Conservation APBio

57 %
43 %
Information about Conservation APBio

Published on February 28, 2008

Author: MrDPMWest

Source: slideshare.net

Conservation

What Is Biodiversity? Biodiversity refers to the variety of living organisms on the planet, including their genes, ecosystems, and community interactions The goal of conservation biology is to preserve biodiversity by Preventing extinction of species caused by human activity Maintaining large population numbers that sustain genetic diversity Preserving community interactions that sustain ecosystems

Biodiversity refers to the variety of living organisms on the planet, including their genes, ecosystems, and community interactions

The goal of conservation biology is to preserve biodiversity by

Preventing extinction of species caused by human activity

Maintaining large population numbers that sustain genetic diversity

Preserving community interactions that sustain ecosystems

Ecosystem Services Why preserve ecosystems? Worth preserving for own sake They support us by providing ecosystem services

Why preserve ecosystems?

Worth preserving for own sake

They support us by providing ecosystem services

 

Ecosystem Services Ecosystem services include processes through which natural ecosystems sustain human life Purify water and air Replenish oxygen Pollinate plants and disperse seeds Provide wildlife habitat Decompose wastes Control erosion and flooding Control pests Provide recreation

Ecosystem services include processes through which natural ecosystems sustain human life

Purify water and air

Replenish oxygen

Pollinate plants and disperse seeds

Provide wildlife habitat

Decompose wastes

Control erosion and flooding

Control pests

Provide recreation

Direct Benefits Hunting and fishing for food Harvesting wood for heat and cooking Extracting medicines from plants Example: Tamiflu is based on chemicals extracted from the Chinese star anise

Hunting and fishing for food

Harvesting wood for heat and cooking

Extracting medicines from plants

Example: Tamiflu is based on chemicals extracted from the Chinese star anise

Indirect Benefits Indirect ecosystem services have even greater impact on human welfare and include Soil formation Erosion and soil control Climate regulation Genetic resources Recreation

Indirect ecosystem services have even greater impact on human welfare and include

Soil formation

Erosion and soil control

Climate regulation

Genetic resources

Recreation

Indirect Benefits Soil formation Rich soils that sustain agriculture can take thousands of years to build up Soil harbors nitrogen-fixing bacteria and decomposers that break down wastes and recycle nutrients

Soil formation

Rich soils that sustain agriculture can take thousands of years to build up

Soil harbors nitrogen-fixing bacteria and decomposers that break down wastes and recycle nutrients

Indirect Benefits Plants prevent erosion and provide flood control by Blocking wind that blows away loose soil Providing roots that stabilize soil and enhance its capacity to hold water The consequences of destroying riverside forest and coastal marshes have been seen in recent floods in the U.S.

Plants prevent erosion and provide flood control by

Blocking wind that blows away loose soil

Providing roots that stabilize soil and enhance its capacity to hold water

The consequences of destroying riverside forest and coastal marshes have been seen in recent floods in the U.S.

1993 – Missouri River

2005 Hurricane Katrina – New Orleans

Indirect Benefits Plants regulate climate Provide shade, reducing temperature Provide windbreaks Buffer against global warming by absorbing CO 2 Return water to the atmosphere through transpiration, influencing water cycles Plants harbor genetic resources Genes identified in wild plants may be transferred into crops to enhance productivity and disease resistance

Plants regulate climate

Provide shade, reducing temperature

Provide windbreaks

Buffer against global warming by absorbing CO 2

Return water to the atmosphere through transpiration, influencing water cycles

Plants harbor genetic resources

Genes identified in wild plants may be transferred into crops to enhance productivity and disease resistance

Indirect Benefits Recreation 350 million people visit U.S. national parks and protected refuges annually “Ecotourism” is an expanding industry

Recreation

350 million people visit U.S. national parks and protected refuges annually

“Ecotourism” is an expanding industry

Ecological Economics Ecological economics evaluates the trade-offs that occur when natural ecosystems are damaged during human profit-making activities One application is to weigh the pros and cons of draining a wetland to irrigate crops Possible loss of benefits?

