competence curriculum

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Published on March 11, 2014

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Curriculum competence

CommunicativeCommunicative CompetenceCompetence Helena I. R. AgustienHelena I. R. Agustien hagustien@yahoo.comhagustien@yahoo.com

Competence Discourse Competence Linguistic Comp.. Actional Comp. Socio – Cultural Comp. Strategic Competence

Linguistic CompetenceLinguistic Competence SYNTAXSYNTAX Constituent/phrase structureConstituent/phrase structure Word order (canonical and marked)Word order (canonical and marked) Sentence typesSentence types Sentence typesSentence types statements, questions, imperatives, exclamationsstatements, questions, imperatives, exclamations Special constructionsSpecial constructions existentials (existentials (there + BEthere + BE...)...) clefts (clefts (It's X that/who...; WhatIt's X that/who...; What + sub.+ verb + BE)+ sub.+ verb + BE) question tags, etc.question tags, etc. Modifiers/intensifiersModifiers/intensifiers quantifiers, comparing and equatingquantifiers, comparing and equating Coordination (and, or, etc) and correlation (Coordination (and, or, etc) and correlation (both X and Y; either Xboth X and Y; either X or Yor Y)) Subordination (e.g., adverbial clauses, conditionals)Subordination (e.g., adverbial clauses, conditionals) EmbeddingEmbedding noun clauses, relative clauses (e.g., restrictive and non-noun clauses, relative clauses (e.g., restrictive and non- restrictive),reported speechrestrictive),reported speech I got A!!!

Linguistic CompetenceLinguistic Competence MORPHOLOGYMORPHOLOGY Parts of speechParts of speech Inflections (e.g., agreement and concord)Inflections (e.g., agreement and concord) Derivational processes (productive ones)Derivational processes (productive ones) compounding, affixation, conversion/incorporationcompounding, affixation, conversion/incorporation LEXICON (receptive and productive)LEXICON (receptive and productive) WordsWords content words (Ns, Vs, ADJs)content words (Ns, Vs, ADJs) function words, (pronouns, prepositions, verbal auxiliaries, etc.)function words, (pronouns, prepositions, verbal auxiliaries, etc.) RoutinesRoutines word-like fixed phrases (e.g.,word-like fixed phrases (e.g., of course, all of a suddenof course, all of a sudden)) formulaic and semi-formulaic chunks (e.g.,formulaic and semi-formulaic chunks (e.g., how do you dohow do you do)) Collocations O-Obj (e.g.,Collocations O-Obj (e.g., spend moneyspend money), Adv-Adj (e.g.,), Adv-Adj (e.g., mutuallymutually intelligibleintelligible), Adj-N (e.g.,), Adj-N (e.g., tall buildingtall building)) Idioms (e.g.,Idioms (e.g., kick the bucketkick the bucket)) Chunks … Formulai c express- ions…

Linguistic CompetenceLinguistic Competence PHONOLOGY (for pronunciation)PHONOLOGY (for pronunciation) SegmentalsSegmentals vowels, consonants, syllable types,vowels, consonants, syllable types, variation (changes and reductions betweenvariation (changes and reductions between adjacent sounds in the stream of speech)adjacent sounds in the stream of speech) SuprasegmentalsSuprasegmentals prominence, stress, intonation, rhythmprominence, stress, intonation, rhythm ORTHOGRAPHY (for spelling)ORTHOGRAPHY (for spelling) Letters (if writing system is alphabetic)Letters (if writing system is alphabetic) Phoneme-grapheme correspondencesPhoneme-grapheme correspondences Rules of spellingRules of spelling Conventions for mechanics and punctuationConventions for mechanics and punctuation It’s very imPORtant!

Actional CompetenceActional Competence KNOWLEDGE OF LANGUAGE FUNCTIONSKNOWLEDGE OF LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS INTERPERSONAL EXCHANGEINTERPERSONAL EXCHANGE Greeting and leave-takingGreeting and leave-taking Making introductions, identifying oneselfMaking introductions, identifying oneself Extending, accepting and declining invitations and offersExtending, accepting and declining invitations and offers Making and breaking engagementsMaking and breaking engagements Expressing and acknowledging gratitudeExpressing and acknowledging gratitude Complementing and congratulatingComplementing and congratulating Reacting to the interlocutor's speechReacting to the interlocutor's speech showing attention, interest, surprise, sympathy,showing attention, interest, surprise, sympathy, happiness, disbelief, disappointmenthappiness, disbelief, disappointment INFORMATIONINFORMATION Asking for and giving informationAsking for and giving information Reporting (describing and narrating)Reporting (describing and narrating) RememberingRemembering Explaining and discussingExplaining and discussing Thank you! It’s very kind of you…

