Comparative Social Structures and Welfare Week 4 Lecture

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Information about Comparative Social Structures and Welfare Week 4 Lecture

Published on May 8, 2008

Author: johnhudson

Source: slideshare.net

Comparative Social Structures and Welfare 2: How Do Welfare States Differ?

Session Objectives To explore how welfare states differ To examine key typologies of welfare Consider key criticisms of typologies

To explore how welfare states differ

To examine key typologies of welfare

Consider key criticisms of typologies

The Welfare State... Why do welfare states differ? Many influences on growth of welfare state: Economics Politics Demography History Culture Geography Fascinating topic for social scientists

Why do welfare states differ?

Many influences on growth of welfare state:

Economics

Politics

Demography

History

Culture

Geography

Fascinating topic for social scientists

The Welfare State... Economic growth = Welfare State growth affordability increases changing demographics new risks/social problems Convergence Logic laggards eventually catch up Common Argument in 1960s & 1970s

Economic growth = Welfare State growth

affordability increases

changing demographics

new risks/social problems

Convergence Logic

laggards eventually catch up

Common Argument in 1960s & 1970s

 

The Welfare State... Wilensky (1975): ‘ economic growth makes countries with contrasting cultural and political traditions more alike in their strategy for constructing the floor below which no one sinks’ ‘ one of the major structural uniformities of modern societies’

Wilensky (1975):

‘ economic growth makes countries with contrasting cultural and political traditions more alike in their strategy for constructing the floor below which no one sinks’

‘ one of the major structural uniformities of modern societies’

...or Welfare State s ? Case for convergence weakened over time Korpi (1980): different patterns of political conflict different social and political institutions = different political parties / unions etc - different aims of social policies = different welfare state types? growth of welfare not automatic? welfare state not a case of more or less?

Case for convergence weakened over time

Korpi (1980):

different patterns of political conflict

different social and political institutions

= different political parties / unions etc

- different aims of social policies

= different welfare state types?

growth of welfare not automatic?

welfare state not a case of more or less?

Three Worlds of Welfare Esping-Andersen (1990): The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism 4,095 citations on Google Scholar!!! Examined welfare in 18 rich countries Strong philosophical underpinning: what is the purpose of social policy? what are the goals of social policy?

Esping-Andersen (1990):

The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism

4,095 citations on Google Scholar!!!

Examined welfare in 18 rich countries

Strong philosophical underpinning:

what is the purpose of social policy?

what are the goals of social policy?

Three Worlds of Welfare Social Rights: Marshall’s Social Citizenship Measure decommodification of labour Stratification Role in structuring social relations Roles of State, Market and Family

Social Rights:

Marshall’s Social Citizenship

Measure decommodification of labour

Stratification

Role in structuring social relations

Roles of State, Market and Family

Three Worlds of Welfare Large scale statistical analysis: Ranked nations by decommodification scores Pensions, Sickness & Unemployment Benefits Levels, coverage, qualification etc Examined stratification data too Nations broke into three clusters /worlds/regimes liberal, social democratic, conservative/corporatist

Large scale statistical analysis:

Ranked nations by decommodification scores

Pensions, Sickness & Unemployment Benefits

Levels, coverage, qualification etc

Examined stratification data too

Nations broke into three clusters /worlds/regimes

liberal, social democratic, conservative/corporatist

1 - Liberal Regimes means tested benefits predominate benefits aimed mainly at poor stigma often attached to state benefits work ethic underpins system private provision encouraged decommodification effects minimised two-tier society Ideal type: USA

means tested benefits predominate

benefits aimed mainly at poor

stigma often attached to state benefits

work ethic underpins system

private provision encouraged

decommodification effects minimised

two-tier society

Ideal type: USA

2 - Social Democratic Regimes universal benefits predominate benefits aimed at all classes social rights of citizenship emphasised full-employment a goal private provision crowded out decommodification effects strong egalitarian society Ideal type: Sweden

universal benefits predominate

benefits aimed at all classes

social rights of citizenship emphasised

full-employment a goal

private provision crowded out

decommodification effects strong

egalitarian society

Ideal type: Sweden

3 - Conservative/Corporatist Regimes social insurance benefits predominate benefits maintain class differentials strong social rights - but attached to status subsidiarity a key principle strong role for community organisations decommodification effects relatively strong maintains traditional social divisions Ideal type: Germany

social insurance benefits predominate

benefits maintain class differentials

strong social rights - but attached to status

subsidiarity a key principle

strong role for community organisations

decommodification effects relatively strong

maintains traditional social divisions

Ideal type: Germany

Three Worlds of Welfare No single dominant factor drives ‘choice’ working class power cross-class coalitions historical legacy of regime institutionalisation Key point is that outcomes vary ‘ the variability of welfare-state evolution reflects competing responses to pressures for decommodification’ Long run differences between nations