Ecological economics evaluates the trade-offs that occur when natural ecosystems are damaged during human profit-making activities

One application is to weigh the pros and cons of draining a wetland to irrigate crops

Possible loss of benefits?

Ecological Economics Also used to estimate costs of disasters that could have been prevented or reduced by maintaining natural ecosystems $12 billion in damage from the 1993 Missouri River flood $100 billion in damages associated with Hurricane Katrina in 2005

Also used to estimate costs of disasters that could have been prevented or reduced by maintaining natural ecosystems

$12 billion in damage from the 1993 Missouri River flood

$100 billion in damages associated with Hurricane Katrina in 2005

Ecological Economics Used in government planning New York City gets much of its water from the Catskills Mountains Economic analysis revealed that protecting the mountain ecosystem, which purifies the water naturally, costs less than building a water purification plant

Used in government planning

New York City gets much of its water from the Catskills Mountains

Economic analysis revealed that protecting the mountain ecosystem, which purifies the water naturally, costs less than building a water purification plant

Extinction Extinction is a process that occurs slowly at a background extinction rate under natural conditions The fossil record suggests that five previous mass extinctions led to the eradication of many life forms within short time periods Possible causes of mass extinctions include Meteor impacts Rapid climate changes

Extinction is a process that occurs slowly at a background extinction rate under natural conditions

The fossil record suggests that five previous mass extinctions led to the eradication of many life forms within short time periods

Possible causes of mass extinctions include

Meteor impacts

Rapid climate changes

Extinction Most biologists believe that human activities are now causing a sixth mass extinction The current extinction rate is 100 to 1000 times the background rate predicted in the absence of people

Most biologists believe that human activities are now causing a sixth mass extinction

The current extinction rate is 100 to 1000 times the background rate predicted in the absence of people

Extinction Many species may have become extinct before being discovered, as suggested by two newly described species The Australian snubnose dolphin and the Aftrican kipunji monkey Only about 1000 of each remain Both are threatened by human activity and might have become extinct before discovery

Many species may have become extinct before being discovered, as suggested by two newly described species

The Australian snubnose dolphin and the Aftrican kipunji monkey

Only about 1000 of each remain

Both are threatened by human activity and might have become extinct before discovery

 

Threatened Species Increasing numbers of species are threatened with extinction Depending on the likelihood of extinction in the near future, threatened species are described as critically endangered , endangered , or vulnerable As of 2004 there are 15,589 threatened species 12% of all birds 23% of all mammals 32% of all amphibians 42% of all turtles and tortoises

Increasing numbers of species are threatened with extinction

Depending on the likelihood of extinction in the near future, threatened species are described as critically endangered , endangered , or vulnerable

As of 2004 there are 15,589 threatened species

12% of all birds

23% of all mammals

32% of all amphibians

42% of all turtles and tortoises

Mammals

Threats to Biodiversity Two processes are fueling the decline in Earth’s biodiversity Increasing use of resources to support human lifestyles Human activities that destroy habitats and pollute the environment Comparison of humanity’s footprint with Earth’s biocapacity in 2002 Footprint: 5.4 acres (24 in U.S.) Biocapacity: 4.5

Two processes are fueling the decline in Earth’s biodiversity

Increasing use of resources to support human lifestyles

Human activities that destroy habitats and pollute the environment

Comparison of humanity’s footprint with Earth’s biocapacity in 2002

Footprint: 5.4 acres (24 in U.S.)

Biocapacity: 4.5

Earth’s “Ecological Capital” Human depletion of the Earth’s ecological capital can be illustrated by estimating Ecological footprint: surface area required to produce our resources and absorb our wastes Biocapacity: actual and available sustainable resources and waste-absorbing capacity of Earth

Human depletion of the Earth’s ecological capital can be illustrated by estimating

Ecological footprint: surface area required to produce our resources and absorb our wastes

Biocapacity: actual and available sustainable resources and waste-absorbing capacity of Earth

Earth’s “Ecological Capital” Humans have exceeded the Earth’s biocapacity by 20% “ Ecological deficit” degrades ecosystems, drawing on “ecological capital” Deficit will grow as living standards of less-developed nations increase

