CONSAL-Keynote-DL-2003

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Published on January 15, 2009

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“Achieving Information Resources Empowerment: A Digital Library and Knowledge Management Perspective” : “Achieving Information Resources Empowerment: A Digital Library and Knowledge Management Perspective” Hsinchun Chen, Ph.D. McClelland Professor of MIS University of Arizona ????????, ??? ?? PI, NSF DLI-1, DLI-2, NSDL; Director, Artificial Intelligence Lab PI, NSF Digital Government Program, ITR Director, Hoffman E-Commerce Lab; PI, SAP, HP research programs; Founder, Knowledge Computing Corp. Slide 2: Digital Library: Overview Slide 3: Introduction The Internet is changing the way we live and do business. Opportunities for libraries, governments, and businesses: to better deliver its contents and services and interact with its many constituents – citizens, patrons, businesses, and other government partners. Exciting and innovative transformation could occur with the new technologies and practices: in addition to providing information, communication, and transaction services. Review and comparison: but with more focus on digital library + some examples/case studies Slide 4: Digital Library: Characteristics No need to leave the home or office: information now readily available on-line via digital gateways furnished by a wide variety of information providers. Information is multimedia: electronically available in a wide variety of formats, many of which are large, complex (i.e., video and audio), and often integrated. continue Slide 5: Digital Library: Characteristics (continued) Interface to the Web has evolved from browsing to searching: but the commercial technology has remained largely unchanged from its roots in the 1960s. New research presents new opportunities. Social impact matters as much as technological advancement: DL projects need to examine the broad social, economic, legal, ethical, and cross-cultural contexts and impacts. Slide 6: DLI-1, DLI-2, NSDL, JCDL, ECDL, and ICADL: Towards Building A Global Digital Library NSF Digital Library Initiative Phase 1 (DLI-1), 1994-1998 • NSF CISE/IIS Special Program, $24M, NSF, DARPA, NASA funding; Six projects: Stanford, Berkeley, UCSB, Michigan, CMU, UIUC. • Technology focus, new and rich library content; Bi-annual site visits and project meetings. Special activities: IEEE Computer, CACM, JASIS special issues, and many books and book chapters. continue Slide 7: DLI-1, DLI-2, NSDL, JCDL, ECDL, and ICADL: Towards Building A Global Digital Library (continued) NSF Digital Library Initiative Phase 2 (DLI-2), 1998-2003 • NSF CISE/IIS Special Program, $60M, 1998-; NSF, DARPA, NLM, LoC, NASA, NEH; 20+ projects: Stanford, Berkeley, UCSB, CMU, Arizona, and many others. • Strong focus on integration of technologies, contents, and service. Annual NSF all-PI meeting with JCDL. continue Slide 8: DLI-1, DLI-2, NSDL, JCDL, ECDL, and ICADL: Towards Building A Global Digital Library (continued) National Science Digital Library (NSDL), 2000- • NSF CISE/IIS Special Program, $45M, 60+ projects: Strong education focus in many different application domains. • Annual NSF all-PI meeting in DC. Core Integration effort: Cornell (Open Archive Initiative), UCAR, U. Mass., etc. Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (JCDL), 1996- • ACM DL Conferences and IEEE DL Conferences, 1996-2000. • JCDL 2001, Virginia, E. Fox; JCDL 2002, Oregon, G. Marchionini; NSF DLI-2 all-PI meeting held after JCDL. continue Slide 9: DLI-1, DLI-2, NSDL, JCDL, ECDL, and ICADL: Towards Building A Global Digital Library (continued) European Conference on Digital Libraries (ECDL), 1997- • Many working group meetings held in different DL sub-areas. International Conference of Asian Digital Libraries (ICADL), 1998- • ICADL 1998, Hong Kong, J. Yen; ICADL 1999, Taipei, Taiwan, Hsueh-hua Chen; ICADL 2000, Seoul, Korea, Key-Sun Choi; ICADL 2001, Bangalore, India, Shalini R. Urs (600 people); ICADL 2002, Singapore, S. Foo and E. Lim (450 people); ICADL 2003, KL, Malaysia, Baba • Local content, cultural heritage, education and deployment, multilingual retrieval, other new technologies; Many other national programs: China, India, Russia, Japan, etc. Slide 10: Digital Library: Challenges Cultural and historical heritage: Many digital library and museum collections contain artifacts that are fragile, precious, and of historical significance. Heterogeneity of content and media types: Digital library collections