Published on January 24, 2014
Computer Motherboard A computer motherboard Is a board upon which entire computer is interconnected Friday, January 24, 2014 Ray Mkindo 1
Major parts of Motherboard A Motherboard has major parts such as • 1. Processor ( and its cooling system) • 2. Sockets • 3. Slots • 4. North bridge • 5. South bridge • 6. Primary memory • 7. Secondary memory • 8. CMOS battery • 9. Peripheral ports Friday, January 24, 2014 Ray Mkindo 2
Typical motherboard diagram is shown below Typical Desktop motherboard. Friday, January 24, 2014 Ray Mkindo 3
Typically mounted Laptop Motherboard Friday, January 24, 2014 Ray Mkindo 4
Motherboard architectural drawing Friday, January 24, 2014 Ray Mkindo 5
I. PROCESSOR This is like the brain of computer, it receives input instructions and processes it to • produce the required output. • • There are many vendors which manufacture Processors such as Intel, AMD, Motorola, • IBM, Cyrix (VIA) Alpha etc. • • The most dominant processor maker is Intel followed closely by AMD • • Each processor works with particular motherboard with unique processor socket/slot, • that is an Intel motherboard will not work with an AMD motherboard. • • The processors will interface with its outside components via FSB, known as Front Side • Bus. Observe above diagram Friday, January 24, 2014 Ray Mkindo 6
II. SOCKETS • Computer motherboard has the first and its largest socket for its processors. There has • been many types of computer sockets such as the old socket 7 which was the first and • the last to work for three types of processors. Intel, AMD and Cyrix Processors. There • after each processors from a different maker has a unique socket for their processors. Friday, January 24, 2014 Ray Mkindo 7
• Usually there are sockets, slots and embedded technologies for mounting a processor • into a motherboard. Slots are not commonly used whereas the embedded processors are • sandwiched into a motherboard just as any other components. Thus it is permanently • soldered into a motherboard. If processor fails the entire motherboard will be thrown • away. Normally embedded processors are for industrial applications and some PCs such • as Cyrix (VIA) makes a all in one motherboards with embedded VIA processor. Friday, January 24, 2014 Ray Mkindo 8
• • Typically there are two most commonly used processor sockets PGA (Pin Grid Array) • and LGA (Land Grid Array) • • For PGA socket has HOLES while Processor has PINS, for LGA socket has PINS and • processor has grid array CONTACTS. For Slot processor mounting system slot has • CONTACTS and Processor Mounting board has Dual In Line CONTACTS. Friday, January 24, 2014 Ray Mkindo 9
LGA Socket with PINS Friday, January 24, 2014 Ray Mkindo 10
LGA grid array contacts Friday, January 24, 2014 Ray Mkindo 11
Typical PGA Processors with PINS Friday, January 24, 2014 Ray Mkindo 12
Embedded Processor with heat sink mounted. Friday, January 24, 2014 Ray Mkindo 13
Processor cooling system involves • Thermal compound, it is a white compound applied between processor and heat sink • Heat sink with cooling fins • Fan Typical heat sinks with a fan Friday, January 24, 2014 Ray Mkindo 14
IDE or PATA Socket • • • • • the socket mounts the PATA HDD into the motherboard via a flat cable. The pin number 1 in the flat cable is denoted by red colour and a guider such that the drive connection may interchanged. The socket colour denotes between primary and secondary drives and one socket and one cable may connect up to two drive in Master – Slave connections by jumper settings on the rear of drive, or cable select Friday, January 24, 2014 Ray Mkindo IDE, PATA motherboard socket 15
IDE, PATA one end connector. Both ends are alike (Similar) Friday, January 24, 2014 Ray Mkindo 16
• • • • SATA Sockets, for this type of socket the cable is thinner and contains fewer cables (7) than that of PATA (40). The socket is also smaller than that of PATA and can connect a single drive. Section of Section of motherboard showing SATA sockets in yellow colour Friday, January 24, 2014 Ray Mkindo 17
SATA Data cable Friday, January 24, 2014 Ray Mkindo 18
• • • • • • • • • • CMOS battery socket As illustrated in the slide • BIOS chip socket As illustrated in the slide • Front Panel socket As illustrated in the slide • Front USB socket As illustrated in the slide • Front audio jack socket As illustrated in the slide Friday, January 24, 2014 Ray Mkindo 19
III. SLOTS • • PCI Slots, holds system upgrade PCI Riser cards Typical Section of motherboard, PCI slots Friday, January 24, 2014 Ray Mkindo 20
RAM Slot, holds system memory few examples are shown bellow Typical section of computer motherboard, DDR3 RAM slots, there are few more types of RAM slots Friday, January 24, 2014 Ray Mkindo 21
AGP Slots, Holds VDU Riser card Typical Computer motherboard section showing AGP marked with Yellow colour Friday, January 24, 2014 Ray Mkindo 22
Typical AGP graphics card Friday, January 24, 2014 Ray Mkindo 23
AMR Slot, Holds system Modem Riser card Typical section of computer motherboard, AMR slot Friday, January 24, 2014 Ray Mkindo 24
• IV. NORTH BRIDGE CHIPSET • • As shown in the motherboard diagram and motherboard architecture diagram • V. SOUTH BRIDGE CHIPSET • • As shown in the motherboard diagram and motherboard architecture diagram • VI.PRIMARY MEMORY • • As demonstrated in the lecture • VII.SECONDARY MEMORY • As demonstrated in the lecture • VIII. PERIPHERAL PORTS • As illustrated in the lecture and during practical Friday, January 24, 2014 Ray Mkindo 25
MWISHO Thanx To Mr. Urio And all who help me in understanding on this slide and decide to share to you all. Have a Blessed Day As Keeping God first in Everything Friday, January 24, 2014 Ray Mkindo 26
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