Complexity And The Environment

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Information about Complexity And The Environment

Published on July 9, 2008

Author: gavindjharper

Source: slideshare.net

 

About The Speaker Author 50 Awesome Auto Projects for the Evil Genius Build Your Own Car PC 50 Model Rocket Projects for the Evil Genius Domestic Solar Energy Solar Energy Projects for the Evil Genius 101 Fuel Cell Projects for the Evil Genius Diploma Design & Innovation BSc. (Hons.) Technology (Open) 2(i) MSc. Architecture: Advanced Environmental & Energy Studies (Awaiting result) Worked on ‘Alternative Energy Strategy’ 2007 Think Tank @ Centre for Alternative Technology Advised Members of U.S. Congress On Energy Policy Working on Dennis Kucinich’s Presidential Energy Manifesto for the U.S.

Author

50 Awesome Auto Projects for the Evil Genius

Build Your Own Car PC

50 Model Rocket Projects for the Evil Genius

Domestic Solar Energy

Solar Energy Projects for the Evil Genius

101 Fuel Cell Projects for the Evil Genius

Diploma Design & Innovation

BSc. (Hons.) Technology (Open) 2(i)

MSc. Architecture: Advanced Environmental & Energy Studies

(Awaiting result)

Worked on ‘Alternative Energy Strategy’ 2007 Think Tank @ Centre for Alternative Technology

Advised Members of U.S. Congress On Energy Policy

Working on Dennis Kucinich’s Presidential Energy Manifesto for the U.S.

Renewable Energy – Powering Your Future Gavin D. J. Harper

Why Renewables? Predictable Shortage Of Fossil Fuels Enduring Energy Security No ‘Wastes’ Carbon Emissions / Climate Change

Predictable Shortage Of Fossil Fuels

Enduring Energy Security

No ‘Wastes’

Carbon Emissions / Climate Change

Hubbert’s Peak M. King Hubbert 1956 Presented to the American Petroleum Institute in 1956 Peak Oil Peak Coal Peak Gas Peak Uranium

M. King Hubbert 1956

Presented to the

American Petroleum Institute in 1956

Peak Oil

Peak Coal

Peak Gas

Peak Uranium

Hubbert’s Peak Theory Production at first increases approximately exponentially, as more extraction commences and more efficient facilities are installed. At some point, a peak output is reached, and production begins declining until it approximates an exponential decline.

Production at first increases approximately exponentially, as more extraction commences and more efficient facilities are installed. At some point, a peak output is reached, and production begins declining until it approximates an exponential decline.

Carbon Emissions

Climate Change Producing 10% of UK electricity from renewables by 2010 could cut carbon emissions by 2.5 million tonnes p.a. (DTI)

Producing 10% of UK electricity from renewables by 2010 could cut carbon emissions by 2.5 million tonnes p.a. (DTI)

 

Concerns About Renewables Intermittency Small ‘Unit Size’

Intermittency

Small ‘Unit Size’

Concerns - Intermittency Geographically distributed renewables ‘even out’ variations. Load balancing Pumped Storage Dinorwig ‘ Quarries as Batteries’ Fuel Cells

Geographically distributed renewables ‘even out’ variations.

Load balancing

Pumped Storage

Dinorwig

‘ Quarries as Batteries’

Fuel Cells

Solar Energy

 

Solar Energy Stats 164 W m -2 on average over the Earth’s surface over the course of 24 hours The Earth Receives 84TW power

164 W m -2 on average over the Earth’s surface over the course of 24 hours

The Earth Receives 84TW power

Seasonal Variation (Northern Hemisphere)

Sunpath Diagrams

Orient Solar Collectors To Maximise Power Output

Angle of Incidence Affects Power Output The same area of light coming at an angle is spread over a larger area.

The same area of light coming at an angle is spread over a larger area.