have the widest range of content and media types, ranging from 3D chemical structures to tornado simulation models, from the statue of David to paintings of Van Gogh. continue Slide 11: Digital Library: Challenges (continued) Intellectual property issues: Unlike digital government or e-commerce applications that often derive their own content, digital libraries provide content management and retrieval services to many different information creators. Cost and sustainability issues: Many patrons often would like library services to be “free” or at least extremely affordable. Universal access and international collaboration: Digital library content is often of interest to not just people in one region, but possibly all over the world. Slide 12: Digital Government and E-Commerce: Overview Slide 13: Digital Government: Characteristics Multi-faceted roles of Federal Government: Government as a major user of information technologies, a collector and maintainer of very large data sets, and a provider of critical and often unique information services to individuals, states, businesses, and other customers. Potential for nearly ubiquitous access: to government information services by citizen/customers Re-inventing the government: Enhancements derived from new information technology-based services can be expected to contribute to reinvented and economical government services, and more productive government employees. Slide 14: Digital Government: US Government Goes Electronic 1986 Brooks Act amended: reducing government costs through volume buying, including IT purchases. 1996 Information Technology Management Reform Act: Establishing the CIO position to manage IT resources. 1998 WebGov portal: announced in August 1998, failed and replaced by FirstGov portal after technology donation from Inktomi. 2000 Federal Rehabilitation Act: Requiring all IT products be accessible to the disabled. continue Slide 15: Digital Government: US Government Goes Electronic (continued) 2000 FirstGov portal unveiled in June 2000. 2001 National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Policy No. 11: Mandating off-the-shelf software used in defense be evaluated by an approved third party (NSA). 2001 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA): Requiring health care information in compliance with privacy regulations 2002 E-Government Act: Funding additional e-government initiatives and creating Office of Electronic Government. Slide 16: Digital Government: Research Programs NSF DG Program, 1998- : areas such as: law enforcement information sharing, citizen access to government statistical data, and comprehensive emergency management; Digital Government Research Center (DGRC) and annual NSF-sponsored Digital Government Conference (DG.O) EU: areas such as: online public service for information content; politics, e-democracy, e-voting; transactions, security, and digital signatures for e-government. Other regions: Many ongoing e-government (G2C) initiatives have also emerged in Asia and Pan-Pacific countries such as: China, Singapore, Japan, Korea, India, New Zealand, Australia, etc. E-government projects in Latin American countries have also been reported. Slide 17: Digital Government: Challenges E-commerce is not at the heart of e-government: The core task of government is governance, the job of regulating society, not marketing and sales. Organizational and cultural inertia: Most government entities are not known for their efficiency or willingness to adopt changes. Government laws and legal regulations: Although well-intended, such laws and regulations often inhibit innovation or thinking “out-of-the-box.” Slide 18: Digital Government: Challenges (continued) Security and privacy issues: Government-provided services have an extra burden of guaranteeing security and privacy for citizens. Disparate and out-dated information infrastructure and systems: Many government departments at all levels often face budget shortfalls for years. Lack of IT funding and personnel: Some government units (local, state, and federal) are affluent, but most are not. IT spending often is not a priority. Slide 19: E-Commerce: Characteristics Business/commercial initiatives: From Fortune 500 companies to Internet start-ups, from self-funded dotcoms to ventures funded by influential VCs (unlike digital library or digital government research). Quick evolution and extensive coverage in many magazines and newspapers: Business Process Re-Engineering (BPR), Total Quality Management (TQM), Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Supply-Chain Management (SCM), Knowledge Management (KM), Customer Relation Management (CRM), etc. Slide 20: E-Commerce: Challenges Internet time or library/government time: In a competitive business environment, “Internet time” often demands a business to act on its instinct and to take risks. Build it, but will they come: With the intense business pressure to perform and significant injection of funding (at least before the Internet bubble burst), many companies invest significantly in major Internet-based e-commerce infrastructure and product initiatives. True innovations or marketing hypes: With the fast moving and sometimes impulsive business behaviors, marketing hypes are often disguised as true innovations. Slide 21: The Information-Communication-Transaction-Transformation (ICTT) Continuum: The Path to Innovation Information: content (e-library) Communication: interaction (e-government) Transaction: process and rule (e-commerce) Transformation: innovation (all) Slide 22: ICTT: Information Definition: Library, government or business “information” is created, categorized, and indexed and delivered to its target audiences through the Internet. Core competency of digital library research and services: metadata generation, data creation and management, content management, interoperability, system interfaces, etc. Many early G2C (government-to-citizen), G2B (government-to-business), and B2C services deliver information only: governments and business portals act as information (about regulations and products) providers. Slide 23: ICTT: Communication Definition: E-services support two-way “communication,” whereby customers or citizens can communicate their needs or requests through web forms, email, or other Internet media. Core function for e-government: by providing effective communication channels to citizens. Many early B2C, G2C and G2B applications quickly evolved into such communication services: by adding simple web-based groupware functionalities such as web forms, email, bulletin boards, chat rooms, etc. Computer-Supported Collaborative Systems (or groupware) and recommender systems: can significantly improve communication services for all digital library, digital government, and e-commerce applications. Slide 24: ICTT: Transaction Definition: Citizens and businesses are supported in conducting “transactions.” Transaction is the essence of e-commerce: “You are not successful unless they buy.” Many businesses support transactions among their suppliers (B2B) or customers (B2C) through ERP, SCM, and CRM systems. Digital government could support “citizen transactions:” such as income tax filing & returns, municipal service requests and tracking, business license applications and payments, etc. Significant adaptation needed for e-government and digital library: to be cost-effective for non-commercial applications. (Most governments and libraries cannot afford SAP R3!) Slide 25: ICTT Continuum: Transformation Definition: There is an opportunity for “transformation” for libraries, government agencies, and businesses through new technologies. Digital libraries: Traditional libraries need to re-examine their content management and service delivery assumptions and practices. E-Commerce: Business consulting professionals are creating new methodology and best practices to take advantage of the new business opportunities. E-government: New information technologies and innovative processes could significantly enhance many facets of the governments, e.g., e-politics and e-voting, law enforcement and litigation support, etc. Slide 26: Knowledge Management: Overview Unit of Analysis : Unit of Analysis Data: 1980s Factual Structured, numeric Oracle, Sybase, DB2 Information: 1990s Factual Yahoo!, Excalibur, Unstructured, textual Verity, Documentum Knowledge: 2000s Inferential, sensemaking, decision making Multimedia ??? Slide 28: According to Alter (1996), Tobin (1996), and Beckman (1999): Data: Facts, images, or sounds (+interpretation+meaning =) Information: Formatted, filtered, and summarized data (+action+application =) Knowledge: Instincts, ideas, rules, and procedures that guide actions and decisions Data, Information and Knowledge: Application and Societal Relevance : : Application and Societal Relevance : Ontologies, hierarchies, and subject headings Knowledge management systems and practices: knowledge maps Digital libraries, search engines, web mining, text mining, data mining, CRM, eCommerce Semantic web, multilingual web, multimedia web, and