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Published on February 3, 2009

Author: youmarks

Source: slideshare.net

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basics of complex numbers
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Complex Numbers – Basic presentation The purpose of this slide is to make you understand the basics of complex numbers. It you have already read complex numbers somewhere, this slide would act as recap material for complex numbers basics. Prepared By Parag Arora copyrights © youmarks.com

Imaginary Number Can we always find roots for a polynomial? The equation x 2 + 1 = 0 has no solution for x in the set of real numbers. If we define a number that satisfies the equation x 2 = -1 that is, x =  -1 then we can always find the n roots of a polynomial of degree n. We call the solution to the above equation the imaginary number , also known as i. The imaginary number is often called j in electrical engineering. Imaginary numbers ensure that all polynomials have roots.

Can we always find roots for a polynomial? The equation

x 2 + 1 = 0

has no solution for x in the set of real numbers.

If we define a number that satisfies the equation

x 2 = -1

that is,

x =  -1

then we can always find the n roots of a polynomial of degree n.

We call the solution to the above equation the imaginary number , also known as i.

The imaginary number is often called j in electrical engineering.

Imaginary numbers ensure that all polynomials have roots.

Imaginary Arithmetic Arithmetic with imaginary works as expected: i + i = 2i 3i – 4i = -i 5 (3i) = 15 i To take the product of two imaginary numbers, remember that i 2 = -1: i • i = -1 i 3 = i • i 2 = -i i 4 = 1 2i • 7i = -14 Dividing two imaginary numbers produces a real number: 6i / 2i = 3

Arithmetic with imaginary works as expected:

i + i = 2i

3i – 4i = -i

5 (3i) = 15 i

To take the product of two imaginary numbers, remember

that i 2 = -1:

i • i = -1

i 3 = i • i 2 = -i

i 4 = 1

2i • 7i = -14

Dividing two imaginary numbers produces a real number:

6i / 2i = 3

Complex Numbers We define a complex number with the form z = x + iy where x, y are real numbers. The complex number z has a real part , x, written Re{z}. The imaginary part of z, written Im{z}, is y. Notice that, confusingly, the imaginary part is a real number. So we may write z as z = Re{z} + iIm{z}

We define a complex number with the form

z = x + iy

where x, y are real numbers.

The complex number z has a real part , x, written Re{z}.

The imaginary part of z, written Im{z}, is y.

Notice that, confusingly, the imaginary part is a real number.

So we may write z as

z = Re{z} + iIm{z}

Set of Complex Numbers The set of complex numbers, therefore, is defined by Complex = {x + iy | x  Reals, y  Reals, and i =  -1} Every real number is in Complex, because x = x + i0; and every imaginary number iy is in Complex, because iy = 0 + iy.

The set of complex numbers, therefore, is defined by

Complex = {x + iy | x  Reals, y  Reals, and i =  -1}

Every real number is in Complex, because

x = x + i0;

and every imaginary number iy is in Complex, because

iy = 0 + iy.

Equating Complex Numbers Two complex numbers z 1 = x 1 + i y 1 z 2 = x 2 + i y 2 are equal if and only if their real parts are equal and their imaginary parts are equal. That is, z 1 = z 2 if and only if Re{z 1 } = Re{z 2 } and Im{z 1 } = Im{z 2 } So, we really need two equations to equate two complex numbers.

Two complex numbers

z 1 = x 1 + i y 1

z 2 = x 2 + i y 2

are equal if and only if their real parts are equal and their imaginary parts are equal.

That is, z 1 = z 2 if and only if

Re{z 1 } = Re{z 2 }

and

Im{z 1 } = Im{z 2 }

So, we really need two equations to equate two complex numbers.

Complex Arithmetic In order to add two complex numbers, separately add the real parts and imaginary parts. ( x 1 + i y 1 ) + ( x 2 + i y 2 ) = ( x 1 + x 2 ) + i ( y 1 + y 2 ) The product of two complex numbers works as expected if you remember that i 2 = -1. (1 + 2i)(2 + 3i) = 2 + 3i + 4i + 6i 2 = 2 + 7i – 6 = -4 + 7i In general, (x 1 + iy 1 )(x 2 + iy 2 ) = (x 1 x 2 - y 1 y 2 ) + i(x 1 y 2 + x 2 y 1 )

In order to add two complex numbers, separately add the real parts and imaginary parts.

( x 1 + i y 1 ) + ( x 2 + i y 2 ) = ( x 1 + x 2 ) + i ( y 1 + y 2 )

The product of two complex numbers works as expected if you remember that i 2 = -1.

