Constructivism Learning Theory

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Information about Constructivism Learning Theory
Education

Published on February 17, 2014

Author: bedoegates

Source: slideshare.net

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Constructivisme, Learing, Theory, Summary

Abduh 06101008005 Pend. MatematikaFKIP Unsri 2010 Constructivism TeoribelajarKontstruksimerupakanteori-teoriyangmenyatakanbahwasiswaitusendiri yang harussecarapribadimenemukandanmenerapkaninformasikompleks, mengecekinformasibarudibandingkandenganaturan lama danmemperbaikiaturanituapabilatidaksesuailagi. Konstruktivismelahirdarigagasan Jean Piaget danVigotskydimanakeduanyamenekankanbahwaperubahankognitifhanyaterjadijikakonsepsi-konsepsi yang telahdipahamidiolahmelaluisuatu proses ketidakseimbangandalamupayamemakaiinformasiinformasibaru. Salah satuprinsip paling pentingadalah guru tidakdapathanya semata-matamemberikanpengetahuankepadasiswa (teacher centered), siswaharusmembangunpengetahuan di dalambenaknyasendiri., guru hanyamembantu proses inidengancara-caramengajar yang membuatinformasimenjadisangatbermaknadansangatrelevanbagisiswadenganmemberikankesimpulan kepadasiswauntukmenerapkansendiri ide-ide danmengajaksiswa agar siswamenyadaridansecarasadarmenggalistrategi-strategimerekasendiriuntukbelajar. PendekatankonstruktivismdalamapengajaranlebihmenekankanpadapengajaranTopDowndaripadaBottom-Up. Top-Downberartisiswamulaidenganmasalah-masalah yang kompleks untukdipecahkandanselanjutnyamemecahkanataumenemukan (denganbantuan guru) keterampilanketrampilandasar yang diperlukan. Constructivism dibagitiga, yaitu : 1. Zone of Proximal Developmentatauzonaperkembangan terdekatadalah ide bahwasiswabelajarkonsep paling baikapabilakonsepituberadadalamzonaperkembanganterdekatmereka. 2. Cognitive Apprenticeship, konsep lain yang diturunkandariteori Vygotsky menekankanpadaduaduanyahakikatsosialdaribelajardanzonaperkembanganterdekatadalahpemagangankognitif . 3. Scaffolding atau mediated learning,akhirnyateori Vygotsky menekankanbahwascaffoldingataumediated learningataudukungantahap demi tahapuntukbelajardanpemecahanmasalahsebagaisuatuhalpentingdalampemikirankonstruktivis m modern. Prinsip-prinsipkonstruktivismetelahbanyakdigunakandalampendidikansainsdanmatematika. Prinsip-prinsip yang seringdiambildarikonstruktivismeantara lain: 1. pengetahuandibangunolehsiswasecaraaktif 2. tekanan prosesbelajarmengajarterletakpadasiswa 3. mengajaradalahmembantusiswabelajar 4. tekanandalam proses belajarlebihpada proses danbukanpadahasilbelajar 5. kurikulumenekankanpadapartisipasisiswa 6. guruadalahfasilitator. Konstruktivismeinidigunakanoleh guru dalamkegiatanbelajarmengajarbentuk yang bisadilakukandiantaranyakonseppembelajarmandiri (learner utonomy ), belajarkelompok (cooperative learning).Guru hanyasebagai mediator,selanjutnyasiswasecarasendirisendirimaupunkelompokaktivuntumemecahkanpersoalan yang diberikan guru sehinggamerekadapatmembangunpengetahuan.

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