Actional CompetenceActional Competence OPINIONSOPINIONS Expressing and finding out about opinions and attitudesExpressing and finding out about opinions and attitudes Agreeing and disagreeingAgreeing and disagreeing Approving and disapprovingApproving and disapproving Showing satisfaction and dissatisfactionShowing satisfaction and dissatisfaction FEELINGSFEELINGS Expressing and finding out about feelingsExpressing and finding out about feelings love, happiness, sadness, pleasure, anxiety, anger,love, happiness, sadness, pleasure, anxiety, anger, embarrassment, pain, relief, fear, annoyance, surprise, etc.embarrassment, pain, relief, fear, annoyance, surprise, etc. SUASIONSUASION Suggesting, requesting and instructingSuggesting, requesting and instructing Giving orders, advising and warningGiving orders, advising and warning Persuading, encouraging and discouragingPersuading, encouraging and discouraging Asking for, granting and witholding permissionAsking for, granting and witholding permission I was so embarrassed!

Actional CompetenceActional Competence PROBLEMSPROBLEMS Complaining and criticizingComplaining and criticizing Blaming and accusingBlaming and accusing Admitting and denyingAdmitting and denying RegrettingRegretting Apologising and forgivingApologising and forgiving FUTURE SCENARIOSFUTURE SCENARIOS Expressing and finding out about wishes, hopes, andExpressing and finding out about wishes, hopes, and desiresdesires Expressing and eliciting plans, goals and intentionsExpressing and eliciting plans, goals and intentions PromisingPromising Predicting and speculatingPredicting and speculating Discussing possibilities and capabilities of doing somethingDiscussing possibilities and capabilities of doing something KNOWLEDGE OF SPEECH ACT SETSKNOWLEDGE OF SPEECH ACT SETS You! Stupid idiot!!!

Socio-cultural CompetenceSocio-cultural Competence SOCIAL CONTEXTUAL FACTORSSOCIAL CONTEXTUAL FACTORS Participant variablesParticipant variables age, gender, office and status, social distance, relations (power andage, gender, office and status, social distance, relations (power and affective)affective) Situational variablesSituational variables time, place, social situationtime, place, social situation STYLISTIC APPROPRIATENESS FACTORSSTYLISTIC APPROPRIATENESS FACTORS Sociocultural background knowledge of the target language communitySociocultural background knowledge of the target language community living conditions (way of living standards); social and institutionalliving conditions (way of living standards); social and institutional structure; social conventions and rituals; major values, beliefs, andstructure; social conventions and rituals; major values, beliefs, and norms; taboo topics; historical background; cultural aspectsnorms; taboo topics; historical background; cultural aspects including literature and artsincluding literature and arts Awareness of major dialect or regional differencesAwareness of major dialect or regional differences Cross-cultural awarenessCross-cultural awareness differences; similarities; strategies for cross-cultural communicationdifferences; similarities; strategies for cross-cultural communication

Socio-cultural CompetenceSocio-cultural Competence NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATIVE FACTORSNON-VERBAL COMMUNICATIVE FACTORS Kinesic factors (body language)Kinesic factors (body language) discourse controlling behaviours (non-verbal turn-discourse controlling behaviours (non-verbal turn- taking signals)taking signals) backchannel behavioursbackchannel behaviours affective markers (facial expressions), gestures, eyeaffective markers (facial expressions), gestures, eye contactcontact Proxemic factors (use of space)Proxemic factors (use of space) Haptic factors (touching)Haptic factors (touching) Paralinguistic factorsParalinguistic factors acoustical sounds, non-vocal noisesacoustical sounds, non-vocal noises SilenceSilence When should I speak? Should I move my hands?