wireless web The Third Wave of Net Evolution : 1965 1975 1985 1995 2000 2010 ARPANET Internet “SemanticWeb” Company IBM ??? Microsoft/Netscape The Third Wave of Net Evolution Function Server Access Knowledge Access Info Access Unit Server Concepts File/Homepage Example Email Concept Protocols WWW: “World Wide Wait” Knowledge Management Definition : Knowledge Management Definition “The system and managerial approach to collecting, processing, and organizing enterprise-specific knowledge assets for business functions and decision making.” Knowledge Management Challenges : Knowledge Management Challenges “… making high-value corporate information and knowledge easily available to support decision making at the lowest, broadest possible levels …” Personnel Turn-over Organizational Resistance Manual Top-down Knowledge Creation Information Overload Knowledge Management Landscape : Knowledge Management Landscape Research Community NSF / DARPA / NASA, Digital Library Initiative I & II, NSDL ($120M) NSF, Digital Government Initiative ($60M) NSF, Knowledge Networking Initiative ($50M) NSF, Information Technology Research ($300M) Business Community Intellectual Capital, Corporate Memory, Knowledge Chain, Competitive Intelligence Knowledge Management Foundations : Enabling Technologies: Information Retrieval (Excalibur, Verity, Oracle Context) Electronic Document Management (Documentum, PC DOCS) Internet/Intranet (Yahoo!, Excite) Groupware (Lotus Notes, MS Exchange, Ventana) Consulting and System Integration: Best practices, human resources, organizational development, performance metrics, methodology, framework, ontology (Delphi, E&Y, Arthur Andersen, AMS, KPMG) Knowledge Management Foundations Knowledge Management Perspectives: : Knowledge Management Perspectives: Process perspective (management and behavior): consulting practices, methodology, best practices, e-learning, culture/reward, existing IT ? new information, old IT, new but manual process Information perspective (information and library sciences): content management, manual ontologies ? new information, manual process Knowledge Computing perspective (text mining, artificial intelligence): automated knowledge extraction, thesauri, knowledge maps ? new IT, new knowledge, automated process Slide 36: KM Perspectives Slide 37: Dataware Technologies (1) Identify the Business Problem (2) Prepare for Change (3) Create a KM Team (4) Perform the Knowledge Audit and Analysis (5) Define the Key Features of the Solution (6) Implement the Building Blocks for KM (7) Link Knowledge to People Slide 38: Anderson Consulting (1) Acquire (2) Create (3) Synthesize (4) Share (5) Use to Achieve Organizational Goals (6) Environment Conducive to Knowledge Sharing Slide 39: Ernst & Young (1) Knowledge Generation (2) Knowledge Representation (3) Knowledge Codification (4) Knowledge Application KM Architecture (Source: GartnerGroup) : KM Architecture (Source: GartnerGroup) Network Services Platform Services Distributed Object Models Databases Database Indexes Conceptual Knowledge Maps Web Browser “Workgroup” Applications Text Indexes Enterprise Knowledge Architecture Intranet and Extranet Applications Web UI KR Functions Text and Database Drivers Physical Application Index Knowledge Retrieval Knowledge Retrieval Level (Source: GartnerGroup) : Knowledge Retrieval Level (Source: GartnerGroup) Concept “Yellow Pages” Value “Recommendation” Retrieved Knowledge Semantic Collaboration Clustering — categorization “table of contents” Semantic Networks “index” Dictionaries Thesauri Linguistic analysis Data extraction Collaborative filters Communities Trusted advisor Expert identification Knowledge Retrieval Vendor Direction(Source: GartnerGroup) : Knowledge Retrieval Vendor Direction(Source: GartnerGroup) grapeVINE Sovereign Hill CompassWare Intraspect KnowledgeX WiseWire • Lycos • Autonomy • Perspecta Lotus Netscape* Technology Innovation Niche Players IR Leaders Verity Fulcrum Excalibur Dataware Microsoft Content Experience • IDI Oracle • Open Text • Folio • IBM • InText PCDOCS Documentum Knowledge Retrieval NewBies Newbies: IR Leaders: Niche Players: Market Target * Not yet marketed Slide 43: KM Software Vendors Ability to Execute Completeness of Vision Niche Players Visionaries Challengers Leaders Microsoft * Lotus * Dataware * * Verity * Excalibur Netscape * Documentum* * IBM Inference* Lycos/InMagic* CompassWare* KnowledgeX* SovereignHill* Semio* IDI* PCDOCS/* Fulcrum OpenText* Autonomy* GrapeVINE* * InXight WiseWire* *Intraspect From Federal