Published on March 15, 2014
Project Name Country, City: System: Underfloor cooling, TABS, Geothermal energy Date: 14/03/2014 The suggestion of S.A.P Automations pvt India www.sapautomations.in Energia Inovation and Uponor to match your www.be.net/filippidisioannis & www.uponor.com building project. Concept of radiant cooling and geothermal system We make innovations. We provide solutions
Table of contents page 1 Project target and proposed solution ……………………..........................................................................3 2 Concept description ........................................................................................................................4 2.1 Indoor climate systems - overview .............................................................................4 2.1.1 The Underfloor cooling system (UFC) ………………………...........................4 2.1.2 The Thermally Active Building System (TABS) “Contec”……………… .......5 2.1.3 Radiant cooling and green energy.........................................................6 2.1.4 Controls...............................................................................................9 3 Appendix - References ....................................................................................................................13 3.1 Villa Energy Class A+........................................................................................ ……..13 3.2 American University of Beirut .............................................................................16 We make innovations. We provide solutions
1. Project target and proposed solution The challenge for any project is to provide optimal indoor thermal conditions . The ideal project is located in a location with challenging outside conditions, imposing challenges to the design of the indoor climate systems (HVAC) to deliver optimal thermal environment, minimizing in that way the risk of thermal discomfort and draft. Due to ambient environment of high temperatures and humidity, cooling loads are significantly high. Even if the ambient temperature is high, the target is to achieve an optimal indoor thermal environment for the occupants, meeting the highest international standards for thermal comfort. Apart from the resident’s thermal comfort, the decrease of the actual environmental impact of these residential constructions to the surrounding environment represents a crucial and important target to meet. The high standard of living needs to meet low energy consumption and low environmental impact to the area; prosperity and luxury should meet social responsibility and preservation of the environment. Our proposal is a cooling concept utilizing an underfloor cooling (UFC) system for the floor embedded in the screed layer below the floor finishing (marble). Moreover, our proposes an ceiling radiant cooling system, the Thermally Active Building System (TABS), to be installed in the ceiling of the second floor, under the roof. Both of these systems will be connected to earth piles, utilizing the earth energy for cooling and heating (if necessary). Apart from the indoor climate systems described above, we can offer a high quality and globally unique seamless multi-layer pipe (MLCP), combining the advantages of plastic and metal pipes. This MLCP plumbing solution, accompanied with the unique MLCP modular riser system, constitutes a top quality plumbing system for a high profile project. Low energy consumption, decrease in environmental impact, renewables and green energy, combined with optimal thermal comfort for the occupants; a comprehensive solution from Uponor to meet the highest standards of such a high profile and demanding project. We make innovations. We provide solutions
We make innovations. We provide solutions 2. Concept description Our concept suggestion is based on the introduction of two different radiant cooling systems as a very comfortable and energy efficient solution. This radiant cooling system will operate at supply water temperatures closer to the space temperature and thus would function in an energy efficient way. Furthermore, this characteristic of the radiant cooling systems to work with higher temperatures than the conventional HVAC systems, constitute radiant cooling ideal to combine with renewables; in this case the radiant cooling systems can be combined with earth energy to utilize green energy. This chapter shows the concept which is chosen from the Uponor product portfolio and gives an overview of the solution, which fits perfectly with the comfort demands to the bridges. The different systems that are suggested for this special and demanding project are illustrated and described in the next section. 2.1 Indoor climate sytems – overview 2.1.1 The Uponor Under floor cooling system (UFC) The underfloor cooling systems serves for cooling output from the floor and also to compensate for any direct solar radiation from the open sides of the buildings, when shading is nor desired or unavailable. The high thermal transmittance of the floor covering (marble, tiles) accompanied with the high solar gains at the sides of the floor, enables the system to absorb the high solar gains and create an optimal and equally distributed thermal environment covering base load, eliminating the risk of draft and temperature asymmetry.