Strategic CompetenceStrategic Competence AVOIDANCE or REDUCTIONAVOIDANCE or REDUCTION Message replacementMessage replacement Topic avoidanceTopic avoidance Message abandonmentMessage abandonment ACHIEVEMENT AND COMPENSATORY STRATEGIESACHIEVEMENT AND COMPENSATORY STRATEGIES Circumlocution (e.g.,Circumlocution (e.g., the thing you open the bottle withthe thing you open the bottle with forfor corkskrewcorkskrew)) Approximation (e.g.,Approximation (e.g., fishfish forfor carpcarp)) All purpose words (e.g.,All purpose words (e.g., thingy, thingamajigthingy, thingamajig)) Non-linguistic means (mime, pointing, gestures, drawingNon-linguistic means (mime, pointing, gestures, drawing pictures)pictures) Restructuring (e.g.,Restructuring (e.g., The bus was very... there were a lot ofThe bus was very... there were a lot of people on itpeople on it)) Word-coinage (e.g.,Word-coinage (e.g., vegetarianistvegetarianist)) Literal translation from L1Literal translation from L1 Foreignizing (e.g., L1 with L2 pronunciation)Foreignizing (e.g., L1 with L2 pronunciation) Code switching to L1 or L3Code switching to L1 or L3 Retrieval (e.g.,Retrieval (e.g., bro... bro... bronzebro... bro... bronze)) You know… thingimejig Like the thing…

Strategic CompetenceStrategic Competence STALLING or TIME-GAINING STRATEGIESSTALLING or TIME-GAINING STRATEGIES Fillers, hesitation devices and gambits (e.g.,Fillers, hesitation devices and gambits (e.g., well, actually..., wherewell, actually..., where was I...?was I...?)) Self and other-repetitionSelf and other-repetition SELF-MONITORING STRATEGIESSELF-MONITORING STRATEGIES Self-initiated repair (e.g.,Self-initiated repair (e.g., I meanI mean)) Self-rephrasing (over-elaboration) (e.g.,Self-rephrasing (over-elaboration) (e.g., This is for students...This is for students... pupils... when you're at school...pupils... when you're at school...)) INTERACTIONAL STRATEGIESINTERACTIONAL STRATEGIES Appeals for helpAppeals for help - direct (e.g.,- direct (e.g., what do you call?what do you call?)) - indirect (e.g.,- indirect (e.g., I don't know the word in EnglishI don't know the word in English...... or puzzled expression)or puzzled expression) Meaning negotiation strategiesMeaning negotiation strategies Indicators of non/mis-understandingIndicators of non/mis-understanding RequestsRequests - repetition requests (e.g.,- repetition requests (e.g., Pardon?Pardon? oror Could you say thatCould you say that again please?again please?)) - clarification requests (e.g.,- clarification requests (e.g., What do you mean by...?What do you mean by...?)) - confirmation requests (e.g.,- confirmation requests (e.g., Did you say...?Did you say...?)) What did you say?

Strategic CompetenceStrategic Competence Expressions of non-understandingExpressions of non-understanding - verbal (e.g.,- verbal (e.g., Sorry, I am not sure I understandSorry, I am not sure I understand...)...) - non-verbal (raised eyebrows, blank look)- non-verbal (raised eyebrows, blank look) Interpretive summary (e.g.,Interpretive summary (e.g., You mean...?/So what you'reYou mean...?/So what you're saying is...?saying is...?)) ResponsesResponses repetition, rephrasing, expansion, reduction, confirmation,repetition, rephrasing, expansion, reduction, confirmation, rejection, repairrejection, repair Comprehension checksComprehension checks - whether the interlocutor can follow you (e.g.,- whether the interlocutor can follow you (e.g., Am IAm I making sense?making sense?)) - Whether what you said was correct or grammatical (e.g.,- Whether what you said was correct or grammatical (e.g., Can I/Can you say that?Can I/Can you say that?)) - whether the interlocutor is listening (e.g., on the phone:- whether the interlocutor is listening (e.g., on the phone: are you still there?are you still there?)) - whether the interlocutor can hear you- whether the interlocutor can hear you I beg your pardon? Sorry…?

