Complex System Engineering

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Information about Complex System Engineering

Published on February 26, 2009

Author: elfuchs


Introduction to Complex System Engineering : Introduction to Complex System Engineering Emmanuel FUCHS Slides available soon at ComplexSystem Examples : ComplexSystem Examples Slide 4: System ProblemsExamples System Problems Examples : System Problems Examples System definition (Eberhardt Rechtin 1926-2006) : System definition (Eberhardt Rechtin 1926-2006) A system is a construct or collection of different elements that together produce results not obtainable by the elements alone.  The elements, or parts, can include people, hardware, software, facilities, policies, and documents; that is, all things required to produce systems-level results.  The results include system level qualities, properties, characteristics, functions, behavior and performance.   The value added by the system as a whole, beyond that contributed independently by the parts, is primarily created by the relationship among the parts; that is, how they are interconnected. Systemic : Systemic The whole is greater than the sum of the parts; The part is greater than a fraction of the whole. Aristotle System: another definition : System: another definition A system is any set (group) of interdependent or temporally interacting parts. Parts are generally systems themselves and are composed of other parts, just as systems are generally parts of other systems. System Definition : System Definition Sub System Sub System Sub System System Users Mission Environment Stakeholders Border System Meta Model : System Meta Model From INCOSE SE Bodies : SE Bodies Association Française d'Ingénierie Système International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE) System Engineering Definition : System Engineering Definition “an interdisciplinary approach encompassing the entire technical effort to evolve and verify an integrated and balanced set of system, people, product, and process solutions that satisfy customer needs…..” System Engineering (SE) : System Engineering (SE) SE focuses on defining customer needs and required functionality early in the development cycle, documenting requirements, then proceeding with design synthesis and system validation while considering the complete problem Systems engineers deal with abstract systems, and rely on other engineering disciplines to design and deliver the tangible products that are the realization of those systems. Systems engineering effort spans the whole system lifecycle. Systemic Approach : Systemic Approach One + One > two Aristotle : The whole is more than the sum of its parts. Parts (Components) Connections System Engineering Meta Model : System Engineering Meta Model From INCOSE System engineer/architect : System engineer/architect Works with system abstraction. It is impossible to master everything Requirements Management System Model Design the right system : Design the right system Process Definition : Process Definition Set of interrelated of interacting activities which transforms inputs to outputs P Inputs Outputs A Process : A Process Process: V cycle : Process: V cycle Sequential V cycle drawbacks : Sequential V cycle drawbacks Documentation And mock-up Phase Sequential V cycle drawbacks : Sequential V cycle drawbacks Documentation And mock-up Phase Iterative and Incremental : Iterative and Incremental Incremental Iterative Barry W. Boehm : Barry W. Boehm Iterative and Incremental : Iterative and Incremental The Systems Engineering Process is not sequential. It is parallel and iterative. The complex interrelationship between creating and improving models throughout the process of developing and selecting alternatives is a good example of the dynamic nature of the systems engineering process. Process Standardization : Process Standardization NASA DOD (US Departement Of Defense): Documentation Model IEEE ISO (International Organization for Standardization) IEC (International Electrotechnical Committee). ISO/IEC 15504 / SPICE (Software Process Improvement and Capability dEtermination) SEI (Software Engineering Institute) Capability Maturity Model - Integration : Capability Maturity Model - Integration CMMI defines the essential elements of effective processes for engineering disciplines based on best industry experiences. CMMI models provide guidance when developing and evaluating processes. CMMI models are not actually processes or process descriptions. CMMI Maturity Levels : CMMI Maturity Levels Process Documentation and Review : Process Documentation and Review SSS: System/Segment Specification SSDD : System/Segment Design Document IRS : Interface Requirement Specification ICD : Interface Control Definition SRR : System Requirement Review SDR : System Design Review TRR : Test Readiness Review Process Activities : Process Activities What is a requirement ? : What is a requirement ? A requirement is a condition to be satisfied in order to respond to: A contract A standard A specification Any other document and / or model imposed. Requirements : Requirements User’s Requirements Statements in natural language of the system services. Described by the user System Requirements Structured document setting out detailed description of system services. Part of the contract User’s Requirements example : User’s Requirements example A customer must be able to abort a transaction in progress by pressing the Cancel key instead of responding to a request from the machine. The washing machine will be used in the following countries: UK, USA, Europe, Eastern Europe Process : Process System Requirements : System Requirements The System shall provide ........ The System shall be capable of ........ The System shall weigh ........ The Subsystem #1 shall provide ........ The Subsystem #2 shall interface with ..... Requirement Quality : Requirement Quality A good requirement states something that is necessary, verifiable, and attainable To be verifiable, the requirement must state something that can be verified by: analysis, inspection, test, or demonstration (AIDT) Requirement analysis : Requirement analysis User Requirement Minimum levels of noise and vibration are desirable. System Requirement Requirement 03320: The noise generated shall not exceed 60 db Requirement Types : Requirement Types Functional requirements Functional requirements capture the intended behavior of the system. This behavior may be expressed as services, tasks or functions the system is required to perform Non-Functional requirements All others Constraints Process : Process System Architecture : System Architecture The System Architecture identifies all the products (including enabling products) that are necessary to support the system and, by implication, the processes necessary for development, production/construction, deployment, operations, support, disposal, training, and verification Architecture Modeling : Architecture Modeling System : Abstraction Functional model Dynamic model Semantic Model Object model Physical Model Interfaces Model Model Views UML : UML SysML : SysML Architecture Meta Model : Architecture Meta Model From IEEE Architecture and Components Assembly : Architecture and Components Assembly Example of Architecture Views : Example of Architecture Views The Functional Architecture identifies and structures the allocated functional and performance requirements. The Physical Architecture depicts the system product by showing how it is broken down into subsystems and components Functional To Physical Model : Functional To Physical Model Functional : Discover the system functions Washing Machine What it does ? Washes How it does ? Agitates Physical Component : Agitator Stove Pipe architecture : Stove Pipe architecture User Functional Organization Physical Functional VS physical Model : Functional VS physical Model How to fly ? Look at birds: Physical Model So I need: Legs, Eyes, Brain, and Wings. But I can not fly !!! Why ? I have to find the flight functional model ! Flying functional model : Flying functional model Functional decomposition of flying function: Produce horizontal thrust, Produce vertical lift. Takeoff and land, Sense position and velocity, Navigate, Example Birds physical for flying : Example Birds physical for flying Physical decomposition: physical components that birds used to fly: Legs, Eyes, Brain, and Wings. But can not be applied to system directly Allocations : Allocations Represent general relationships that map one model element to another Different types of allocation are: Behavioral (i.e., function to component) Structural (i.e., logical to physical) Software to Hardware …. Bird and Airplane Functional to Physical architecture mapping : Bird and Airplane Functional to Physical architecture mapping Multi-criteria decision : Multi-criteria decision Trade Off : Trade Off Multi-criteria decision-aiding techniques are available to help discover the preferred alternatives. This analysis should be repeated, as better data becomes available. Crane exemple : Crane exemple Crane exemple : Crane exemple x French Cranes : French Cranes British Cranes : British Cranes British Cranes : British Cranes British Cranes : British Cranes British Cranes : British Cranes Washing Machine example : Washing Machine example Context Diagram : Context Diagram Block definition diagram of the Clothe Washing Domain : Block definition diagram of the Clothe Washing Domain Washing Machine Functional Breakdown : Washing Machine Functional Breakdown Activity hierarchy in block diagram definition (Hierarchical Functional Model) : Activity hierarchy in block diagram definition (Hierarchical Functional Model) Washing Machine Data Flows : Washing Machine Data Flows Washing Machine Data Flows : Washing Machine Data Flows Washing Machine Physical Model : Washing Machine Physical Model agitator tube draining hand-operated washer plungers Washing Machine Physical Model : Washing Machine Physical Model agitator Outer tube draining top loading US Washing Machine Physical Model : Washing Machine Physical Model top loading Washing Machine Physical Model : Washing Machine Physical Model agitator Outer tube draining Inner tube = drum front loading Europe Washing Machine Physical Model : Washing Machine Physical Model front loading Washing Machine Physical Model : Washing Machine Physical Model front loading Process : Process Integration : Integration Integration means bringing things together so they work as a whole. Spaghetti Plate Syndrome : Spaghetti Plate Syndrome Encapsulation Analogy : Encapsulation Analogy Implementation Interface A driver doesn't care of engine's internal working. He only knows the interface Process : Process IVVQCA : IVVQCA Integrate : Build the system Verification : Ensures that you built it right Validation : Ensures that you built the right thing Certification : Ensure that the system is safe Acceptance : Ensures that the customer gets what he wants and the company get paid. Ensure that the system is safe : Ensure that the system is safe Conclusion : Conclusion Thank You For Your Attention Questions are welcome Contacts : Slides Available soon at

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