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Comparative Primate Anatomy

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Information about Comparative Primate Anatomy

Published on December 28, 2007

Author: PaulVMcDowell

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Compares human anatomy with that of chimpanzees
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Comparative Primate Anatomy The Hardware of Human Culture

The Hardware of Human Culture We could not be us without. . . A language to communicate with and to use for learning An ability to make and use tools All the abilities that standing and walking on two feet allow us So without understanding our anatomy, we cannot understand our culture

We could not be us without. . .

A language to communicate with and to use for learning

An ability to make and use tools

All the abilities that standing and walking on two feet allow us

So without understanding our anatomy, we cannot understand our culture

Comparative Hominid Anatomy Anatomically, we are very similar to apes and even to monkeys But we are not identical: Humans are fully bipedal, for example, while chimps are not. We have two arches in our foot; chimps do not. Therefore we need to compare our own anatomy with (a) other living primates and (b) fossil hominin forms.

Anatomically, we are very similar to apes and even to monkeys

But we are not identical: Humans are fully bipedal, for example, while chimps are not.

We have two arches in our foot; chimps do not.

Therefore we need to compare our own anatomy with (a) other living primates and (b) fossil hominin forms.

Overview: The Human Skeleton You do need to know some of the parts of the human skeleton Use the online graphics (such as this) or your printed handouts We make a detailed comparison of skeletal parts later

You do need to know some of the parts of the human skeleton

Use the online graphics (such as this) or your printed handouts

We make a detailed comparison of skeletal parts later

The Roots of Culture: The Brain If culture is symbolic, then it is founded on language The source of language is located in parts of the brain Our ability to make and use tools is also begins in the brain Therefore, we start by examining the parts of the brain

If culture is symbolic, then it is founded on language

The source of language is located in parts of the brain

Our ability to make and use tools is also begins in the brain

Therefore, we start by examining the parts of the brain

Structure of the Brain: Description I You may want to switch back and forth between the description in the next two slides and the diagram that follows them in the third slide Frontal Lobe: The lobe that allows us to think and plan ahead Motor Cortex: The strip along the edge of the motor cortex that moves the facial muscles (lips, tongue, vocalization) and the arm, hand, and finger muscles Parietal Lobe: The lobe that enables us to touch and taste

You may want to switch back and forth between the description in the next two slides and the diagram that follows them in the third slide

Frontal Lobe: The lobe that allows us to think and plan ahead

Motor Cortex: The strip along the edge of the motor cortex that moves the facial muscles (lips, tongue, vocalization) and the arm, hand, and finger muscles

Parietal Lobe: The lobe that enables us to touch and taste

Structure of the Brain: Description II Occipital Lobe: The lobe of the brain that enables us to see Temporal Lobe: The lobe that enables us to hear Olfactory Bulb: The part of the brain that enables us to smell Supplementary Motor Cortex : The part that provides sensory feedback from an action involving the motor cortex

Occipital Lobe: The lobe of the brain that enables us to see

Temporal Lobe: The lobe that enables us to hear

Olfactory Bulb: The part of the brain that enables us to smell

Supplementary Motor Cortex : The part that provides sensory feedback from an action involving the motor cortex

Structure of the Brain: Diagram Frontal Lobe and Motor Cortex : Cognition: Thinking Ability Motor Abilities Parietal Lobe: Touch and Taste Temporal Lobe: Hearing Occipital Lobe: Vision Olfactory Bulb : Smell

Frontal Lobe and Motor Cortex :

Cognition: Thinking Ability

Motor Abilities

Parietal Lobe: Touch and Taste

Temporal Lobe: Hearing

Occipital Lobe: Vision

Olfactory Bulb : Smell

The Motor Cortex The next diagram gives a schematic view of the functions of the motor cortex or strip Lower part : The strip regulates the facial and oral muscles They include the tongue, the lips, the organs for vocalization, and the jaws These are related to the language function Upper part : The strip regulates the arm, the hand, and their fingers These are related to the tool manufacture and use functions.

The next diagram gives a schematic view of the functions of the motor cortex or strip

Lower part : The strip regulates the facial and oral muscles

They include the tongue, the lips, the organs for vocalization, and the jaws

These are related to the language function

Upper part : The strip regulates the arm, the hand, and their fingers

These are related to the tool manufacture and use functions.