Research to Commercial Start-ups : From Federal Research to Commercial Start-ups U. Mass: Sovereign Hill MIT Media Lab: Perspecta Xerox PARC: InXight Batelle: ThemeMedia U. Waterloo: OpenText Cambridge U. Autonomy U. Arizona: Knowledge Computing Corporation (KCC) Two Approaches to Codifying Knowledge : Two Approaches to Codifying Knowledge Structured Manual Human-driven Unstructured System-aided Data/Info-driven Bottom-Up Approach Top-Down Approach Slide 46: Information Resources Empowerment: DG and KM as Catalyst Examples and Case Studies Slide 47: Medical Portal and Informatics: Goal: A “knowledge” portal for medical researchers in US and the world. Content/Information: Comprehensive, high quality medical-related content: NLM databases, evidence-based medical databases Key Features: Comprehensive medical resources and ontologies Automatic medical thesaurus (48.5M terms) and medical knowledge map (MED Map and Cancer Map) Scalable for multilingual support: English, Chinese, Spanish, Arabic Funding: NSF DLI2 Program + NIH NLM Medical Informatics Program (S. Griffin + A. McCray) Slide 48: Consulting HelpfulMED Cancer Space (Thesaurus) Slide 49: Browsing HelpfulMED Cancer Map Slide 50: Browsing Taiwan Health Map Slide 51: Simplified Chinese summary Traditional Chinese summary Chinese folder display Chinese visualization with SOM Chinese Medical Intelligence Portal Slide 52: Spanish Business Intelligence Portal Keyword: comercio electronico Search, Organize, or Visualize results Search, Organize, or Visualize results Search, Organize, or Visualize results Slide 53: Search Page Result Page Summarizer Categorizer Web pages grouped by key phrases extracted by mutual information algorithm (non-exclusive categorization) Visualizer Web pages visualized by self-organizing map (SOM) algorithm Slide 54: Search Page Spanish Business Taxonomy Web sites about the topic “Electronic Commerce” in Spanish speaking countries Slide 55: Arabic Medical Intelligence Portal Search Page Result Page Categorizer Visualizer Slide 56: NanoPort: Goal: A “knowledge” portal for nano researchers in US and the world. Content: Comprehensive, high quality nano-related web content: 4 nano-related search engines, 5 online databases, and 3 online journals Key Features: Comprehensive nano resources Post-retrieval analysis: AZ SUM, AZ NP, AZ SOM AZ Web Weaver (WW) toolkit: “weaving” your own web Alerting and communication among researchers Funding: NSF Nano Science and Engineering Program (M. Roco) :  Folder display Visualization using SOM Slide 58: Communication Garden: Goal: Visualizing communication patterns and identifying experts in email/newsgroups. Content: Any email/newsgroups contents, in any languages Key Features: Linguistic analysis: AZ NP, MI Topic clustering: AZ SOM Glyph-based visualization: garden metaphor Funding: NSF Information and Data Management Program Slide 59: Thread Disadvantages: No sub-topic identification Difficult to identify experts Difficult to learn participants’ attitude toward the community Slide 60: Thread Representation Time Message Person Length of Time Slide 61: People Representation Time Message Thread Length of Time Slide 62: Proposed Interface (Interaction Summary) Visual Effects: Healthy sub-garden with many blooming high flowers = popular active sub-topic A long, blooming flower is a healthy thread Slide 63: Proposed Interface (Expert Indicator) Visual Effects: Healthy sub-garden with many blooming high flowers = popular sub-topic A long, blooming people flower is a recognized expert. GeneScene: Transforming Biomedical Research : GeneScene: Transforming Biomedical Research Correctly extract gene pathway information from millions of abstracts Expedite comprehension of the literature Position results relatively to others in the blink of an eye New hypotheses discovery Magnesium and migraines (Hearst,99) Genescene Overview : Genescene Overview Text Mining Process Medline abstracts and extract gene relations automatically from the text Data Mining Process gene expression data (and existing knowledge) and use different algorithms to extract regulatory networks Interface & Visualization Allow searching for keywords, display a map of the relations extracted from the text and/or from the microarray Knowledge Base Integrate gene relations from literature and outside databases and provide knowledge for learning and evaluation in data mining Slide 66: Medline Titles & Abstracts Feature Structures Publications & Meta Information Publications Micro Array Data UMLS Visualization