Discourse CompetenceDiscourse Competence COHESIONCOHESION Reference (anaphora, cataphora)Reference (anaphora, cataphora) Substitution/ellipsesSubstitution/ellipses ConjunctionConjunction Lexical chains (related to content schemata),Lexical chains (related to content schemata), parallel structureparallel structure DEIXISDEIXIS Personal (pronouns)Personal (pronouns) Spatial (Spatial (here, there; this, thathere, there; this, that)) Temporal (Temporal (now, thennow, then,, before, afterbefore, after)) Textual (Textual (the following chart; the examplethe following chart; the example aboveabove)) And then… they did it again after…

Discourse CompetenceDiscourse Competence COHERENCECOHERENCE Organized expression and interpretation of contentOrganized expression and interpretation of content and purpose (content schemata)and purpose (content schemata) Thematization and staging (theme-rhemeThematization and staging (theme-rheme development)development) Management of old and new informationManagement of old and new information Propositional structures and their organizationalPropositional structures and their organizational sequences, temporal, spatial, cause-effect,sequences, temporal, spatial, cause-effect, condition-result, etc.condition-result, etc. Temporal continuity/shift (sequence of tenses)Temporal continuity/shift (sequence of tenses) GENRE/GENERIC STRUCTURE (formal schemata)GENRE/GENERIC STRUCTURE (formal schemata) narrative, interview, service encounter,narrative, interview, service encounter, research report, sermon, etc.research report, sermon, etc. First of all… Secondly… Therefore… Finally…

Discourse CompetenceDiscourse Competence CONVERSATIONAL STRUCTURE (inherent to theCONVERSATIONAL STRUCTURE (inherent to the turn-taking system in conversation but may extendturn-taking system in conversation but may extend to a variety of oral genres)to a variety of oral genres) How to perform openings and reopeningsHow to perform openings and reopenings Topic establishment & changeTopic establishment & change How to hold & relinquish the floorHow to hold & relinquish the floor How to interruptHow to interrupt How to collaborate & backchannelHow to collaborate & backchannel How to do preclosings and closingsHow to do preclosings and closings Adjacency pairs (related to actional competence)Adjacency pairs (related to actional competence) first and second pair parts (knowingfirst and second pair parts (knowing preferred and dispreferred responses)preferred and dispreferred responses) Right… huh uh… I see…

Discourse CompetenceDiscourse Competence Discourse competence concerns the selection,Discourse competence concerns the selection, sequencing, and arrangement of words,sequencing, and arrangement of words, structures and utterances to achieve a unifiedstructures and utterances to achieve a unified spoken or writtenspoken or written texttext. (Celce-Murcia et al.. (Celce-Murcia et al. 1995:13)1995:13) Utterances should ‘hang together’.

Why Celce-Murcia et al.’s model?Why Celce-Murcia et al.’s model? The proposed model has been motivated by theirThe proposed model has been motivated by their “belief in the potential of a direct, explicit approach“belief in the potential of a direct, explicit approach to the teaching of communicative skills, whichto the teaching of communicative skills, which would require detailed description ofwould require detailed description of whatwhat communicative competence entailscommunicative competence entails in order to usein order to use the sub-components as a content base in syllabusthe sub-components as a content base in syllabus design” (1995:6design” (1995:6))

Explicit in the statement is that communicationExplicit in the statement is that communication happens in text, spoken or written.happens in text, spoken or written. Thus communicating is creating text,Thus communicating is creating text, and this involves more than simplyand this involves more than simply creating grammatical sentencescreating grammatical sentences.. TextText We PUSH students from sentence to TEXT.

TEXT CULTURE Genre (Purpose) Situation Who is involved? (Tenor) Subject matter Channel (Field) (Mode) Register

TextText A semantic unitA semantic unit Created in contextCreated in context Context determines language choiceContext determines language choice So… a text must be meaningful. Right… when it is not meaningful, there is no communication.

CCommunicationommunication The creation of textThe creation of text The text produced is usually larger than aThe text produced is usually larger than a clauseclause Major issue: how can learners put clausesMajor issue: how can learners put clauses together to create text?together to create text? We create text by negotiating…

Elements of Context /Elements of Context / Register VariablesRegister Variables FieldField: the subject matter; topic – vocabulary: the subject matter; topic – vocabulary TenorTenor: interpersonal relationships established by: interpersonal relationships established by participants; power relation – Mood, Modality ,participants; power relation – Mood, Modality , intonation, appraisal etc.intonation, appraisal etc. ModeMode:: spoken or written – different features (lexicalspoken or written – different features (lexical density, clause / sentence etc.)density, clause / sentence etc.) Field, tenor and mode determine our language choice.

GenreGenre Communicative purposeCommunicative purpose Text structureText structure Linguistic featuresLinguistic features Every culture produces genres or text types. True. There are unique communicative events in every culture.

