Published on February 18, 2009
Faculty of Environment Integrated GIS-based GIS- Experimental- Experimental-Computational Methods for Urban Air Pollution Modeling Amir M. Yadghar PhD Candidate University of Western Ontario 24 Dec. 2008 Air Pollution Air Pollution Definition آﻟﻮدﮔﻲ ﻫﻮا ﻋﺒﺎرت اﺳﺖ از وﺟﻮد ﻫﺮ ﻧﻮع آﻻﻳﻨﺪه اﻋﻢ از ﺟﺎﻣﺪ، ﻣﺎﻳﻊ و ﮔﺎز در ﻫﻮا ﺑﺑﻪ ﻣﻘﺪار و در ﻣﺪت زﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﻴﻴ ز رر ﻳﻊ ز ر ﻮ ﺟ زﻧﺪﮔﻲ را ﺑﺮاي اﻧﺴﺎن و دﻳﮕﺮ ﺟﺎﻧﺪاران ﺑﻪ ﺧﻄﺮ اﻧﺪازد و ﻳﺎ ﺑﻪ .آﺛﺎر ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺎﻧﻲ و اﻣﻮال، ﺧﺴﺎرت وارد آورد ١
ﻣﺪﻟﺴﺎزي آﻟﻮدﮔﻲ ﻫﻮا – ﭼﺮا؟ ﻣﺪل آﻟﻮدﮔﻲ ﻫﻮا 1( ﺑﺮآورد اﻧﺘﺸﺎر آﻻﻳﻨﺪه ﻫﺎ ﻣﺪﻟﺴﺎزي آﻟﻮدﮔﻲ ﻫﻮا – ﭼﺮا؟ ﻣﺪﻟﺴﺎزي آﻟﻮدﮔﻲ ﻫﻮا – ﭼﺮا؟ 3( ارزﻳﺎﺑﻲ اﺳﺘﺮاﺗﮋي ﻫﺎي ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻟﻲ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻦ 2( ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﻳﻲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ 5( ﺗﺨﻤﻴﻦ اﺛﺮات ﻣﻀﺮ ﺑﺮ ﺳﻼﻣﺘﻲ 4( ﻧﻈﺎرت ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ٢
ﻣﺪﻟﺴﺎزي ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﻫﻮا – ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ؟ ﻣﺪﻟﺴﺎزي 1. Empirical Equations (US EPA, ASHRAE) 2. Physical models (water flume, wind tunnel, etc.) ﻣﺤﺪوده ﻫﺎي ﻻزم ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺪل ﺳﺎزي 3. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Numerical (computer) models: 1. Gaussian models (ISC3, AERMOD, SCREEN3) ﻓﺎﻛﺘﻮرﻫﺎي ﻣﺸﺘﺮك در ﻣﺪل ﻫﺎ 2. Puff models (CALPUFF) ﻣﺪل ﻫﺎي ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﻫﻮا Experimental Methods Dispersion Modeling - These models are typically used in the permitting Different kinds process to estimate the concentration of pollutants at specified ground-level receptors surrounding an emissions source. Different fields Photochemical Modeling - These models are typically used in regulatory or policy assessments to simulate the impacts from all sources by estimating pollutant concentrations and deposition of both inert and chemically reactive Why? pollutants over large spatial scales. Receptor Modeling - These models are observational techniques which use the chemical and physical characteristics of gases and particles measured at source and receptor to both identify the presence of and to quantify source contributions to receptor concentrations. ٣
ﻣﺪﻟﺴﺎزي ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻜﻲ ﺗﻮﻧﻞ ﺑﺎد A wind tunnel is a research tool developed to assist with studying the effects of air moving over or around solid objects. ﺗﻮﻧﻞ ﺑﺎد – ﻻﻳﻪ ﻣﺮزي ﺗﻮﻧﻞ ﺑﺎد – ﻛﺎرﺑﺮد Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) Pedestrian-level Wind Environment Wind Climate studies Snow and Ice studies Indoor Air Quality studies Simulation of Downburst Atmospheric dispersion of gaseous pollutants in complex terrain ٤
GPS Dropwindsonde دﺳﺘﮕﺎه CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is one of the branches of fluid mechanics that uses numerical methods and algorithms to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flows Computers are used to perform the millions of flows. calculations required to simulate the interaction of fluids and gases with the complex surfaces used in engineering. Even with simplified equations and high-speed supercomputers, only approximate solutions can be achieved in many cases. Ongoing research, however, may yield software that improves the accuracy and speed of complex simulation scenarios such as transonic or turbulent flows. CFD CFD Methods Consideration • Topography