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Composting poultry offal january 2014

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Information about Composting poultry offal january 2014
How-to & DIY

Published on February 21, 2014

Author: aberland

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Shows how to compost waste from small-scale poultry production so as to reduce land-fill demand, deter wildlife and pests and improve soil fertility.
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Small-scale composting of poultry feathers and offal Alex Berland Passmore Poultry Pluckers aberland@telus.net

Acknowledgment This presentation was funded in part by the Investment Agriculture Foundation of B.C. through programs it delivers on behalf of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and the B.C. Ministry of Agriculture. October 2013 Copyright Passmore Poultry Pluckers Inc. 2

Small-scale composting of poultry feathers and offal • Siting • Critical elements • Methods – Bin design • Trouble shooting • References October 2013 Copyright Passmore Poultry Pluckers Inc. 3

Siting of operation Distances in feet http://compost.css.cornell.edu/naturalrenderingFS.pdf 4

Three critical elements 1. Carbon 2. Moisture 3. Air October 2013 Copyright Passmore Poultry Pluckers Inc. 5

Carbon/Nitrogen Ratio • The C:N ratio should be between 20:1 to 35:1 Optimal C:N is 25: to 30:1. • According to some, the best form of carbon is untreated sawdust. • With straw, longer composting times and possible run off of liquids. • We use wood chipper waste, can also use paper. • Material that has completed the compost cycle can be partially substituted (will also ‘seed’ bacteria) October 2013 Copyright Passmore Poultry Pluckers Inc. 6

Attributes of common on-farm composting materials http://bqa.wsu.edu/documents/ON%20FARM%20COMPOSTING.pdf 7

Water is a critical component • The pile should be 45-60% moisture. • No need to add water to litter with normal moisture levels. • The mixture should hold its shape without dripping if you squeeze some in your hand. October 2013 Copyright Passmore Poultry Pluckers Inc. 8

Checking moisture content in compost • Squeeze a small handful of your raw material. • It should feel like a wrung-out sponge. • If the material does not feel moist and crumbles, it is too dry. • If you can squeeze water from the material by hand, it is too wet. • If it sticks together slightly and leaves a few drops of water on your hand, it’s just right. October 2013 Copyright Passmore Poultry Pluckers Inc. 9

Air • Turning is not recommended until you’re pretty certain the carcass material is gone. – For poultry offal it likely will disappear in 2 weeks, but initially wait at least a month. • When building the pile, try to layer the offal and co-composting materials repeatedly on top of 60cm (2’) of a more absorbent & porous bed of feed-stocks. – This will help speed the process versus having one big mass of offal. October 2013 Copyright Passmore Poultry Pluckers Inc. 10

Best way to check C:N and moisture is to record temperature • Highest rates of decomposition at 43 - 66°C. • Goal: constant heat over 55°C for three days. • Avoid temperature above 66°C as microbial activity declines rapidly. • For optimal temperature use a layer cap of inactive sawdust or straw to act as insulation. • This also ensures that the pile will remain aerobic (hot air rises out of the top and draws in cold air from the sides and bottom). October 2013 Copyright Passmore Poultry Pluckers Inc. 11

Three composting methods 1. Bin 2. Windrow 3. Aerated static pile • Active • Passive • Others not discussed here: – In-vessel – Turned windrow (automated) October 2013 Copyright Passmore Poultry Pluckers Inc. 12

Bin composting • Natural aeration and frequent turning provide aerobic bacteria with oxygen to break down materials. • High temperatures, from 32º to 60ºC (90º to 140ºF), are produced when piles are turned every 5-10 days. • Materials should be stockpiled until enough accumulates to add approximately one cubic metre or yard to the bin. October 2013 Copyright Passmore Poultry Pluckers Inc. 13

Mixing offal waste in bins • Offal should be added in layers with co-composting materials, rather than in small amounts over time. • Bury the offal deeply in the pile, making sure you have at least one foot of material on all sides of the offal and a two foot porous, absorbent base. • Wait 2-4 weeks until the carcass material is gone before turning. • Spread the meat waste out over a large area, rather than plopping it all in one pile. • Water thoroughly. October 2013 Copyright Passmore Poultry Pluckers Inc. 14

BC Ministry of Food Agriculture and Fisheries October 2013 Copyright Passmore Poultry Pluckers Inc. 15

Joel Salatin operation 16

Tulaberry Farm, Slocan Valley • Not shown – lattice layer of poles at base 17

October 2013 Copyright Passmore Poultry Pluckers Inc. 18

Plastic barrier base, passive air supply October 2013 Copyright Passmore Poultry Pluckers Inc. 19

20 Photos credit: Andy Bary, Washington State U

Compost bin manufactured by Sure Link Fencing Ltd. Slocan Park BC October 2013 Copyright Passmore Poultry Pluckers Inc. 21