(1 + 2i)(2 + 3i) = 2 + 3i + 4i + 6i 2

= 2 + 7i – 6

= -4 + 7i

In general,

(x 1 + iy 1 )(x 2 + iy 2 ) = (x 1 x 2 - y 1 y 2 ) + i(x 1 y 2 + x 2 y 1 )

Complex Conjugate The complex conjugate of x + iy is defined to be x – iy. To take the conjugate, replace each i with –i. The complex conjugate of a complex number z is written z * . Some useful properties of the conjugate are: z + z * = 2 Re{z} z - z * = 2i Im{z} zz * = Re{z} 2 + Im{z} 2 Notice that zz* is a positive real number. Its positive square root is called the modulus or magnitude of z, and is written |z|.

The complex conjugate of x + iy is defined to be x – iy.

To take the conjugate, replace each i with –i.

The complex conjugate of a complex number z is written z * .

Some useful properties of the conjugate are:

z + z * = 2 Re{z}

z - z * = 2i Im{z}

zz * = Re{z} 2 + Im{z} 2

Notice that zz* is a positive real number.

Its positive square root is called the modulus or magnitude of z, and is written |z|.

Dividing Complex Numbers The way to divide two complex numbers is not as obvious. But, there is a procedure to follow: 1. Multiply both numerator and denominator by the complex conjugate of the denominator. The denominator is now real; divide the real part and imaginary part of the numerator by the denominator.

The way to divide two complex numbers is not as obvious.

But, there is a procedure to follow:

1. Multiply both numerator and denominator by the complex conjugate of the denominator.

The denominator is now real; divide the real part and imaginary part of the numerator by the denominator.

Complex Exponentials The exponential of a real number x is defined by a series: Recall that sine and cosine have similar expansions: We can use these expansions to define these functions for complex numbers.

The exponential of a real number x is defined by a series:

Recall that sine and cosine have similar expansions:

We can use these expansions to define these functions for complex numbers.

Complex Exponentials Put an imaginary number iy into the exponential series formula: Look at the real and imaginary parts of e iy : This is cos(y)… This is sin(y)…

Put an imaginary number iy into the exponential series formula:

Look at the real and imaginary parts of e iy :

Euler’s Formula This gives us the famous identity known as Euler’s formula: From this, we get two more formulas: Exponential functions are often easier to work with than sinusoids, so these formulas can be useful. The following property of exponentials is still valid for complex z: Using the formulas on this page, we can prove many common trigonometric identities. Proofs are presented in the text.

This gives us the famous identity known as Euler’s formula:

From this, we get two more formulas:

Exponential functions are often easier to work with than sinusoids, so these formulas can be useful.

The following property of exponentials is still valid for complex z:

Using the formulas on this page, we can prove many common trigonometric identities. Proofs are presented in the text.

Cartestian Coordinates The representation of a complex number as a sum of a real and imaginary number z = x + iy is called its Cartesian form . The Cartesian form is also referred to as rectangular form . The name “Cartesian” suggests that we can represent a complex number by a point in the real plane, Reals 2 . We often do this, with the real part x representing the horizontal position, and the imaginary part y representing the vertical position. The set Complex is even referred to as the “complex plane”.

The representation of a complex number as a sum of a real and imaginary number

z = x + iy

is called its Cartesian form .

The Cartesian form is also referred to as rectangular form .

The name “Cartesian” suggests that we can represent a complex number by a point in the real plane, Reals 2 .

We often do this, with the real part x representing the horizontal position, and the imaginary part y representing the vertical position.

The set Complex is even referred to as the “complex plane”.

Complex Plane

Polar Coordinates In addition to the Cartesian form, a complex number z may also be represented in polar form : z = r e i θ Here, r is a real number representing the magnitude of z, and θ represents the angle of z in the complex plane. Multiplication and division of complex numbers is easier in polar form: Addition and subtraction of complex numbers is easier in Cartesian form.

In addition to the Cartesian form, a complex number z may also be represented in polar form :

z = r e i θ

Here, r is a real number representing the magnitude of z, and θ represents the angle of z in the complex plane.

Multiplication and division of complex numbers is easier in polar form:

Addition and subtraction of complex numbers is easier in Cartesian form.

Converting Between Forms To convert from the Cartesian form z = x + iy to polar form, note: Note that this is not true that

To convert from the Cartesian form z = x + iy to polar form, note:

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