No single dominant factor drives ‘choice’

working class power

cross-class coalitions

historical legacy of regime institutionalisation

Key point is that outcomes vary

‘ the variability of welfare-state evolution reflects competing responses to pressures for decommodification’

Long run differences between nations

 

Three Worlds of Welfare Different Worlds of Welfare: Different Paths of Development Reflect History (and Politics) of Each Nation Hard to ‘Switch’ Between Are Welfare Regimes not Welfare States

Different Worlds of Welfare:

Different Paths of Development

Reflect History (and Politics) of Each Nation

Hard to ‘Switch’ Between

Are Welfare Regimes not Welfare States

‘ since [the worlds of welfare] are, in a sense, ideal types there are bound to be ambiguous cases…It is…possible that the criteria employed to demarcate a regime may err: if alternative attributes were considered, the classification might break down or, at least, require additional regimes’ (Esping-Andersen) Three Worlds of Welfare?

More than Three Worlds? Australasian Critique (Castles & Mitchell) low social expenditure means tested benefits low decommodification scores liberal regime

Australasian Critique (Castles & Mitchell)

low social expenditure

means tested benefits

low decommodification scores

liberal regime

More than Three Worlds? misunderstanding of (labour) politics wage & employment protections: wage arbitration import tariffs controls on migrant labour welfare through: high levels of employment social wage ‘wage earners welfare state’

misunderstanding of (labour) politics

wage & employment protections:

wage arbitration

import tariffs

controls on migrant labour

welfare through:

high levels of employment

social wage

‘wage earners welfare state’

More than Three Worlds? cultural differences important labour politics labour markets means test/wealth test home ownership ‘families of nations’ geography language culture history

cultural differences important

labour politics

labour markets

means test/wealth test

home ownership

‘families of nations’

geography

language

culture

history

More than Three Worlds? Liberal Conservative Radical Non-Right Hegemony Canada Switzerland US Germany Italy Netherlands Australia New Zealand UK Belgium Denmark Sweden

More than Three Worlds? Time Frame? 1970s held firm 1980s eroded ‘ passage of time is pushing Australia – and certainly New Zealand – towards what appears as prototypical liberalism: minimal state and maximum market allocation of risks, and the market side of the coin appears increasingly genuinely market’ (Esping-Andersen)

Time Frame?

1970s held firm

1980s eroded

‘ passage of time is pushing Australia – and certainly New Zealand – towards what appears as prototypical liberalism: minimal state and maximum market allocation of risks, and the market side of the coin appears increasingly genuinely market’

(Esping-Andersen)

More than Three Worlds? Mediterranean Critique Leibfried: ‘ rudimentary Latin model’ ‘ Latin rim regime’ Portugal, Spain, Greece Italy? Ferrara, Bonoli also

Mediterranean Critique

Leibfried:

‘ rudimentary Latin model’

‘ Latin rim regime’

Portugal, Spain, Greece

Italy?

Ferrara, Bonoli also

More than Three Worlds? Low expenditure on social protection Weak last-resort safety net Fragmented income protection Client particularism Universal health care

Low expenditure on social protection

Weak last-resort safety net

Fragmented income protection

Client particularism

Universal health care

More than Three Worlds? Liebfried: E-A: partial differences – not a regime Anglo-Saxon (Residual) Biskmark (Institutional) Scandinavian (Modern) Latin Rim (Rudimentary) UK Ireland Germany France Belgium Netherlands Sweden Denmark Norway Finland Spain Portugal Greece Italy

Liebfried:

E-A: partial differences – not a regime

More than Three Worlds? East-Asian Critique Growing interest: rapid economic growth expanding welfare policies how do they compare with west? Confucian model?

East-Asian Critique

Growing interest:

rapid economic growth

expanding welfare policies

how do they compare with west?

Confucian model?