Information Retrieval GeneScene Data Mart GeneScene Text Mart Text Mining GeneScene Concept Space Co-occurrence relations Data Mining Relation Parsers Relations in flat files XML Parser UMLS GO HUGO Ontologies Relations in flat files Spring Algorithm Bayesian Networks Association Rule Mining JIF POS Tagging Full Parser Relation Grammar FSA AZ Noun Phraser Adjuster & Tagger Lexical lookup External Databases Knowledge Base Problem (PBG) : Problem (PBG) Title Key roles for E2F1 in signaling p53-dependent apoptosis and in cell division within developing tumors. Abstract: Apoptosis induced by the p53 tumor suppressor can attenuate cancer growth in preclinical animal models. Inactivation of the pRb proteins in mouse brain epithelium by the T121 oncogene induces aberrant proliferation and p53-dependent apoptosis. p53 inactivation causes aggressive tumor growth due to an 85% reduction in apoptosis. Here, we show that E2F1 signals p53-dependent apoptosis since E2F1 deficiency causes an 80% apoptosis reduction. E2F1 acts upstream of p53 since transcriptional activation of p53 target genes is also impaired. Yet, E2F1 deficiency does not accelerate tumor growth. Unlike normal cells, tumor cell proliferation is impaired without E2F1, counterbalancing the effect of apoptosis reduction. These studies may explain the apparent paradox that E2F1 can act as both an oncogene and a tumor suppressor in experimental systems Expert errs and corrects Final graph Example: Combination : Example: Combination Inactivation of the pRb proteins in mouse brain epithelium by the T121 oncogene induces aberrant proliferation and p53-dependent apoptosis By-template: null T121 oncogene null Agent Action Theme Of-template: inactivate pRb proteins Combo: T121 oncogene inactivate pRb proteins null Preposition: OF : Preposition: OF Examples: Q0 – q1 – q2 – q3 ? Dfp1/Him1 protein OF fission yeast Q0 – q5 – q6 – q2 – q3 MRNA expression OF genes Q0 – q6 – q2 – q3 – q9 – q10 the determination OF the biological characteristics OF human cancers Q0 – q5 – q6 – q2 – q7 – q8 – q2 – q3 Time-dependent induction OF mRNA expression OF Wip1 Visualization : Visualization Slide 71: Select interesting relations to visualize Slide 72: Double click to expand Overview Slide 73: Expanded node Slide 74: Finding the truth: p38 acts as a negative feedback for Ras signaling Slide 75: COPLINK: From Transaction to Transformation Goal: Supporting law enforcement information sharing and crime analysis. Content/Information: Police incident records, mug shots, gang information. Key Features: COPLINK Connect: linking legacy databases COPLINK Detect: detecting crime associations (“criminal thesaurus”) COPLINK Agent: wireless alerting COPLINK Visualization: revealing criminal networks Funding: NSF Digital Government Program (L. Brandt) Slide 76: Finding criminals: English and Chinese interface A narcotic network example : A narcotic network example A gang network example : A gang network example Criminal Patterns Found : Criminal Patterns Found The chain structure of the narcotic network Implications: disrupt the network by breaking the chain The star structure of the gang network Implications: disrupt the network by removing the leader Slide 80: White gangs who involved in murders and shootings White gangs who sold crack cocaine A group of black gangs Expert Validation Slide 81: “Yes, these two groups are together very often” “(211) and (173) are best friends” Expert Validation Slide 82: The Future Many active and high-impact research opportunities for researchers in information science, library science, computer science, public policy, and management information systems. Digital library researchers are well positioned to become the “agents of transformation” for the new Net of the 21st century. Slide 83: The Questions Who/what is a “librarian”? How to transform data and information into knowledge? How to balance between technology, policy, users, and services? Slide 84: For more information “Knowledge Management Systems,” H. Chen, 2002 “Trailblazing a Path Towards Knowledge and Transformation,” H. Chen, 2003 International Conference of Asian Digital Libraries, December 8-11, 2003, KL, Malaysia ACM/IEEE Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, June 7-11, 2004, Tucson, Arizona NSF International Digital Library Workshop, June 10-11, 2004, Tucson, Arizona (successful national DL projects) Slide 85: For Project Information at AI Lab: http://ai.bpa.arizona.edu hchen@bpa.arizona.edu

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