Solar Trackers

History of the Solar Cell Photovoltaic Effect - Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel. (1833) First Solar Cell Made – Charles Fritts (1883) Russell Ohl Patents first Solar Cell US2402662 “Light sensitive device” (1946) Bell Laboratories discover doped silicon responsive to light (1954)

Photovoltaic Effect - Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel. (1833)

First Solar Cell Made – Charles Fritts (1883)

Russell Ohl Patents first Solar Cell US2402662 “Light sensitive device” (1946)

Bell Laboratories discover doped silicon responsive to light (1954)

Types of Solar Cell Cell Material Efficiency Area For 1 kW Peak Monocrystalline Silicon 15-18% 7-9m 2 Polycrystalline Silicon 13-16% 8-11m 2 Thin Film (CIS) 7.5-9.5% 11-13m 2 Thin Film Cadmium Telluride 6-9% 14-18m 2 Amorphous Silicon 5-8% 16-20m 2

Cell Material Efficiency Area For 1 kW Peak

Monocrystalline Silicon 15-18% 7-9m 2

Polycrystalline Silicon 13-16% 8-11m 2

Thin Film (CIS) 7.5-9.5% 11-13m 2

Thin Film Cadmium Telluride 6-9% 14-18m 2

Amorphous Silicon 5-8% 16-20m 2

Silicon

Phosphorus Doping ‘Adds’ an Electron

Boron Doping ‘Removes’ an Electron

Monocrystalline Solar Cell Silicon Solar Cell PN Junction

Silicon Solar Cell

PN Junction

Nanosolar Source: www.treehugger.com

Nanosolar Printable Solar Production Process Copper-Indium-Gallium-Selenium on Polymer Substrate (thin film). Cells estimated to cost 1/5 th to 1/10 th cost of traditional silicon cell. New plant capacity of 430MW / year.

Printable Solar Production Process

Copper-Indium-Gallium-Selenium on Polymer Substrate (thin film).

Cells estimated to cost 1/5 th to 1/10 th cost of traditional silicon cell.

New plant capacity of 430MW / year.

Photochemical Solar Cells

 

 

Photovoltaic Organic LED’s Source: www.ecogeek.org

Photovoltaic Organic LED’s Combines Light-Emitting Diode with the ability to generate electricity. Research undertaken at Cornell University. Process needs efficiency-boost to practical. Possibility for windows that generate power in the day and illuminate at night.

Combines Light-Emitting Diode with the ability to generate electricity.

Research undertaken at Cornell University.

Process needs efficiency-boost to practical.

Possibility for windows that generate power in the day and illuminate at night.

Holographic Solar Cells Source: www.prismsolar.com

Holographic Solar Cells Use Holographic Optical Elements to concentrate light. More compact, and lighter than traditional concentrators. 25-85% reduction in silicon Watt for Watt Possible cost reductions of up to 75%? Multiplies light falling on cells by up to 10%.

Use Holographic Optical Elements to concentrate light.

More compact, and lighter than traditional concentrators.

25-85% reduction in silicon Watt for Watt

Possible cost reductions of up to 75%?

Multiplies light falling on cells by up to 10%.

‘ EnviroMission’ Solar Tower Source: www.ecogeek.org

‘ EnviroMission’ Solar Tower Functioning Experimental Prototype Solar Tower in Spain 1600 feet tall, 260 feet diameter Two mile diameter canopy Planned for Australia, China, America Power for a small city

Functioning Experimental Prototype Solar Tower in Spain

1600 feet tall, 260 feet diameter

Two mile diameter canopy

Planned for Australia, China, America

Power for a small city

Hydro Power

 

Hydropower Technologies ‘Traditional’ Large Hydro (Big Dams) Micro Hydro (Small Rivers / Streams) Wave Power Waves Driven By Wind On The Sea Less Predictable Tidal Power Lunar Driven Process Very Predictable

‘Traditional’ Large Hydro (Big Dams)

Micro Hydro (Small Rivers / Streams)