Humans have exceeded the Earth’s biocapacity by 20%

“ Ecological deficit” degrades ecosystems, drawing on “ecological capital”

Deficit will grow as living standards of less-developed nations increase

 

Human Threats to Biodiversity Humans threaten biodiversity in a number of ways Habitat destruction Overexploitation Harmful interaction with invasive species Pollution Global warming

Humans threaten biodiversity in a number of ways

Habitat destruction

Overexploitation

Harmful interaction with invasive species

Pollution

Global warming

Habitat Destruction Farming activities over past 11,000 years have led to loss of ½ of total forest cover ½ of tropical rain forests cut down over past 50 years for Wood Conversion to agriculture

Farming activities over past 11,000 years have led to loss of ½ of total forest cover

½ of tropical rain forests cut down over past 50 years for

Wood

Conversion to agriculture

 

Habitat Destruction Other activities that lead to habitat destruction Damming rivers Draining wetlands Building roads and housing Industry Some species need thousands of acres to find food and breed Habitat fragmentation threatens wildlife by splitting up natural ecosystems

Other activities that lead to habitat destruction

Damming rivers

Draining wetlands

Building roads and housing

Industry

Some species need thousands of acres to find food and breed

Habitat fragmentation threatens wildlife by splitting up natural ecosystems

 

Habitat Destruction Preserves created to protect endangered species must support a minimum viable population (MVP) Smallest natural population that can persist in spite of natural events (disease, fires, floods)

Preserves created to protect endangered species must support a minimum viable population (MVP)

Smallest natural population that can persist in spite of natural events (disease, fires, floods)

Overexploitation Overexploitation involves hunting or harvesting natural populations at rates that exceed replenishment Impacts 30% of threatened birds and mammals Over fishing and overharvesting threatens many marine life forms Cod, sharks, red snapper, swordfish, tuna, turtles Unintentional trapping in fishing nets threatens Whales, porpoises, dolphins

Overexploitation involves hunting or harvesting natural populations at rates that exceed replenishment

Impacts 30% of threatened birds and mammals

Over fishing and overharvesting threatens many marine life forms

Cod, sharks, red snapper, swordfish, tuna, turtles

Unintentional trapping in fishing nets threatens

Whales, porpoises, dolphins

 

Invasive Species When non-native species are introduced into an area, they can becomes invasive Invasive species can displace native species and disrupt community interactions through Competion for food and/or habitat Direct predation Island and lake communities are particularly vulnerable to invasive species The mongoose, imported to Hawaii to control rats, now threatens birds The Nile perch, introduced to Lake Victoria for fishing, now threatens 200 other species

When non-native species are introduced into an area, they can becomes invasive

Invasive species can displace native species and disrupt community interactions through

Competion for food and/or habitat

Direct predation

Island and lake communities are particularly vulnerable to invasive species

The mongoose, imported to Hawaii to control rats, now threatens birds

The Nile perch, introduced to Lake Victoria for fishing, now threatens 200 other species

 

 

Pollution Pollutants that threaten biodiversity include synthetic chemicals Plasticizers, flame retardants, pesticides Enter air, water, soil Accumulate in animal tissues, disrupting development or reproduction

Pollutants that threaten biodiversity include synthetic chemicals

Plasticizers, flame retardants, pesticides

Enter air, water, soil

Accumulate in animal tissues, disrupting development or reproduction

Pollution Accumulation of high levels of some natural substances are also threats Mercury, lead, and arsenic from mining and manufacturing are toxic Oxidized nitrogen and sulfur released by burning fossil fuels lead to acid rain

Accumulation of high levels of some natural substances are also threats

Mercury, lead, and arsenic from mining and manufacturing are toxic

Oxidized nitrogen and sulfur released by burning fossil fuels lead to acid rain

Global Warming Burning of fossil fuels and deforestation has led to increased atmospheric CO 2 levels Increase is associated with rising global temperatures Global warming is associated with dramatic changes Many species are shifting ranges toward poles Plants and animals initiate springtime activities earlier each year Glaciers, ice shelves, and ice caps are melting Extreme weather patterns

Burning of fossil fuels and deforestation has led to increased atmospheric CO 2 levels