Parts of the Brain: Motor Cortex Related to Language : Lower Part Lips Tongue Vocalization Related to Tool Making and Use: Upper part Fingers and Thumb Hand Arm

Related to Language : Lower Part

Lips

Tongue

Vocalization

Related to Tool Making and Use: Upper part

Fingers and Thumb

Hand

Arm

Language Functions of the Brain: Description I Again, you may want to move back and forth between the descriptions and the diagram that follows the descriptions The language functions all occur on the left hemisphere of the brain in most humans Broca’s Area functions to process the generating of speech Notice that it is located at the base of the motor cortex, which handles the tongue, vocalization, and lip movements Wernicke’s Area functions to process the reception of speech Notice its location in the temporal lobe, which processes hearing

Again, you may want to move back and forth between the descriptions and the diagram that follows the descriptions

The language functions all occur on the left hemisphere of the brain in most humans

Broca’s Area functions to process the generating of speech

Notice that it is located at the base of the motor cortex, which handles the tongue, vocalization, and lip movements

Wernicke’s Area functions to process the reception of speech

Notice its location in the temporal lobe, which processes hearing

Language Functions of the Brain: Description II The angular gyrus is the part that coordinates all the sense functions housed in the brain They coordinate the senses of sight from the occipital lobe, of the touch and taste of the parietal lobe, of the smell from the olfactory lobe, and of hearing from the temporal lobe If you smell the scent of a rose and visualize a rose in the mind’s eye Its function for language is to translate all the sensory information into the sense of hearing so we can assign meaning to speech.

The angular gyrus is the part that coordinates all the sense functions housed in the brain

They coordinate the senses of sight from the occipital lobe, of the touch and taste of the parietal lobe, of the smell from the olfactory lobe, and of hearing from the temporal lobe

If you smell the scent of a rose and visualize a rose in the mind’s eye

Its function for language is to translate all the sensory information into the sense of hearing so we can assign meaning to speech.

Parts of the Brain: Language Centers Parts of Cerebrum Frontal Lobe Motor Cortex Broca’s Area Temporal Lobe Auditory Cortex Wernicke’s Area Arcuate Fasciculus Parietal Lobe Occipital Lobe Angular Gyrus

Parts of Cerebrum

Frontal Lobe

Motor Cortex

Broca’s Area

Temporal Lobe

Auditory Cortex

Wernicke’s Area

Arcuate Fasciculus

Parietal Lobe

Occipital Lobe

Angular Gyrus

Comic Relief, Anyone? (Courtesy of Geico) So easy a caveman can do it. . . .?

So easy a caveman can do it. . . .?

So Why Do We Pick on the Bones? With few exceptions bones are all we have to reconstruct past human and humanlike life forms Therefore we have to coordinate what we know about anatomy—human and nonhuman primate—to reconstruct what our ancestors might have been like. Bottom Line: We rely heavily on inference to trace our ancestry

With few exceptions bones are all we have to reconstruct past human and humanlike life forms

Therefore we have to coordinate what we know about anatomy—human and nonhuman primate—to reconstruct what our ancestors might have been like.

Bottom Line: We rely heavily on inference to trace our ancestry

Human Skill: A Description The forehead is high, making room for the frontal lobe The skull is rounded, allowing a greater volume for the entire brain There is no brow ridge or supraorbital torus The jaw does not jut forward; it is not prognathous

The forehead is high, making room for the frontal lobe

The skull is rounded, allowing a greater volume for the entire brain

There is no brow ridge or supraorbital torus

The jaw does not jut forward; it is not prognathous

Human Skull: Bones that Cover the Lobes The bones of the skull are named after the lobes they cover The frontal bone covers the frontal lobe The parietal bone covers the parietal lobe The occipital bone covers the occipital lobe The temporal bone covers the temporal lobe Refresh your memory: what are each of these lobes for?

The bones of the skull are named after the lobes they cover

The frontal bone covers the frontal lobe

The parietal bone covers the parietal lobe

The occipital bone covers the occipital lobe

The temporal bone covers the temporal lobe

Refresh your memory: what are each of these lobes for?

Human Skull: The Diagram Note the following: High forehead Rounded skull No brow ridge Chin is present Teeth are small The bones are named after the lobes of the brain they cover

Note the following:

High forehead

Rounded skull

No brow ridge

Chin is present

Teeth are small

The bones are named after the lobes of the brain they cover

Comparative Primate Anatomy: Human and Chimpanzee In the next diagrams, the differences are significant to biological capacity for culture The area for brain of a chimp is more limited than human brain because of its sloping forehead and the heavy supraorbital torus that covers much of the forehead The chimp jaw has a prognathism absent in humans Chimps have larger canine teeth than humans; so much so that there is a diastema (gap) for the opposite canine to fit.

