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Information about Consciousness

Published on January 10, 2009

Author: aSGuest10010


Consciousness : Consciousness Chapter 5 Can consciousness be studied? : Can consciousness be studied? John Watson (Behaviorism) and William James (Functionalism) said no Not observable Consciousness as a Construct : Consciousness as a Construct A construct is something we cannot see, touch, or measure directly i.e. intelligence, emotion Constructs effect behavior Meanings of Consciousness : Meanings of Consciousness “Awareness” Sensory awareness Inner awareness A sense of self Consciousness as Sensory Awareness : Consciousness as Sensory Awareness Using your senses to be aware Can be unaware of sensory stimulation Is that stimulation a part of your conscious self? Unusual stimuli and sudden changes Consciousness as Direct Inner Awareness : Consciousness as Direct Inner Awareness Imagine jumping in a lake… Imagine jumping off a building… To figure out complex thoughts one must be aware of the things happening inside of them Ethical or abstract concepts Consciousness as a Sense of Self : Consciousness as a Sense of Self 3 levels of sense of self Awareness is more limited in these 3 levels Preconscious Level : Preconscious Level Taking ideas not in your direct awareness and giving them priority Store information - recall Unconscious Level : Unconscious Level Unavailable to awareness in most circumstances Hidden information – party example p. 105 Freud – unconscious desires Mental strategies – defense mechanisms Non-conscious Level : Non-conscious Level Blinking, breathing, etc. If we had to concentrate on all of these things… Altered States : Altered States Drugs Meditation Hypnosis Dozing off Section 2: Sleep and Dreams : Section 2: Sleep and Dreams We spend 33% of our lives sleeping Circadian Rhythms – biological clocks Sleepiness / wakefulness Blood pressure Temperature Can be harmful if disrupted continuously Sleep-Wake Cycle : Sleep-Wake Cycle A full sleep-wake cycle is 24 hours Removal of certain stimuli can extend this cycle or vice versa Stages of Sleep : Stages of Sleep Stages are defined by brain wave patterns Measured by electroencephalograph (EEG) Brain waves are cyclical – Beta, alpha, theta, delta – 4 patterns of brain waves Falling asleep Gradual change from beta to alpha Sensations of falling asleep Stages : Stages Stage 1 – lightest sleep stage Slowing of brain waves Brief dreamlike images Easily awakened Stages : Stages Stage 1 lasts 30-40 mins After stage 1 we pass through 2,3, and 4 3 and 4 are the deepest sleep – delta waves Stage Transition : Stage Transition 30 minutes in stage 4 Transition back to stage 1 – the trip through all 4 cycles takes a total of 90 minutes When we enter back towards stage 1 some funny things happen: REM : REM Breathing becomes irregular Blood pressure rises Heart beats faster Similar to stage one this is REM sleep Other stages are called NREM 8 hour sleep – 5 rotations up and down stages Final REM sleep may last 30 mins or longer Why do we sleep? : Why do we sleep? Body reset Resistance to infection Life happenings What happens if we refused to sleep? Purposes of REM Sleep : Purposes of REM Sleep Brain cell exercise in adults Brain development in babies Better learning capabilities Comprehension Dreams and REM Sleep : Dreams and REM Sleep Some people dream in black and white, some in color Every time we are in REM sleep we dream Some are more realistic than others Some people remember dreams, while others have a hard time States of consciousness may affect this Freudian View : Freudian View Freud said that dreams are wishes your heart makes People dream in symbols This allows people to deal with issues that may be too painful to deal with consciously Biopsychological View : Biopsychological View Some psychologists believe that dreams are more biological Neurons fire at random in the brain that control vision and movement This could explain why we often dream of things that happened during the day or people we interacted with No Set of Rules : No Set of Rules Psychologists agree that there is no set of rules that defines how to interpret dreams Sleep Problems : Sleep Problems Insomnia – the inability to sleep “racing mind” syndrome Forcing sleep makes it worse Occasional insomnia is common Several tips Nightmares and Night Terrors : Nightmares and Night Terrors Many reasons for nightmares: Traumatic events Anxious / Depressed Profession or Activity Why do nightmares occur? Night Terrors : Night Terrors Night terrors are turned up nightmares May cause physical effects while sleeping Vague after occurrence Night terrors occur in stage 3 or 4 Happen in first couple of sleep cycles Sleepwalking : Sleepwalking Sleepwalking is often associated with children Urban legend says that waking them may cause irrational behavior Should be supervised if possible because they could hurt themselves Sleep Apnea : Sleep Apnea Breathing interruption that happens at night Usually do not wake up completely Once they start to breathe normally they go back to sleep Occur when nasal passages are blocked May cause snoring May be related to SIDS Narcolepsy : Narcolepsy People fall asleep no matter what time or where they are Several short naps and certain drugs have been known to treat this disorder Can be dangerous

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