Wave Power

Waves Driven By Wind On The Sea

Less Predictable

Tidal Power

Lunar Driven Process

Very Predictable

Wave Power "The World Energy Council has estimated the ‘useful’ global ocean wave energy resource as ... >2TW (17,500TWh/year). From this it has been estimated (Thorpe 1999) that the practical economic contribution from wave energy converters could be 2,000TWh/year (similar to current installed nuclear or hydroelectric generation capacity). Such generating capacity could result in up to 2 billion tonnes of CO2 emissions being displaced from fossil fuel generation per year - similar to current emissions from electricity generation in the US." via. www.treehugger.com

"The World Energy Council has estimated the ‘useful’ global ocean wave energy resource as ... >2TW (17,500TWh/year). From this it has been estimated (Thorpe 1999) that the practical economic contribution from wave energy converters could be 2,000TWh/year (similar to current installed nuclear or hydroelectric generation capacity). Such generating capacity could result in up to 2 billion tonnes of CO2 emissions being displaced from fossil fuel generation per year - similar to current emissions from electricity generation in the US."

via. www.treehugger.com

Hydropower Physics The amount of power a hydroelectric dam can produce is determined by the amount of potential energy stored in the water behind the dam. The water is at a height (head) above the turbine, and the amount of work it can do is the product of the head and the weight of the water.

The amount of power a hydroelectric dam can produce is determined by the amount of potential energy stored in the water behind the dam.

The water is at a height (head) above the turbine, and the amount of work it can do is the product of the head and the weight of the water.

Hydropower Physics E = mgh E = Energy m = mass g = acceleration due to gravity (9.8 m s -1 ) h = Height

E = mgh

E = Energy

m = mass

g = acceleration due to gravity (9.8 m s -1 )

h = Height

Hydropower Physics The height of the dam will not change so the head remains constant. The force as a result of gravity does not change. So the only things that change over time is the mass flowing through the turbine – which is directly proportional to the energy produced.

The height of the dam will not change so the head remains constant.

The force as a result of gravity does not change.

So the only things that change over time is the mass flowing through the turbine – which is directly proportional to the energy produced.

Hydropower Physics E = Energy t = Time m = Mass g = Gravity h = Height

E = Energy

t = Time

m = Mass

g = Gravity

h = Height

Biofuels

Biofuels Biogas Waste as a Resource Ethanol Biodiesel Wood Algae

Biogas

Waste as a Resource

Ethanol

Biodiesel

Wood

Algae

Biogas Anaerobic Digestion of Wastes Sewerage Agricultural Wastes / Slurry Food Processing Waste Pyrolysis – Production of Syngas Syngas – Carbon Monoxide / Hydrogen

Anaerobic Digestion of Wastes

Sewerage

Agricultural Wastes / Slurry

Food Processing Waste

Pyrolysis – Production of Syngas

Syngas – Carbon Monoxide / Hydrogen

Waste as a Resource Waste Pyrolysis Synthesis Gas Combustion Heat & Power Wide Range of Feedstocks Combustion / Fuel Cell Technology Good Waste Management Practise

Wide Range of Feedstocks

Combustion / Fuel Cell Technology

Good Waste Management Practise

Waste as a Resource Science 7 July 2006: Vol. 313. no. 5783, p. 25 DOI: 10.1126/science.313.5783.25d 250 Tonnes of Chocolate Volume = 33 Double Deckers 33 of these Not these

Waste as a Resource … if the chocolate were burned for energy, it could provide 5500 gigajoules (1,530,000 kilowatt-hours)--enough to power a town of 90,000 people for a week. "Chocolate is biomass," says Gaynor Hartnell of the Renewable Energy Association in London. "It is also very calorific, so burning seems a sensible idea."

