Consumer behavior ch4 personality, self image, and life style moghimi

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Information about Consumer behavior ch4 personality, self image, and life style moghimi
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Published on March 4, 2014

Author: bmoghimi

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Consumer behavior, chapter 4, personality, self image, and lifestyle

© Pearson Education Inc 1

Chapter 4 Personality, Self-Image, and Life Style Bahman Moghimi Master of Industrial Marketing & E-Commerce Doctor of Business Administration B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk © Pearson Education Inc 2

© Pearson Education Inc 3

Opening Vignette  Do you see yourself as beautiful?  Only1% of all women see themselves as beautiful... Because: Most ads portray an ideal image that is unattainable 4-4 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk

What Is Personality? pəːsəˈnalɪti/ noun. plural : personalities  the combination of characteristics or qualities that form an individual's distinctive character. Personality arises from within and makes us who we are The inner psychological characteristics that both determine and reflect how a person responds to his or her environment. © Pearson Education Inc B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 4-5

The Nature of Personality    Personality reflects individual differences Personality is consistent and enduring Personality can change 4-6 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk

Theories of Personality  Freudian theory – Unconscious needs or drives are at the heart of human motivation – Three interacting systems • Id: primitive and impulsive drives • Superego: Individual’s internal expression of society’s moral and ethical codes of conduct • Ego: Individual’s conscious control » continued © Pearson Education Inc B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 4-7

Psychodynamics of the Personality B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 4-8

Theories of Personality  Neo-Freudian personality theory – Social relationships are fundamental to the formation and development of personality – e.g., Karen Horney’s CAD Theory  Using the context of child-parent relationships, individuals can be classified into: – Compliant individuals – Aggressive individuals – Detached individuals © Pearson Education Inc B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 4-9

CAD theory  Compliant Personality – One who desires to be loved, wanted, and appreciated by others.  Aggressive Personality – One who moves against others (e.g., competes with others, desires to excel and win admiration).  Detached Personality – One who moves away from others (e.g., who desires independence, self-sufficiency, and freedom from obligations). © Pearson Education Inc B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 4-10

Theories of Personality – Cont’d  Cognitive Theories of Personality – Personality as differences in cognitive processes (how consumers process and react to information) © Pearson Education Inc B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 4-11

Need for Cognition (NC)  A person’s craving for enjoyment of thinking  High NC consumers are likely to: – Relate better to written messages – Want product-related information – Spend more time processing print ads – Enjoy using the internet to get information B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 4-12

Visualizers Vs Verbalizers    A person’s preference for information presented visually or verbally Visualizers require strong visual elements in ads Verbalizers prefer written information, print ads, questionanswer format © Pearson Education Inc B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 4-13

Theories of Personality – Cont’d  Trait theory – Quantitative approach to personality as a set of psychological traits – Single-trait or multiple-trait theories 4-14 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk

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Trait Theories – Cont’d  Consumer materialism – The extent to which a person is considered “materialistic”  Fixed consumption behaviour – Consumers fixated on certain products or categories of products  Compulsive consumption behaviour – “Addicted” or “out-of-control” consumers © Pearson Education Inc B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 4-17

Consumer Innovativeness The degree to which consumers are receptive to new products, new services or new practices.  Consumer innovators are likely to:  – – – – Score lower on dogmatism Score higher on need for uniqueness Have higher optimum stimulation levels Have higher need for sensation seeking and variety seeking behaviours © Pearson Education Inc B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 4-18

Individual Innovativeness Theory B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 4-19

Consumer Materialism  Possessions  seen as for one’s identity Materialistic People – – – – Value acquiring and showing-off possessions Are particularly self-centered and selfish Seek lifestyles full of possessions Have many possessions that not lead to greater happiness © Pearson Education Inc B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 4-20

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Consumer Ethnocentrism   Ethnocentric consumers feel it is wrong to purchase foreign-made products They can be targeted by stressing nationalistic themes © Pearson Education Inc B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 4-22

Research Insight: From Consumer Materialism to Compulsive Consumption  Consumer materialism – The extent to which a person is considered “materialistic”  Fixed consumption behaviour – Consumers fixated on certain products or categories of products  Compulsive consumption behaviour – “Addicted” or “out-of-control” consumers © Pearson Education Inc B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 4-23

Fixated Consumption Behaviour   Consumers have – a deep interest in a particular object or product category – a willingness to go to considerable lengths to secure items in the category of interest – the dedication of a considerable amount of discretionary time and money to searching out the product Examples: collectors, hobbyists © Pearson Education Inc B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 4-24

Sample Items to Measure Compulsive Buying 1. When I have money, I cannot help but spend part or the whole of it. 2. I am often impulsive in my buying behaviour. 3. As soon as I enter a shopping center, I have an irresistible urge to go into a shop to buy something. 4. I am one of those people who often responds to direct mail offers. 5. I have often bought a product that I did not need, while knowing I had very little money left. © Pearson Education Inc B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 4-25

Brand Personality  Personality-like traits associated with brands Volvo - safety Perdue - freshness Nike - the athlete BMW - performance Levi’s 501 - dependable and rugged © Pearson Education Inc B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 4-26

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Personality and Marketing Strategy     Identify relevant personality traits Target consumers with the relevant personality traits Develop promotional messages that appeal to consumers with specific personality traits Develop a personality for the brand http://blogs.constantc ontact.com/freshinsights/marketingstrategy-personality/ B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 4-30

Self and Self-Image   Self-image: A person’s perceptions of his/her self People have multiple selves – Different selves in different situations © Pearson Education Inc B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 4-31

Different Self-Images Actual SelfImage Ideal Self-Image Ideal Social Self-Image Social Self-Image Expected Self-Image © Pearson Education Inc B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 4-32

Different Self-Images  Actual Self-Image – How you see your self  Ideal Self-Image – How you would like to see yourself  Social Self-Image – How you think others see you  Ideal Social Self-Image – How you would like others to see you » continued © Pearson Education Inc B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 4-33

Different Self-Images- Cont’d  Expected Self-Image – How you expect to be in the future  “Ought-to” Self – The qualities that you think you should possess © Pearson Education Inc B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 4-34

Possessions Act as Self-Extensions      By allowing the person to do things that otherwise would be very difficult By making a person feel better By conferring status or rank By bestowing feelings of immortality By endowing with magical powers © Pearson Education Inc B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 4-35

Useful Further Study)) (( B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 4-36

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Altering Self Images  If actual and ideal self-images are different, consumers may use products to alter their selves  Personality vanity: self interest or admiration for one’s own appearance/achievements © Pearson Education Inc B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 4-38

Internet Insight: Virtual Self Online individuals have an opportunity to try on different personalities  Virtual personalities may result in different purchase behaviour  4-39 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk

Self Concept and Marketing Strategy    Use self-concept for segmentation and positioning Market to consumers’ actual or ideal self-images – Depends on the nature of the product Promote products as ways of altering or extending selfimage © Pearson Education Inc B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 4-40

Life Style and Psychographics  Psychographic Segmentation – Segmenting consumers on the basis of their activities, interests and opinions  Psychographic-demographic profiles  Geo-demographic © Pearson Education Inc B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk segmentation 4-41

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Life Styles and Marketing Strategy  Use life styles for segmentation and positioning  Develop media campaigns based on consumer life styles © Pearson Education Inc B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 4-43

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