Increase is associated with rising global temperatures

Global warming is associated with dramatic changes

Many species are shifting ranges toward poles

Plants and animals initiate springtime activities earlier each year

Glaciers, ice shelves, and ice caps are melting

Extreme weather patterns

Global Warming Leads to habitat destruction Rapid pace of global warming taxes abilities of species to adapt to changing conditions through natural selection By 2050: estimated that 1 million species will be threatened with extinction due to global warming

Leads to habitat destruction

Rapid pace of global warming taxes abilities of species to adapt to changing conditions through natural selection

By 2050: estimated that 1 million species will be threatened with extinction due to global warming

Conservation Biology The goals of conservation biology are to Understand the impact of human activities on species, populations, communities, and ecosystems Preserve and restore natural communities Reverse loss of biodiversity caused by humans Foster sustainable use of Earth’s resources

The goals of conservation biology are to

Understand the impact of human activities on species, populations, communities, and ecosystems

Preserve and restore natural communities

Reverse loss of biodiversity caused by humans

Foster sustainable use of Earth’s resources

Integrated Scientific Approach Conservation requires integrated efforts of many Ecologists, geneticists, botanists, zoologists Wildlife managers Environmental lawyers Ecological economists Social scientists Educators Individuals making choices and taking action

Conservation requires integrated efforts of many

Ecologists, geneticists, botanists, zoologists

Wildlife managers

Environmental lawyers

Ecological economists

Social scientists

Educators

Individuals making choices and taking action

Conserving Wild Ecosystems Each threatened species faces different survival challenges, requiring unique conservation efforts One approach involves the creation of core reserves and corridors Core reserves are protected natural areas that preserve all levels of biodiversity Exclude all but low-impact human activities Must provide a minimal critical area that can sustain a minimum viable population

Each threatened species faces different survival challenges, requiring unique conservation efforts

One approach involves the creation of core reserves and corridors

Core reserves are protected natural areas that preserve all levels of biodiversity

Exclude all but low-impact human activities

Must provide a minimal critical area that can sustain a minimum viable population

Conserving Wild Ecosystems Wildlife corridors are strips of protected land that link core reserves Allow safe passage of animals between habitats separated by human activities, increasing size of reserves

Wildlife corridors are strips of protected land that link core reserves

Allow safe passage of animals between habitats separated by human activities, increasing size of reserves

Conserving Wild Ecosystems Reserves and corridors ideally should be surrounded by buffer zones that prohibit clear-cutting, mining, freeways and housing However, a San Diego freeway underpass currently serves as a corridor for cougars

Reserves and corridors ideally should be surrounded by buffer zones that prohibit clear-cutting, mining, freeways and housing

However, a San Diego freeway underpass currently serves as a corridor for cougars

 

Sustainability Sustainable living and development promote long-term ecological and human well-being Sustainability requires Diverse communities and interactions Populations stabilized below the carrying capacity of the environment Recycling and efficient use of raw materials Reliance on renewable sources of energy

Sustainable living and development promote long-term ecological and human well-being

Sustainability requires

Diverse communities and interactions

Populations stabilized below the carrying capacity of the environment

Recycling and efficient use of raw materials

Reliance on renewable sources of energy

Sustainability Sustainable development fulfills present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs Current commercial fishing practices (e.g. netting, trawling) endanger many species Sustainable fishing would require Preservation of spawning grounds Limiting fish catches Developing technologies to avoid damag

Sustainable development fulfills present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs

Current commercial fishing practices (e.g. netting, trawling) endanger many species

Sustainable fishing would require

Preservation of spawning grounds

Limiting fish catches

Developing technologies to avoid damag

Biosphere Reserves One approach to meeting the needs of humans in a sustainable manner has been the creation of a world network of biosphere reserves Part of a program run by the United Nations The goals are to Maintain biodiversity Evaluate techniques for sustaining development while preserving local cultural values

One approach to meeting the needs of humans in a sustainable manner has been the creation of a world network of biosphere reserves

Part of a program run by the United Nations

The goals are to

Maintain biodiversity

Evaluate techniques for sustaining development while preserving local cultural values