Spoken GenresSpoken Genres Transactional ConversationTransactional Conversation Interactional / interpersonal conversationInteractional / interpersonal conversation Monologues (in various genres)Monologues (in various genres) Short functional texts (announcements etc.)Short functional texts (announcements etc.) We speak with different purposes

Written genresWritten genres Essays (in various genres: procedure, recount,Essays (in various genres: procedure, recount, descriptive, narrative etc.)descriptive, narrative etc.) Short functional texts (road signs, notices etc.)Short functional texts (road signs, notices etc.) We write with sense of purpose And with sense of audience too.

SPOKEN AND WRITTEN LANGUAGESPOKEN AND WRITTEN LANGUAGE CONTINUUMCONTINUUM Most Spoken Most Written Spoken Language Written Language Language accompanying action Language as reflection Where is the boundary?

Spoken and Written LanguageSpoken and Written Language Turn taking organisationTurn taking organisation Context dependentContext dependent Dynamic structureDynamic structure  Interactive stagingInteractive staging  Open endedOpen ended Spontaneity phenomenaSpontaneity phenomena (false start, hesitation(false start, hesitation etc.)etc.) Monologic organisationMonologic organisation Context independentContext independent Synoptic structureSynoptic structure  Rhetorical stagingRhetorical staging  Closed / FiniteClosed / Finite Final draft/polishedFinal draft/polished (indication of earlier draft(indication of earlier draft removed)removed)

Spoken and Written LanguageSpoken and Written Language Everyday lexisEveryday lexis Non-standard grammarNon-standard grammar Grammatical complexityGrammatical complexity Lexically sparseLexically sparse Prestige lexisPrestige lexis Standard grammarStandard grammar Grammatical simplicityGrammatical simplicity Lexically denseLexically dense But in this context… I have to use standard grammar.

Hey, I tell you what! Yesterday I went to… youHey, I tell you what! Yesterday I went to… you know this place? They call it Guci. It’sknow this place? They call it Guci. It’s somewhere around this city… what do yousomewhere around this city… what do you call it? The city that people plant thosecall it? The city that people plant those shallots and also lots of salted duck eggs? Ishallots and also lots of salted duck eggs? I think it starts with B or something. From herethink it starts with B or something. From here it’s rather far… I think it’s after Tegal or…it’s rather far… I think it’s after Tegal or… Spoken LanguageSpoken Language

Written LanguageWritten Language Yesterday I went to aYesterday I went to a little townlittle town calledcalled Guci. It is aGuci. It is a small cool citysmall cool city located at alocated at a cool mountain slopecool mountain slope not far fromnot far from Brebes. Usually people come to Guci toBrebes. Usually people come to Guci to enjoyenjoy some hot-water springssome hot-water springs that arethat are believed to havebelieved to have strong soothingstrong soothing effectseffects to those who suffer fromto those who suffer from water-water- born skin diseasesborn skin diseases caused bycaused by badlybadly managed sewage sanitationmanaged sewage sanitation.. My written assignment. Lots of noun phrases…

Performative Level (Primary)Performative Level (Primary) Functional Level (Junior High)Functional Level (Junior High) Informational Level (Senior High)Informational Level (Senior High) Epistemic Level (University)Epistemic Level (University) LiteracyLiteracy LevelsLevels Literate… Just like me

Learners canLearners can Use English to accompany actionsUse English to accompany actions participate in classroom andparticipate in classroom and school interactions,school interactions, Recognise simple written EnglishRecognise simple written English Performative LevelPerformative Level (Language accompanying action)(Language accompanying action) Hey… Wait for me, please…

Learners canLearners can * use English to get things done* use English to get things done * use English for survival purposes* use English for survival purposes (buying and selling, asking and giving permission,(buying and selling, asking and giving permission, making and canceling appointments,making and canceling appointments, read and write simple texts, read popular science, etc.)read and write simple texts, read popular science, etc.) Functional LevelFunctional Level Look, I can read the instructions here …

Learners canLearners can * use English to access* use English to access accumulated knowledgeaccumulated knowledge ((Science etc.Science etc.)) * use English in informal* use English in informal and formal contextsand formal contexts Informational LevelInformational Level Lucky I understand English… Otherwise I cannot do this project.

Learners canLearners can * use English to transform knowledge* use English to transform knowledge (doing reasearch, writing reports,(doing reasearch, writing reports, lecturing etc.)lecturing etc.) * use English for aesthetic purposes* use English for aesthetic purposes Epistemic LevelEpistemic Level Okay everyone… Let me begin with the first issue…

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