More than Three Worlds? ‘ Conservative corporatism without (Western style) worker participation; subsidiarity without the Church; solidarity without equality; laissez-faire without libertarianism: an alternative expression for all this might be ‘household economy’ welfare states – run in the style of a would-be traditional, Confucian, extended family’ (Finer Jones)

‘ Conservative corporatism without (Western style) worker participation; subsidiarity without the Church; solidarity without equality; laissez-faire without libertarianism: an alternative expression for all this might be ‘household economy’ welfare states – run in the style of a would-be traditional, Confucian, extended family’

(Finer Jones)

More than Three Worlds? Kwon : state regulates rather than provides little significant financial transfer little redistribution of income conservative political forces dominate economic growth often key objective productivist world of welfare

Kwon :

state regulates rather than provides

little significant financial transfer

little redistribution of income

conservative political forces dominate

economic growth often key objective

productivist world of welfare

The East Asian Fourth World E-A: liberal elements conservative elements not unique – a hybrid

E-A:

liberal elements

conservative elements

not unique – a hybrid

‘ Hidden’ Worlds Within? Gender Critique state, market & family Lewis: E-A focuses on state-market nexus Stratification = class inequalities. Private provision = market provision De-commodification gender blind obscures gender variations in social rights

Gender Critique

state, market & family

Lewis: E-A focuses on state-market nexus

Stratification = class inequalities.

Private provision = market provision

De-commodification

gender blind

obscures gender variations in social rights

‘ Hidden’ Worlds Within? Strong male-breadwinner regime Ireland, Germany Modified male-breadwinner regime France Weak male-breadwinner regime Scandinavia

Strong male-breadwinner regime

Ireland, Germany

Modified male-breadwinner regime

France

Weak male-breadwinner regime

Scandinavia

‘ Hidden’ Worlds Within? EA: weakness in decommodification index Presupposes individuals are commodified Market dependency & family dependency exist (Female) independence necessitates ‘defamilializing’ welfare obligations Developed a new ‘Defamilization Index’

EA: weakness in decommodification index

Presupposes individuals are commodified

Market dependency & family dependency exist

(Female) independence necessitates ‘defamilializing’ welfare obligations

Developed a new ‘Defamilization Index’

‘ Hidden’ Worlds Within? EA concludes: New indicators do not suggest a fourth world Existing trichotomy captures differences well Soc Dem regimes defamilialize most strongly

EA concludes:

New indicators do not suggest a fourth world

Existing trichotomy captures differences well

Soc Dem regimes defamilialize most strongly

Are Typologies Useful? ‘ there will always be slippery or ambiguous cases, and one programme does not define a regime. The real problem is how to deal with systematic deviants. The issue here is whether a three-way typology adequately exhausts the variance. If there are cases that follow a wholly different underlying logic, we would have to construct yet another, separate ideal-type – a fourth ‘world of welfare capitalism’ (Esping-Andersen)

‘ there will always be slippery or ambiguous cases, and one programme does not define a regime. The real problem is how to deal with systematic deviants. The issue here is whether a three-way typology adequately exhausts the variance. If there are cases that follow a wholly different underlying logic, we would have to construct yet another, separate ideal-type – a fourth ‘world of welfare capitalism’

(Esping-Andersen)

Are Typologies Useful? Allow greater analytical parsimony forest v trees Help identify underlying logic Help generate and test hypotheses

Allow greater analytical parsimony

forest v trees

Help identify underlying logic

Help generate and test hypotheses

How Do Welfare States Differ? Case for difference is well made BUT: Indicators we use Focus of our investigations Theoretical assumptions ALSO: Regimes subject to change globalisation, ‘information revolution’ future may not follow the past...

Case for difference is well made

BUT:

Indicators we use

Focus of our investigations

Theoretical assumptions

ALSO:

Regimes subject to change

globalisation, ‘information revolution’

future may not follow the past...

 

 

Esping-Andersen’s Decommodification Index 13.0 Australia 13.8 USA 17.1 New Zealand 22.0 Canada 23.3 Ireland 23.4 UK 24.1 Italy 27.1 Japan 27.5 France 27.7 Germany 29.2 Finland 29.8 Switzerland 31.1 Austria 32.4 Belgium 32.4 Netherlands 38.1 Denmark 38.3 Norway 39.1 Sweden

Esping -Andersen’s Decommodification Index 13.0 Australia 13.8 USA 17.1 New Zealand 22.0 Canada 23.3 Ireland 23.4 UK 24.1 Italy 27.1 Japan 27.5 France 27.7 Germany 29.2 Finland 29.8 Switzerland 31.1 Austria 32.4 Belgium 32.4 Netherlands 38.1 Denmark 38.3 Norway 39.1 Sweden

Esping-Andersen’s Decommodification Index 13.0 Australia 13.8 USA 17.1 New Zealand 22.0 Canada 23.3 Ireland 23.4 UK 24.1 Italy 27.1 Japan 27.5 France 27.7 Germany 29.2 Finland 29.8 Switzerland 31.1 Austria 32.4 Belgium 32.4 Netherlands 38.1 Denmark 38.3 Norway 39.1 Sweden

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