Published on February 11, 2014
Chapter 2 Perception CONSUMER BEHAVIOR Chapter 2 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-3
Learning Objectives When you finish this chapter, you should understand why: • Perception is a three-stage process that translates raw stimuli into meaning. • Products and commercial messages often appeal to our senses, but we won’t be influenced by most of them. • The design of a product today is a key driver of its success or failure. B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-4
Learning Objectives (continued) • Subliminal advertising is a controversial— but largely ineffective—way to talk to consumers. • We interpret the stimuli to which we do pay attention according to learned patterns and expectations. • Marketers use symbols to create meaning. B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-5
Market Segmentation and Product Differentiation Market segmentation is the separation of a market into groups based on different demand curves associated with each group. B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-6
The Consumer Value Framework (CVF) Represents consumer behavior theory illustrating factors that shape consumption related behaviors and ultimately determine the value associated with consumption. B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-7
The Consumer Value Framework (CVF) B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-8
Internal Influences Psychology of the consumer Individual differences personality lifestyles Cognition – the thinking or mental processes that go on as we process and store things that can become knowledge. Affect – refers to the feelings experienced during consumption activities or associated with specific objects. Personality of the consumer B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-9
External Influences: Interpersonal Influences Social Environment Situational Influences B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-10
Sensation and Perception • Sensation is the immediate response of our sensory receptors (eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and fingers) to basic stimuli (light, color, sound, odor, and texture). • Perception is the process by which sensations are selected, organized, and interpreted. B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-11
Figure 2.1 Perceptual Process We receive external stimuli through our five senses B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-12
Consumer Value Value is a personal assessment of the ‘net worth’ obtained from an activity. B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-13
The Value Equation B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-14
Consumer Value Utilitarian Hedonic B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-15
Consumption Activities Can Fall Into Any of These Categories B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-16
Hedonic Consumption • Hedonic consumption: multisensory, fantasy, and emotional aspects of consumers’ interactions with products • Marketers use impact of sensations on consumers’ product experiences B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-17
Sensory Systems • Our world is a symphony of colors, sounds, odors, tastes • Advertisements, product packages, radio and TV commercials, billboards provide sensations B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-18
Vision • Color provokes emotion • Reactions to color are biological and cultural • Color in the United States is becoming brighter and more complex • Trade dress: colors associated with specific companies B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-19
Vertical-Horizontal Illusion • Which line is longer: horizontal or vertical? • Answer: both lines are same length B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-20
Scents Odors create mood and promote memories: • Coffee = childhood, home • Cinnamon buns = sex Marketers use scents: • Inside products • In promotions (e.g., scratch ‘n sniff) B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-21
Sound Sound affects people’s feelings and behaviors • Phonemes: individual sounds that might be more or less preferred by consumers • Example: “i” brands are “lighter” than “a” brands • Muzak uses sound and music to create mood • High tempo = more stimulation • Slower tempo = more relaxing B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-22
Touch • Haptic senses—or “touch”—is the most basic of senses; we learn this before vision and smell • Haptic senses affect product experience and judgment • Kinsei engineering is a Japanese philosophy that translates customers’ feelings into design elements B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-23
Tactile-Quality Associations Perception Male Female Fine High class Wool Silk Low class Denim Cotton Coarse Heavy B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk Light 2-24
Taste • Flavor houses develop new concoctions for consumer palates • Cultural changes determine desirable tastes • The more respect we have for ethnic dishes, the more spicy food we desire B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-25
Exposure • Exposure occurs when a stimulus comes within range of someone’s sensory receptors • We can concentrate, ignore, or completely miss stimuli • Cadillac’s 5 second ad B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-26
Sensory Thresholds • Psychophysics: science that focuses on how the physical environment is integrated into our personal, subjective world • Absolute threshold: the minimum amount of stimulation that can be detected on a given sensory channel B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-27
Differential Threshold • The ability of a sensory system to detect changes or differences between two stimuli • Minimum difference between two stimuli is the j.n.d. (just noticeable difference) • Example: packaging updates must be subtle enough over time to keep current customers B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-28
Subliminal Perception • Subliminal perception occurs when stimulus is below the level of the consumer’s awareness. • Rumors of subliminal advertising are rampant—though there’s little proof that it occurs. • Most researchers believe that subliminal techniques are not of much use in marketing. B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-29
Subliminal Techniques • Embeds: figures that are inserted into magazine advertising by using high-speed photography or airbrushing. • Subliminal auditory perception: sounds, music, or voice text inserted into advertising. B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-30
Attention • Attention is the extent to which processing activity is devoted to a particular stimulus • Consumers are often in a state of sensory overload • Marketers need to break through the clutter B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-31
Personal Selection Factors Perceptual vigilance Perceptual defense Adaptation B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-32
Factors Leading to Adaptation Intensity Duration Discrimination Exposure Relevance B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-33
Stimulus Selection Factors • We are more likely to notice stimuli that differ from others around them • So, marketers can create “contrast” through: Size Color Position Novelty B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-34
Creating Contrast with Size B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-35
Interpretation • Interpretation refers to the meaning we assign to sensory stimuli, which is based on a schema B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-36
Stimulus Organization • Gestalt: the whole is greater than the sum of its parts • Closure: people perceive an incomplete picture as complete • Similarity: consumers group together objects that share similar physical characteristics • Figure-ground: one part of the stimulus will dominate (the figure) while the other parts recede into the background (ground) B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-37
Application of the Figure-Ground Principle B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-38
Semiotics • Semiotics: correspondence between signs and symbols and their role in the assignment of meaning • Marketing messages have three basic components: • Object: product that is the focus of the message • Sign: sensory image that represents the intended meanings of the object • Interpretant: meaning derived B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-39
Semiotic Relationships B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-40
Perceptual Positioning • Brand perceptions = functional attributes + symbolic attributes • Perceptual map: map of where brands are perceived in consumers’ minds • Used to determine how brands are currently perceived to determine future positioning B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-41
Positioning Strategy • Examples of brand positioning Lifestyle Price leadership Attributes Product class Competitors Occasions Users Quality Grey Poupon is “high class” Southwest Airlines is “no frills” Bounty is “quicker picker upper” Mazda Miata is sporty convertible Northwestern Insurance is the “quiet company Wrigley’s gum used when smoking not permitted Levi’s Dockers targeted to men in 20s and 30s At Ford, “Quality is Job 1” B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-42
Customer Lifetime Value (CLV) Customer lifetime value (CLV) represents the approximate worth of a customer to a company in economic terms. CLV = (sales-costs) + (equity) B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-43
Chapter Summary • Perception is a three-stage process that translates raw stimuli into meaning. • Products and messages may appeal to our senses. • The design of a product affects our perception of it. • Subliminal advertising is controversial. • We interpret stimuli using learned patterns. • Marketers use symbols to create meaning. B. Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 2-44
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