language contact change: Language contact change transfer without shift (borrowing) transfer with shift (imposition) (bilingualism) code-switching language manipulation (emblematic/respect) lexicon transfer Examples of contact: Examples of contact Borrowing: Datooga > Iraqw Shift: Iraqw > Datooga Code-Switching: Sheng Identity: Ma’a Respect: Khoi-San > Nguni Contact no change: Contact no change shift without change borrowing undone code-switching with no lasting effect argot disappears taboo recycles Contact change in lexicon: Contact change in lexicon “Additive” borrowing: Taita Bantu, Iraqw, Datooga, Algawa: Complete shift “Replacive” borrowing in core vocabulary: Ma’a (Khoisan>Nguni): lexical manipulation for identity / respect (possibly distinguishable) Contact change in phonology: Contact change in phonology lateral fricative in Taita (but disappeared): carry over of pronunciation in transferred lexicon: stage in shift lateral fricative in Ma’a: replacement as manipulation: identity formation split in Datooga k/q and vowel reduction: reinterpretation of phonetic differences/adaptation to old language habits: shift with trace Slide65: Morphophonological reductions in Iraqw: restrictions of old language: shift with trace Structural changes: Structural changes spatial preposition in Iraqw: carry over of concept and structure from old language (D): shift with trace etc structural changes in shift: structural changes in shift Bilingualism of e.g. Datooga in Iraqw. Iraqw dominant language Pronunciation habits and surface syntax of Datooga in Iraqw speech Categorisation, meaning, structure of Datooga in Iraqw speech Categorisation, meaning, structure of in Iraqw Datooga speech Which changes materialize: Which changes materialize 3 often disappears because these speakers shift to Iraqw. But if they don’t and influence rest of Datooga or if their speech becomes a new language, it may look the opposite (shift Iraqw to Datooga) (Ma’a) 1,2 whether these changes spread to all speakers depends on linguistic and non-linguistic factors Factors: Factors linguistic complications, simplifications, advantages in the receiving language prestige shifters number of shifters are they mothers do they remain an ethnic entity Proposed correlations socio-history language change : Proposed correlations socio-history language change Guy-Ross based on Van Coetsem Van Coetsem framevan Coetsem 1988,2001, Winford 2003 : Van Coetsem frame van Coetsem 1988,2001, Winford 2003 Differences in stability across language components (grammar more stable than lexicon) Recipient language agentivity (borrowing) Source language agentivity (imposition) Linguistic dominance (not social) in bilingualism contact situations: contact situations Recipient L agentivity AB Source L agentivity AB Agents / Agentivity imitation / adaptation 1: borrowing 2: imposition processes in individual Examples: Examples RecL activity, borrowing, extreme case Media Lengua Quechua with every lexeme borrowed from Spanish SourceL activity: structures of dominant language in recipient language. Dominant language can be the new language influencing the language which is in process of being abandoned in cognitive and grammatical structure. Asia Minor Greek (RL): Turkish (SL) dominant. (and RL activity when speaking T) Additions by Reh: Additions by Reh If only migration as cause for contact Added factors Intensity of contact Linguistic heterogeneity of community Other factors: Other factors identifiable group after “migration” degree of bilingualism language attitude size of group prestige Individual – Community: Individual – Community Model refers to the mind of the individual Essential is language as social construct: establishment of the norm Shift: Shift complete shift (common ?) shift with effect of original language on recognizable community; with effect on language as a whole shift with carry over of vocabulary (e.g. pygmy technical vocabulary) arrested shift, u-turn when too late, re-borrowing of original vocabulary How common is shift without a trace: How common is shift without a trace Nyaturu > Sandawe Many Iraqw clans Datooga among Alagwa Mbugu-Pare speakers Shift with trace: Shift with trace Bisha > Saghala X > Pare (Ma’á) Iraqw > Datooga Datooga > Iraqw Burunge > Alagwa Other Comparable situations: Other Comparable situations Northern Songhay Mozambican Swahili Pygmies Creole studies etc languages of pygmiesDuke, Daniel 2001 Aka as a contact language: sociolinguistic and grammatical evidence. MA University of Texas at Arlington.: languages of pygmies Duke, Daniel 2001 Aka as a contact language: sociolinguistic and grammatical evidence. MA University of Texas at Arlington. speak different languages which probably were once language of their patron also speak language of patron pygmy special vocabulary patrons and their language are link and obstacle to outside world (forest pygmies have better knowledge of languages of wider communication) Creole languages: Creole languages study link socio-history and outcome of language change similar sociolinguistic situations for a number of them similar outcome imcomplete second language acquisition Mixed LanguagesBakker: Mixed Languages Bakker grammar and (basic) lexicon not from the same source originate in new communities of systematic mixed marriage: mother’s grammar with father’s lexicon originate as extended argot of itinerant and other groups who maintain identity under pressure: grammar of dominant language, deviant lexicon note the genetic difference for the two scenario’s prospects of multidisciplinary: prospects of multidisciplinary need for chronology, time depth need for quantative approach indication for some factors from archeology, genetics, not for language attitude, communication policy
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