… if the chocolate were burned for energy, it could provide 5500 gigajoules (1,530,000 kilowatt-hours)--enough to power a town of 90,000 people for a week. "Chocolate is biomass," says Gaynor Hartnell of the Renewable Energy Association in London. "It is also very calorific, so burning seems a sensible idea."

Biodiesel Clean Non Toxic ‘Carbon Neutral (?)’

Clean

Non Toxic

‘Carbon Neutral (?)’

The Chemistry of Biodiesel Triglyceride (Vegetable Oil)

Algae Research into ‘Hydrogen Producing’ Algae Research into using algae with pyrolysis to make ‘syngas’ Algae Biodiesel

Research into ‘Hydrogen Producing’ Algae

Research into using algae with pyrolysis to make ‘syngas’

Algae Biodiesel

Wind Power

Power Available From The Wind P = Power ρ = Density of Air π = pi – 3.14… r = Radius of Turbine v = Velocity

P = Power

ρ = Density of Air

π = pi – 3.14…

r = Radius of Turbine

v = Velocity

Density of Air The Density of Air Changes with Altitude and atmospheric conditions… As an baseline, on a cool 15°C day at sea level, air density is 1.225 kg m -3

The Density of Air Changes with Altitude and atmospheric conditions…

As an baseline, on a cool 15°C day at sea level, air density is 1.225 kg m -3

What Does This Tell Us? Energy available to the turbine increases as a ‘ cube’ of wind speed Economies of scale with scaling up turbines. Power increases as a square of the radius of the turbine.

Suggested Reading George Monbiot ( www.monbiot.com ) New Scientist, 3rd October 2006 “ Small is Useless” Monbiot asserts… “Micro generation can’t solve climate change”

George Monbiot ( www.monbiot.com )

New Scientist, 3rd October 2006

“ Small is Useless”

Monbiot asserts… “Micro generation can’t solve climate change”

Betz’ Law Developed by Albert Betz, German Physicist. Regardless of design of turbine Betz’ limit applies It states maximum amount of energy a turbine can extract from moving air is 59%

Developed by Albert Betz, German Physicist.

Regardless of design of turbine Betz’ limit applies

It states maximum amount of energy a turbine can extract from moving air is 59%

Wind Energy Myths DTI Wind Power: 10 Myths Explained A single 1.8MW turbine provides power for 1,000 homes. Existing wind capacity provides power for 500,000 homes. The energy used to manufacture a wind turbine is recovered within 3-5 months. Over the life of a turbine, the energy in manufacture will be repaid at least 50 times.

DTI Wind Power: 10 Myths Explained

A single 1.8MW turbine provides power for 1,000 homes.

Existing wind capacity provides power for 500,000 homes.

The energy used to manufacture a wind turbine is recovered within 3-5 months.

Over the life of a turbine, the energy in manufacture will be repaid at least 50 times.

Climate Change Denmark has a turbine density 30 times that of the UK (DTI) To produce 10% of our electricity by wind we would need to increase current capacity by a factor of one and a half times again.

Denmark has a turbine density 30 times that of the UK (DTI)

To produce 10% of our electricity by wind we would need to increase current capacity by a factor of one and a half times again.

‘Wind Trees’ Source: www.inhabitat.com

‘Wind Trees’ One Architecture, Tom Matton, NL Architects Commissioned by the Dutch Government Hold up to 8 Turbines 120 Metres High

One Architecture, Tom Matton, NL Architects

Commissioned by the Dutch Government

Hold up to 8 Turbines

120 Metres High

Grimshaw Aerogenerator Source: www.ecogeek.org

Grimshaw Aerogenerator Design Concept Spins at 3 rpm Generates a projected 9MW Omnidirectional Possibility to integrate wave/tidal power 3-5 years development reauired

Design Concept

Spins at 3 rpm

Generates a projected 9MW

Omnidirectional

Possibility to integrate wave/tidal power

3-5 years development reauired

Display Turbines Source: www.ecogeek.org

Display Turbines Provides additional income stream at the expense of some energy. Turbine ‘scans’ a row of LED’s across the onlooker’s field of view. The LED’s are rapidly turned on and off by a microcontroller. Persistence of vision allows the viewer to see the display as a complete image.