The under floor cooling system is embedded in the screed, positioned with a special mesh right on the top of the concrete slab or an insulation layer if this is installed. The system will absorb sensible cooling loads and compensate for direct solar radiation to the floor if it appears. More precisely about the solar radiation, zoning and loops positioning will be conducted based on expected solar radiation, allowing peripheral zoning and thus ensure optimized solar gains absorption system balancing. The installation of the pipe will be done with spiral pattern, so that balanced surface floor temperature can be achieved. We make innovations. We provide solutions 2.1.2 The Uponor Thermally Active Building System (TABS) “Contec” The Uponor TAB system “Contec” utilizes the concrete’s thermal mass by embedding pipes carrying water cooling in the building’s structure. This way, the ceilings contributes to the sensible cooling of the building. The embedded pipes activate the concrete core in the building mass for storage and discharge of thermal loads. While the Uponor TAB system is not an air-conditioner and is not a substitute for a ventilation system, the task of conventional technologies is reduced to a minimum – which helps ensure the best possible indoor environment. In an invisible, inaudible way without draught. That’s innovative to the core. Uponor Thermal Active Building System “Contec“
Comfort is ensured by optimal temperatures provided by a silent system that does not circulate air: no dust, no draughts – ensuring a healthy indoor environment. The invisible system also gives freedom of space and flexible indoor design. The reliability of the Uponor TAB system has been confirmed in more than 1,000 building projects since 1997 – with safely embedded heat exchangers in building constructions. Low energy use is achieved by a mean operating water temperature (16 –24°C) that is close to the ambient environment. This increases heat-source efficiency and enables the use of renewable and free cooling sources in accordance with a low-energy design principle. Last but not least: the Uponor TAB system “Contec” is cost effective. This starts in the construction phase and lasts throughout the life of the building. We make innovations. We provide solutions The TAB System “Contec” covers the basic cooling load in the office building. The system will absorb part of the sensible cooling loads and ensure that the room temperature is kept at comfortable level. The system is embedded in the middle of the concrete slab, the neutral zone and uses the mass of the concrete slab as a thermal storage. This will create a buffer zone, acting like insulation, against he high solar gains to the roof. 2.1.3 Radiant cooling and green energy The energy performance of buildings plays a major role in curbing climate change. These aspects include energy efficiency, efficient utilisation of renewable energy sources, health as well as overall environmental friendliness and lifecycle thinking. The lifetime of a building is between 50 and 100 years. It is therefore crucial to install a heating and cooling emitter system that can utilise future energy sources. With an embedded radiant system the building is practically future proof, as this would work efficiently with any possible future energy supply system, including individual solutions such as solar and ground energy or possible future district energy solutions. This is valuable for the annual cost of energy as well as for the future property value. Radiant systems are based on the principle of low temperature heating and high-temperature cooling. This is also known as low-energy design, meaning a system that creates greater output using less energy. The efficient energy conversion of a radiant system results in an overall decrease in CO2 emissions for any building type. The water in a radiant system has a capacity to transport energy 3,500 times greater than air, so it can heat and cool using less energy than a forced-air system. Specifically when it comes to earth energy, Energia innovation offers various systems to be coupled with radiant cooling. The suitability of the respective ground energy system depends on the environment (soil
properties and climatic conditions), the performance data, the operating mode, the type of building (commercial or private), the space available and the legal regulations. The dimensioning of vertical collectors depends on the subsurface conditions, the annual operating time of the heat pump system, the borehole diameter, the borehole filling, and position of the pipes in the borehole and of the mutual interference of vertical collector systems. Nevertheless, due to the complex geological and hydro-geological correlation of the ground probe dimensioning as well as the necessary special technical know-how, a Thermal Response Test is considered essential for planning and dimensioning the vertical collector systems. This Thermal Response Test is carried out with a We make innovations. We provide solutions
manufactured ground probe. During this test the ground probe is fed with a constant thermal capacity which is then extracted. The evaluation is made based on the Kelvin line-source theory. The results show the exact geological conditions on the site over the complete borehole length and under typical operating conditions including the effects of a potentially existing groundwater flux. The characteristic of such systems is that the soil temperature remains constant throughout the year regardless of the outdoor conditions and their annual fluctuation. This characteristic highlights the big benefit of radiant cooling combined with earth energy systems compared to conventional air conditioning systems. As known from practice, the performance of air conditioners decline during hot summer days. This is because the device is required to expel heat into an environment already saturated by thermal load, and thus it makes futile effort consuming excessive amounts of electricity. If such air conditioners could expel heat to a cooler environment such as soil, with a constant annually temperature, then their efficiency could increase and electricity consumption could be substantially decreased. This fundamental advantage of radiant cooling systems combined with earth energy is accompanied by the great advantage that closed systems have; very low maintenance costs, practically insignificant. In the Appendix you can find two reference projects of radiant cooling coupled with earth/green energy. Both of these projects demonstrate the expertise of Uponor and Energia Innovation and its partners in providing solutions that enrich people’s lives around the world. In the first illustrated project, a 750m2 villa in Greece has been equipped with radiant cooling and heating system coupled with earth energy and supported for pick cooling loads and dehumidification with direct expansion fan coils. The villa was certified with energy class A+. In the second project, the American University of Beirut (Charles Hostler Students Center, 4500m2) was equipped with radiant cooling and heating, utilizing the seawater from the Mediterranean Sea for cooling and heating purposes. A significantly downsized air based HVAC system utilized chillers for covering peak loads and dehumidification. 