Biosphere Reserves Each biosphere consists of A central core reserve: protected area allowing research and sustainable uses A surrounding buffer zone : permits low impact activity and development An outer transition area : supports settlements, tourism, fishing, agriculture

Each biosphere consists of

A central core reserve: protected area allowing research and sustainable uses

A surrounding buffer zone : permits low impact activity and development

An outer transition area : supports settlements, tourism, fishing, agriculture

 

 

Sustainable Agriculture Major habitat loss has occurred due to the conversion of natural ecosystems to agricultural use Many current agricultural practices are unsustainable approaches Failure to plant following harvest leads to soil erosion Herbicides and insecticides pollute, and kill natural predators Irrigation practices deplete underground water supplies

Major habitat loss has occurred due to the conversion of natural ecosystems to agricultural use

Many current agricultural practices are unsustainable approaches

Failure to plant following harvest leads to soil erosion

Herbicides and insecticides pollute, and kill natural predators

Irrigation practices deplete underground water supplies

Sustainable Agriculture Many farmers now realize that sustainable practices save money and preserve land No-till cropping leaves remnants of harvested crops as mulch Organic farming excludes herbicides, pesticides and fertilizers Natural predators used to control pests Planting diverse crops reduces pest and disease infestations

Many farmers now realize that sustainable practices save money and preserve land

No-till cropping leaves remnants of harvested crops as mulch

Organic farming excludes herbicides, pesticides and fertilizers

Natural predators used to control pests

Planting diverse crops reduces pest and disease infestations

 

Human Population Growth Most of the world’s human population lives in less-developed countries and lacks basic amenities 75-80 million people are added to the planet every year Growth rate is incompatible with a sustainable increase in quality of life for the present 6.5 billion inhabitants

Most of the world’s human population lives in less-developed countries and lacks basic amenities

75-80 million people are added to the planet every year

Growth rate is incompatible with a sustainable increase in quality of life for the present 6.5 billion inhabitants

Lifestyle and Technologies Changes that humans can make to develop sustainable approaches Make responsible reproductive choices Reduce energy consumption and use of fossil fuels Develop and use energy-saving technologies Rely on renewable energy sources Make consumer choices that promote sustainable practices

Changes that humans can make to develop sustainable approaches

Make responsible reproductive choices

Reduce energy consumption and use of fossil fuels

Develop and use energy-saving technologies

Rely on renewable energy sources

Make consumer choices that promote sustainable practices

The End

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

Ch.55 APBIO (Conservation Biology and Restoration Ecology ...

Vocabulary words for Ch.55 APBIO (Conservation Biology and Restoration Ecology). Includes studying games and tools such as flashcards.
Read more

Search › vocabulary ap biology ecology conservation apbio ...

If you're having trouble, want to report a bug, provide a suggestion, or just want to say hello — please fill out the form below.
Read more

Conservation Biology and Restoration Ecology

Chapter 56. Conservation Biology and Restoration Ecology . Lecture Outline . Overview: Striking Gold Scientists have described and formally named about 1.8 ...
Read more

Key Concepts: CONSERVATION BIOLOGY AND RESTORATION ECOLOGY

5/1/2013 1 CONSERVATION BIOLOGY AND RESTORATION ECOLOGY Key Concepts: Human activities threaten Earth’s biodiversity Population conservation focuses on ...
Read more

The Association of Professional Biology ...

Encourage the development and application of sound biological principles in the management and conservation of resources where members work and live;
Read more

Chapter 55 - Conservation Biology and Restoration Ecology ...

Chapter 55 Conservation Biology and Restoration EcologyLecture Outline Overview: The Biodiversity Crisis
Read more

AP Biology Lecture Notes - Mrs. Chou's Classes

Information on Mrs. Chou's Classes. Mrs. Chou's Classes. Search this site. Welcome! ... Chapter 56: Conservation and Global Climate Change (9e) ...
Read more

Copy of AP Bio- Ecology 5: Conservation Biology by Landi ...

5 of 6 of my Ecology Unit. Image Credits: Biology (Campbell) 9th edition, copyright Pearson 2011, & The InternetProvided under the terms of a Creative ...
Read more