and complex geometry: choose of the co-ordinate The tests and modelings demonstrate the possibilities of CFD system and computer grid; techniques in solving a broad range of air pollution problems. The • Turbulence closure for air pollution modelling: modified k-ε model g for stable stratified ABL; CFD techniques are rather complex, but capable of handling • Boundary conditions for vertical profiles of velocity for stable- situations where due to complex geometry, thermal effects or flow stratified atmosphere; conditions other simpler methods fail. • Effects of the radiation and thermal budget of inclined surfaces to dispersion of pollutants; • Artificial sources of air dynamics and circulation ٥
CFD Modeling Navier-Stokes :ﻣﻌﺎدﻟﻪ ﺣﺎﻛﻢ FLUENT CFD ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ اي از ﻣﺪﻟﺴﺎزي ﺑﺎ Wind Tunnel Tests ٦
Wind Tunnel Tests Wind Tunnel Tests Wind Tunnel Tests Eulerian Advection/Diffusion Models Wind speeds and concentrations are specified in a stationary co-ordinate system (i.e. as “fields”) y y ( ) Wind speed field is found using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) Advection diffusion equation solved for concentration field. ٧
Geographical Information System GIS STRUCTURE FOR AIR POLLUTION MODELLING Traffic Demand Driving cycles Meteorological & & & ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ اﻃﻼﻋﺎت ﺟﻐﺮاﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ، ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪي ﺳﺎزﻣﺎن ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪاي از ﺳﺨﺖ اﻓﺰار، ﻧﺮم Road Network Fleet composition Climatic Data اﻓﺰار، اﻃﻼﻋﺎت ﺟﻐﺮاﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ، روش و ﻧﻴﺮوي اﻧﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺺ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺟﻬﺖ ﻛﺴﺐ، ورود، ﺳﺎزﻣﺎﻧﺪﻫﻲ، ذﺧﻴﺮه، ﺑﻪ ﻫﻨﮕﺎم ﺳﺎزي، ﭘﺮدازش، ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ و ﺗﻠﻔﻴﻖ GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM اﻃﻼﻋﺎت اﻳﺠﺎد ﻣﻲﺷﻮد. ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮ اﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ اﻃﻼﻋﺎت ﺟﻐﺮاﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻋﻼوه ﺑﺮ ذﺧﻴﺮه و Traffic Emission Dispersion ﺳﺎزﻣﺎﻧﺪﻫﻲ اﻃﻼﻋﺎت ﺟﻐﺮاﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻜﻞ رﻗﻮﻣﻲ و اﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎت ﺑﺎزﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ و ﺑﻪ Model Model Model ﻫﻨﮕﺎم ﺳﺎزي اﻃﻼﻋﺎت، اﺑﺰار و ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺘﻬﺎي ﻻزم را ﺑﺮاي اﻧﻮاع ﭘﺮدازشﻫﺎ، ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞﻫﺎي ﻓﻀﺎﻳﻲ، ﺗﻠﻔﻴﻖ و ﻣﺪلﺳﺎزي اﻃﻼﻋﺎت ﺟﻐﺮاﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻓﺮاﻫﻢ ﻣﻲﺳﺎزد. GIS Traffic Flows Concentrations Emissions Mapping Mapping Mapping Traffic Routes Data Layer Topography ٨
Urban Blocks Land Use GIS Model 1 – Example 2 CO – Cell Modeling CO (LDV) – Buffer Modeling ٩
ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ CO – Ordinary Kriging Model Analysing Ali ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺗ ﻠﻞ Verifying ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ از ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺷﻤﺎ ﻣﺘﺸﻜﺮم ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎدﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺮاي آﻳﻨﺪه Integration between computational methods, experiments and numerical methods in environmental modeling especially air pollution modeling, is an area in its infancy. ١٠
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