compositae2006r

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Published on December 7, 2007

Author: Altoro

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Identifying Florida Compositae (Asteraceae):  Identifying Florida Compositae (Asteraceae) Mark A. Garland Scientific Latin Translations http://botanicallatin.org Compositae (Asteraceae):  Compositae (Asteraceae) Over 23,000 species—10% of all flowering plant species Cosmopolitan Often weedy Genera often not well defined Compositae (Asteraceae) vegetative features:  Compositae (Asteraceae) vegetative features Herbs or shrubs Leaves opposite, alternate, whorled, without stipules Leaves often without a distinct petiole Leaf teeth often coarse, irregular Compositae (Asteraceae) floral features:  Compositae (Asteraceae) floral features Flowers in heads surrounded by leaf-like bracts Calyx a pappus of hairs or scales, or absent Corolla strap-shaped (ray flower) or tubular, 5-lobed (disk flower) Compositae (Asteraceae) floral features:  Compositae (Asteraceae) floral features Stamens 5, joined in a tube around style Style 1, with 2 branches; it pushes pollen out of stamen tube Ovary inferior Fruit: achene (1-seeded) Compositae (Asteraceae): what to look for:  Compositae (Asteraceae): what to look for Leaves: opposite, alternate Involucral bracts (below head): overlapping or not Receptacle (where flowers are attached): flat, dome-shaped, convex Flowers: ray, disk, or combination Pappus: if present, hairs or scales or prickles Corolla color Fruit: flat, cylindrical Compositae (Asteraceae) tribes:  Compositae (Asteraceae) tribes Botanists lately divide the family into about 35 tribes: 19 are in Florida Plants in each tribe have similar flowers Knowing a plant’s tribe can help you identify it Compositae (Asteraceae) tribes in Florida:  Compositae (Asteraceae) tribes in Florida Mutisieae—1 genus in Fla. Cardueae—4 genera Cichorieae—13 Vernonieae—6 Arctotideae—1 Senecioneae—10 Gnaphalieae—4 Astereae—21 Anthemideae—8 Inuleae—5 Helenieae—4 Coreopsideae—3 Tageteae—4 Bahieae—2 Polymnieae—1 Heliantheae—30 Millerieae—3 Madieae—1 Eupatorieae—14 TOTAL: 135 genera Tribe Mutisieae:  Tribe Mutisieae Some corollas 2-lipped (2 lobes on one side, 3 on the other) Chaptalia (sunbonnets)—2 species in Fla. Tribe Cardueae (thistles):  Tribe Cardueae (thistles) Spiny Only disk flowers Corollas white to pink or blue, not yellow Tribe Cardueae (thistles):  Tribe Cardueae (thistles) Centaurea (cornflower)—2* species Cirsium (thistle)—6+1* Cnicus—1* Onopordum—1* *introduced. Tribe Cichorieae (Lactuceae):  Tribe Cichorieae (Lactuceae) Milky juice Heads with only 5-toothed ray flowers (ligules) Flowers yellow or blue Tribe Cichorieae (Lactuceae):  Tribe Cichorieae (Lactuceae) Cichorium (chicory)—1* species Crepis—1* Hieracium (hawkweed)—2 Hypochaeris—3* Krigia—3 Lactuca (lettuce)—3+1* Launaea—1* Lygodesmia—1 Prenanthes—2 Pyrrhopappus—1+1* Sonchus—2* Taraxacum (dandelion)—2* Youngia—1* *introduced. Tribe Vernonieae:  Tribe Vernonieae Leaves alternate Only disk flowers Flowers purple Tribe Vernonieae:  Tribe Vernonieae Centratherum—1* species Cyanthillium—1* (was Vernonia) Elephantopus—4 Pseudelephantopus—1* Stokesia—1 Vernonia (ironweed)—5 *introduced. Tribe Senecioneae:  Tribe Senecioneae Leaves alternate Heads with ray and disk flowers Bracts in 1 row, not overlapping Flowers often yellow or white Pappus usually of hairs Tribe Senecioneae:  Tribe Senecioneae Arnoglossum—5 species Crassocephalum—1* Emilia (tasselflower)—2* Erechtites (fireweed)—1 Euryops—1* Gynura—1* Hasteola—1 Packera (was Senecio)—5 Pseudogynoxys—1* Senecio—2* *introduced. Tribe Astereae (asters):  Tribe Astereae (asters) Leaves alternate, usually not dissected Heads with ray and disk flowers Bracts overlapping Flowers yellow, white, blue Pappus usually of hairs Tribe Astereae (asters):  Tribe Astereae (asters) Aphanostephus—1 species Baccharis—4 Bigelowia—2 Boltonia—3 Brintonia—1 Chrysoma (bush goldenrod)—1 Chrysopsis (goldenaster)—12 Conyza—1+1* Croptilon—1 Doellingeria (was Aster)—2 Erigeron—7 Eurybia (was Aster)—4 Euthamia (flattop goldenrod)—2 Heterotheca (camphorweed)—1 Ionactis (was Aster)—1 Oclemena (was Aster)—1 Pityopsis—4 Rayjacksonia—1 Sericocarpus (was Aster)—2 Solidago (goldenrod)—19 Symphyotrichum (was Aster)—27 *introduced. Tribe Coreopsideae (beggarticks):  Leaves (at least the lower) opposite, often dissected Heads with ray and disk flowers Bracts in 2 rows Rays often 8, broad Flowers often yellow or white Pappus usually stiff prickles Tribe Coreopsideae (beggarticks) Tribe Coreopsideae (beggarticks):  Bidens—6+1* species Coreopsis—11+2* Cosmos—3* *introduced. Tribe Coreopsideae (beggarticks) Tribe Heliantheae (sunflowers):  Leaves (at least the lower) opposite Heads with ray and disk flowers Bracts usually overlapping Flowers often yellow or white Pappus usually scales or stiff prickles Tribe Heliantheae (sunflowers) Tribe Heliantheae (sunflowers):  Acanthospermum—3* species Acmella—1+2* Ambrosia (ragweed)—4 Berlandiera—2 Borrichia (sea ox-eye)—2 Calyptocarpus—1* Chrysogonum—1 Dracopis—1 Echinacea (purple coneflower)—1 Eclipta—1 Enydra—1* Helianthus (sunflower)—14+3* Heliopsis—1 Iva (marsh elder)—4+1* Lagascea—1* Tribe Heliantheae (sunflowers) Melanthera—1 Parthenium—1* Pascalia—1* Phoebanthus—2 Ratibida—1+1* Rudbeckia (coneflowers)—8 Silphium (rosinweed)—2 Sphagneticola (was Wedelia)—1* Synedrella—1* Tetragonotheca—1 Tithonia (Mexican sunflower)—1* Tridax—1* Verbesina—6+1* Xanthium (cocklebur)—1 Zinnia—2* *introduced. Tribe Eupatorieae:  Tribe Eupatorieae Leaves usually opposite Only disk flowers Flowers white or purple Tribe Eupatorieae:  Tribe Eupatorieae Ageratina—3 Ageratum—1+2* Brickellia—3 Carphephorus (deer’s-tongue)—5 Chromolaena—2+1* Conoclinium (mistflower)—1 Eupatorium—17 Fleischmannia—1 Garberia—1 Hartwrightia—1 Koanophyllon—1 Liatris (blazing-star)—15 Mikania (hempvine)—2 Sclerolepis—1 *introduced. Questions?:  Questions? Mark A. Garland mgarland@botanicallatin.org (352) 466-9186

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