Covered bin designs http://www.mda.state.mn.u s/en/Global/MDADocs/ani mals/compostguide.aspx 22

Windrow • National Standard – The material shall attain a temperature of 55°C or greater for at least 15 days during the composting period. – Also, during the high temperature period, the windrow shall be turned at least five times. October 2013 Copyright Passmore Poultry Pluckers Inc. 23

http://compost.css.cornell.edu/naturalrenderingFS.pdf 24

BC Ministry of Food Agriculture and Fisheries October 2013 Copyright Passmore Poultry Pluckers Inc. 25

Two windrows should be used • When the first one is large enough, it should be allowed to decompose undisturbed. • Additional waste should then be added to the second windrow. • Covering the windrow with a layer of finished compost will help prevent moisture loss and reduce odour problems. • Active period from six months to two years. October 2013 Copyright Passmore Poultry Pluckers Inc. 26

Building active aerated static piles • Floors are first covered with a layer of bulking agent, such as wood chips or finished compost • The material to be composted is then added, and a topping layer of finished compost or wood chips applied to provide insulation. • Active period 21-40 days • National standard : The material will be maintained at operating conditions of 55°C or greater for three days. October 2013 Copyright Passmore Poultry Pluckers Inc. 27

Active aerated static piles BC Ministry of Food Agriculture and Fisheries October 2013 Copyright Passmore Poultry Pluckers Inc. 28

Puyallup System Static piles with passive aeration • 4-5 inch diameter black plastic drain pipe with pre-drilled holes drilled 8 inches apart on 2 sides of the pipe. • 2 composting bins – 4 ft wide by 8 ft long by 5 ft high – At each time of slaughter, offal was added to one bin, and additions alternated between the bins. October 2013 Copyright Passmore Poultry Pluckers Inc. 29

October 2013 Photos credit: Andy Bary, Washington State U 30

Puyallup System Target temperature achieved Graph credit: Andy Bary, Washington State U 160 Temperature, Fahrenheit 140 Kitsap County 2009 Pile 120 100 80 Air 60 40 20 Sep Oct Nov Date 31

Larry Dees, Grand Forks BC October 2013 Copyright Passmore Poultry Pluckers Inc. 32

The final product • The final composted material should have the following physical and odour qualities: – unrecognizable original materials – dark brown to black colour – foreign matter/materials less than 1% – relatively porous structure, not compacted or hard – no objectionable odours, but an 'earthy' smell. October 2013 Copyright Passmore Poultry Pluckers Inc. 33

Causes and fixes for objectionable odours 1. Inadequate aeration, allowing anaerobic digestion to take place. • Solution: Aerate the composting materials more frequently. 2. A low C:N ratio. • Solution: Adjust the C:N ratio by adding more carbonaceous materials. 3. Wet composting materials. • Solution: Aerate more October 2013 Copyright Passmore Poultry Pluckers Inc. 34

Use of compost • Compost nutrient estimates are 7kg N, 2.5kg P2O5 and 4kg K2O per tonne of compost. • Reuse finished compost as the base for the next pile. • Use on hay, corn, winter wheat, tree plantations and forestlands. • Applying to “table-top” crops directly consumed by humans is not recommended. October 2013 Copyright Passmore Poultry Pluckers Inc. 35

Resources • • • • • • • BC Ministry of Agriculture Composting Factsheet http://www.agf.gov.bc.ca/resmgmt/publist/300Series/382500-5.pdf (general; regulations) http://agsyst.wsu.edu/PoultryOffal.pdf (Puyallup system) http://www.eggfarmers.co.nz/uploads/8E738_Composting_Dead_Poultry. pdf http://compost.css.cornell.edu/naturalrenderingFS.pdf (rendering of large animals) http://bqa.wsu.edu/documents/ON%20FARM%20COMPOSTING.pdf (rendering of large animals) http://www.mda.state.mn.us/en/Global/MDADocs/animals/compostguide .aspx (rendering of large animals) http://vermiculture.ca/store/index.php?act=viewProd&productId=87 (compost thermometer) October 2013 Copyright Passmore Poultry Pluckers Inc. 36

Agriculture and Agri‐Food Canada, the BC Ministry of Agriculture and the Investment Agriculture Foundation of BC, are pleased to participate in the production of this presentation. We are committed to working with our partners to address issues of importance to the agriculture and agri‐food industry in British Columbia. Opinions expressed in this presentation are those of Passmore Poultry Pluckers Inc. and not necessarily those of Agriculture and Agri‐Food Canada, the BC Ministry of Agriculture and the Investment Agriculture Foundation. October 2013 Copyright Passmore Poultry Pluckers Inc. 37

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