Provides additional income stream at the expense of some energy.

Turbine ‘scans’ a row of LED’s across the onlooker’s field of view.

The LED’s are rapidly turned on and off by a microcontroller.

Persistence of vision allows the viewer to see the display as a complete image.

Hydrogen Fuel Cells

William Robert Grove

Hydrogen Fuel Cells Hydrogen Is Not An ‘Energy Source’ It Is An ‘Energy Carrier’. Hydrogen Is Only ‘Clean’ If It Is Produced In A Sustainable Manner. ‘Long Tailpipe’ Argument Only Emission At Point Of Use Is Water Not Limited By ‘Carnot Efficiency’ of Thermal Engines

Hydrogen Is Not An ‘Energy Source’ It Is An ‘Energy Carrier’.

Hydrogen Is Only ‘Clean’ If It Is Produced In A Sustainable Manner.

‘Long Tailpipe’ Argument

Only Emission At Point Of Use Is Water

Not Limited By ‘Carnot Efficiency’ of Thermal Engines

Significance of Hydrogen for Renewable Energy Provides A Means Of ‘Storing Power’ Turns ‘Renewable Energy’ into ‘Transportable Fuel’ Technology Capable of Displacing Oil For Transport

Provides A Means Of ‘Storing Power’

Turns ‘Renewable Energy’ into ‘Transportable Fuel’

Technology Capable of Displacing Oil For Transport

How Fuel Cells Integrate With Renewables

Types of Fuel Cell Alkaline Fuel Cell Proton Exchange Membrane AKA. (Polymer Electrolyte Membrane) Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

Alkaline Fuel Cell

Proton Exchange Membrane

AKA. (Polymer Electrolyte Membrane)

Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell

Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

Hydrogen In Oxygen In Exhaust Out Proton Exchange Membrane Catalyst Electrical Current

H H H H H H

H H H H + + H H + + e - e - e - e - e -

O O e - e - e - e - e - H H + + H H + + O O

O O e - e - e - e - e - H H + + H H + + O O

O O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H H + + e - e -

Hydrogen Production Electrolysis (Renewable Energy) Biomass Gasification & Reformation Steam Reformation of Fossil Fuel Photoelectrolysis ‘ Clean’ Coal Biologically Produced Hydrogen

Electrolysis (Renewable Energy)

Biomass Gasification & Reformation

Steam Reformation of Fossil Fuel

Photoelectrolysis

‘ Clean’ Coal

Biologically Produced Hydrogen

Fuel Cell Applications Portable Electronic Devices ‘Private’ Transport ‘Public’ Transport Marine Transport Power Distribution

Portable Electronic Devices

‘Private’ Transport

‘Public’ Transport

Marine Transport

Power Distribution

Technology Status Major Vehicle Manufactures Say ‘2010’ For ‘General Sale’ Infrastructure Barrier ‘Platinum’ Provides Cost Barrier 2002 £600 For Every kW Output 2007 £20 For Every kW Output

Major Vehicle Manufactures Say ‘2010’ For ‘General Sale’

Infrastructure Barrier

‘Platinum’ Provides Cost Barrier

2002 £600 For Every kW Output

2007 £20 For Every kW Output

Further Reading www.makezine.com Search for: “Build Your Own Band Aid Fuel Cell”

www.makezine.com

Search for: “Build Your Own Band Aid Fuel Cell”

The Obligatory Book Plug Solar Energy Projects for the Evil Genius Mc Graw Hill Professional ISBN-10: 0071477721 ISBN-13: 978-0071477727 Gavin D. J. Harper TREMENDOUS VALUE At the meagre sum of… £12.47 (www.amazon.co.uk) $16.47 (www.amazon.com)

 

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