2.1.4 Hydraulics and manifolds Each loop of the radiant cooling system will be connected to a manifold. The Uponor “Provario” manifolds provide high flexibility for installation, since they can either be installed under the ceiling in the suspended areas, mounted to the wall or inside raised floor. Uponor offers of course specially We make innovations. We provide solutions Uponor "Vario PLUS" within cabinet Example for installation in the suspended ceiling
2.1.5 Controls The unique characteristics of this project are summarized by the challenging outdoor conditions in the summer and by the need to provide an energy efficient solution, without any compromises in the occupants’ thermal comfort. Due to the temporarily high humidity in Abu Dhabi, special attention should be given to humidity and the related dew point, to ensure no condensation occurs. Uponor’s solution to this matter will be the controlling of the supply temperature according to the dew point, so that permanent dew point under range and thus condensation is avoided. The control offering of Uponor includes pump stations, actuators, wireless or wired control stations, including room control when necessary, sensors, thermostats etc. We make innovations. We provide solutions
3 Appendix - References We make innovations. We provide solutions 3.1 Villa Energy Class A+ The residential house in the photo has been certified as energy class A+. The total covered building area is 750m2 consisting of two floors. Downstairs there is also a swimming pool in the garden outside. Dimensions of the pool are 25x5m and the volume is 180m3. There’s also a large living room, kitchen, cinema room and a bathroom. On the second floor there are 6 bedrooms, office of the owner and two bathrooms. Villa Energy Class A+, equipped with Uponor radiant heating/cooling and earth energy by Energia Innovation
The heating loads of the building have been calculated to 45kW with an external ambient temperature of -5°C, covered exclusively from the radiant system. The cooling loads have been calculated to 65kW with an external ambient temperature of 42°C. A geothermal heat pump of 45kW thermal and cooling load with a recovery system producing domestic hot water at 60°C was chosen. The rest of the cooling load has been designed to be covered with direct expansion fan coils. The designed capacity from the radiant cooling was 50W/m2, the rest 15kW are covered from the fan coils and three water cooled VRV systems by Daikin, only if the outside temperature exceeds 40°C. If the system was designed exclusively with chillers and fan coils or VRV system the thermal and cooling loads would be 45% more. Besides, the higher COP of the geothermal heat pump (5 in these International Engineering & CD, BLD Europe Tangstedter Landstraße 111 22415 Hamburg Germany Page 14 of 17 conditions) with the COP of an air cooled system (3) provides the system with significant electricity savings (min. 63%). Last but not least, the closed maintenance free radiant heating/cooling system with earth energy decreases the overall life cycle cost of the system. We make innovations. We provide solutions Villa Energy Class A+, Uponor radiant heating/cooling
We make innovations. We provide solutions The complete installation is illustrated in the following photos. One geothermal heat pump is producing hot/cold water and domestic hot water. Another geothermal heat pump is delivering only hot water to heat up the water of the swimming pool and one more heat pump is producing only cold water for the wine room. Villa Energy Class A+, plant room by Energia Innovation Ltd
We make innovations. We provide solutions Geothermal collector, located outside in the garden
3.2 American University of Beirut The Charles Hostler Students Center with its cafeteria, offices and sport facilities was equipped in 2007 with Uponor radiant heating and cooling. The requirements for the project were challenging, since a low energy system was needed to cover all year long the heating and cooling demands of the building, providing a perfect indoor thermal environment for the occupants. The location of the project imposed many challenges, since the building should be located close to the Mediterranean Sea, with high summer temperatures and high air humidity dominating the ambient environment. The solution that was selected was a hybrid radiant heating and cooling system. The 4.500 m² of the building where equipped with embedded pipes for invisible cooling and heating and so the TAB System would cover the heating loads and the base cooling loads, utilizing the seawater. An air based system was designed downsized only for meeting the peak loads, for dehumidification and for covering hygienic fresh air indoors. This solution provided an optimal indoor thermal environment, utilizing green energy, decreasing in that way the energy consumption and the environmental impact. The combination of chillers and TABS lead in significant reduction of operational and maintenance costs. An innovative solution, perfectly matched with the ambient environment to meet the highest standards of thermal comfort. American University of Beirut, back side We make innovations. We provide solutions
American University of Beirut, front side We make innovations. We provide solutions
We make innovations. We provide solutions American University of Beirut, installation of TABS
1. Project Name Country, City: System: Underfloor cooling, TABS, Geothermal energy Date: 14/03/2014 The suggestion of S.A.P Automations pvt India www ...
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