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Published on November 23, 2007

Author: Lassie

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  Co-chairs : M S Swaminathan Pedro Sanchez Halving Hunger : It can be Done Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation Berne, 23 August 2005 Slide2:  Goal 1:Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Goal 2:Achieve universal primary education Goal 3:Promote gender equality and empower women Goal 4:Reduce child mortality Goal 5:Improve maternal health Goal 6:Halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Goal 7:Ensure environmental sustainability Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development The MDGs are the world’s first shared set of integrated, quantitative and time-bound goals for social equity and gender justice The Millennium Development Goals India’s Progress Inadequate Slide3:  Hunger Task Force Report The mandate is to develop strategy for halving world‘s hunger by 2015, since 852 million go to bed hungry at present This is in response to the call of the UN Secretary General Kofi Anan, for concerted action to reduce hunger in Africa and through out the World. The report concludes that hunger can be halved by 2015 and eventually eradicated from our planet with deliberate and timely implementations of the recommendations of the Hunger Task Force. Slide4:  Kinds of Hunger Hunger is of three types, Acute Chronic and Hidden Acute hunger is starvation that occurs during famines. Such hunger is only 10 percent. It attracts media and political attention Chronic hunger is undernourishment that occurs due to lack of access to sufficient and nutritious food. It is wide spread, manifests it self as underweight and stunting in children and high child mortality due to disease. Does not attract attention Hidden hunger is deficiency of micronutrients. It is not dramatic to attract much attention Slide5:  How Many are Hungry Source: FAO 2004 Slide6:  Productivity Losses Associated with Malnutrition (%) Source: FAO 2004 Slide7:  Causes of Hunger Poverty is a cause as well as effect of hunger Low food production per capita Poor water quality Poor sanitation Poor health facilities Lack of education for the mother Climatic shocks Research has shown that the following factors cause hunger Slide8:  Despite gains in the yields of major food crops, low food production and productivity persists in rain-fed agriculture Due to poor grain storage, and need for cash, many small farmers are forced to sell their produce at distress prices soon after harvest and buy back latter at high prices The smaller the farm, the greater is the need for productivity-led production; otherwise, the farm family has battle to market Enhancing Small Farm Productivity Slide9:  Gender Inequity in Intra-household Consumption Perpetuates Hunger Gender inequity perpetuates hunger and Under-nourishment over generations. Many women and girls in many parts of the world eat last - the left over food after feeding men and boys. They eat less during pregnancy and lactation leading to low birth weight babies and under nourished children. Low birth weight leads to impaired brain development and thereby undermines the intellectual capital of a country. Slide10:  Population growth can be limited if people have a duty towards those who are not yet born, that duty is not to give them existence but to give them happiness. – CONDORCET (1795) Slide11:  Who are the Hungry? Where are they? While accurate data are scarce, Hunger task force believes that: 50% of the hungry belong to rural small farmer households. 10% are pastoralists, fisher folk and forest users 20% are rural landless 20% live in urban areas The map shows where they are Slide12:  Hunger Map Slide13:  Geographical Location of the Hungry Hunger task Force made an attempt to locate the hungry at the sub national level. Of the 605 units analyzed, 315 units were hunger hotspots. In Africa 229 out of 366 units were hotspots. 28 million constituting 88% of the region’s total pre-school children were underweight Contd … Slide14:  Geographical Location of the Hungry In Asia pacific 76 of the 172 units were found to be hunger hotspots. 78 million constituting 95% of the region’s pre-school children were under weight In Latin America and Caribbean, only 106 units were covered due to limited data. There were only 8 hunger hot spots. 400,000 children constitution about 17% of the pre-school children were under weight Slide15:  Regional Profiles and Priorities for Investment Sub Saharan Africa: Insufficient production, poor nutritional status of the vulnerable groups, Lack of productive safety nets, lack of access to markets, lack of basic infrastructure and natural resource degradation Latin America and Caribbean: Poor nutrition status, lack of safety nets and lack of access to markets; Insufficient agricultural production is relevant only in Andean Region, natural resource degradation is only relevant to forest and mountain communities. Contd … Slide16:  Regional Profiles and Priorities for Investment South Asia: Poor nutritional status and lack of productive safety nets and natural resource degradation are very important. Lack of markets and lack of infrastructure are next in importance. Insufficient production is only a future threat. Priorities in investment are in the areas of water, credit, technology, training, techno-infrastructure and market Slide17:  Freedom from Hunger : Eight Steps Move from Political Commitment to Action Reform policies and create enabling environment Increase the agricultural production of the food insecure farmer through productivity-led growth Improve the nutrition for the chronically hungry and the vulnerable Reduce the vulnerability of the acutely hungry through productive safety nets Pay special attention to women; engender R & D as well as capacity building programmes Increase incomes and make markets work for the poor Restore and conserve natural resources essential for food security Slide18:  Key Principles that Underpin the Implementation of Hunger Reduction Programme Identify Priority interventions Develop a national strategy Strengthen capacity Adopt multi stake holder approach Engage the private sector Mainstream gender considerations Slide19:  Investments Needed for Reducing Hunger Interventions to increase agricultural productivity is about 5-8 % of the total investment required for Millennium Development Goals Education needs 16%, Health needs 25%, energy needs 15%, and roads need 18 % For 2006, hunger task force has estimated that the per capita annual MDG investments in nine areas. For example, Bangladesh needs US $74 Tanzania needs US $ 82 and Cambodia needs US $ 71 Slide20:  Synergetic Entry Points Most of the interventions detailed in the report act in a synergetic manner and the impact is expected to strengthen the anti-hunger efforts and contribute to other Millennium Development goals Three initiatives that form promising synergetic “entry points” are Community nutrition Programme (Food for Work) School feeding programs with home grown food Investment in soil health and water Slide21:  Africa’s Rainbow Revolution Designing S & T Pilot Programs Over 70% of Africa’s population live in villages Women produce about 80% of basic food products About 2% of arable land is irrigated The average annual application of mineral fertilizers is about 9 kg of nutrients per hectare In general, the soils are hungry and thirsty Contd … Slide22:  Considerable diversity exists in Africa with reference to agro-ecological, socio-economic and socio-political conditions; generalisations in strategy formulation will hence be misleading and counter-productive. The untapped yield reservoir is high in several farming systems. In particular, the following farming systems constitute “Food Security Bright Spots”. Africa’s Rainbow Revolution Designing S & T Pilot Programs

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