In the next diagrams, the differences are significant to biological capacity for culture

The area for brain of a chimp is more limited than human brain because of its sloping forehead and the heavy supraorbital torus that covers much of the forehead

The chimp jaw has a prognathism absent in humans

Chimps have larger canine teeth than humans; so much so that there is a diastema (gap) for the opposite canine to fit.

Skull Morphology: Chimp and Human Note the following Larger brow ridge (supraorbital torus) of chimp compared to human Sloping forehead of chimp compared to human More prognathous (jutting) jaw of chimp compared to human Larger canine and gap (diastema) of chimp compared to human

Note the following

Larger brow ridge (supraorbital torus) of chimp compared to human

Sloping forehead of chimp compared to human

More prognathous (jutting) jaw of chimp compared to human

Larger canine and gap (diastema) of chimp compared to human

Comparative Brain Structure: Human and Chimpanzee In the next diagram, the human brain has a Broca’s area for processing speech. The chimp brain has a Brodman’s area, where calls may originate, but no speech Our Wernicke’s area, which receives speech, is at the same place as the planum temporale among the chimps The chimp brain is much smaller than humans’—400 cubic centimeters compared with our 1400 cc. The frontal lobe of the chimp is smaller than the human’s, partly owing to the sloping forehead

In the next diagram, the human brain has a Broca’s area for processing speech.

The chimp brain has a Brodman’s area, where calls may originate, but no speech

Our Wernicke’s area, which receives speech, is at the same place as the planum temporale among the chimps

The chimp brain is much smaller than humans’—400 cubic centimeters compared with our 1400 cc.

The frontal lobe of the chimp is smaller than the human’s, partly owing to the sloping forehead

Human and Chimp Skulls Compared: Brain Structure Compare the following Chimp’s brain is much smaller (400cc vs. 1400cc) It has reduced frontal lobe It has no Broca’s or Wernicke’s area It does have Brodmann’s area 10, where calls may originate—but no speech It does have planum temporale, where calls are received—but not processed as language

Compare the following

Chimp’s brain is much smaller (400cc vs. 1400cc)

It has reduced frontal lobe

It has no Broca’s or Wernicke’s area

It does have Brodmann’s area 10, where calls may originate—but no speech

It does have planum temporale, where calls are received—but not processed as language

What This All Means Our brains are larger than the chimps’ We have a well-developed frontal lobe We have well developed language areas: Broca’s and Wernicke’s area The motor strip is more well developed among humans than among chimps

Our brains are larger than the chimps’

We have a well-developed frontal lobe

We have well developed language areas: Broca’s and Wernicke’s area

The motor strip is more well developed among humans than among chimps

Comparative Primate Anatomy: Chewing Mechanism The next diagrams compare human dentition (structure of teeth) with that of the chimps Our overall dental arcade (arrangement of teeth) is more rounded (arc-like) than the chimps Chimpanzee have a more rectangular dental arcade, with the back teeth more parallel Our teeth are much smaller than the chimps’ We have small canines (jagged teeth) Chimps have large canines, so large that they need a gap (diastema) in the opposite jaw for them to fit

The next diagrams compare human dentition (structure of teeth) with that of the chimps

Our overall dental arcade (arrangement of teeth) is more rounded (arc-like) than the chimps

Chimpanzee have a more rectangular dental arcade, with the back teeth more parallel

Our teeth are much smaller than the chimps’

We have small canines (jagged teeth)

Chimps have large canines, so large that they need a gap (diastema) in the opposite jaw for them to fit

Human Dentition: Diagram For each jaw (upper or maxilla or lower or mandible: Incisors (4) in the front for cutting food) Canines (cuspid) (2) for piercing Premolars (4) for light grinding of food Molars (6) in back for heavy grinding of food

For each jaw (upper or maxilla or lower or mandible:

Incisors (4) in the front for cutting food)

Canines (cuspid) (2) for piercing

Premolars (4) for light grinding of food

Molars (6) in back for heavy grinding of food

Chimp and Human Dentition Note the following: Dental Arcade: Humans’ are arc-like; apes, parallel back teeth Canines and Diastema (gap): Apes have larger canines and gaps in opposite jaw to fit them; humans do not

Note the following:

Dental Arcade: Humans’ are arc-like; apes, parallel back teeth

Canines and Diastema (gap): Apes have larger canines and gaps in opposite jaw to fit them; humans do not

Comparative Primate Anatomy: Hand Structure Our fingers are straight; that of the chimps and other apes are curved We have a much longer thumb than do the apes Importance: we are capable of a more precise grip than the apes This implies that we can make finer tools than those apes who can make and use tools

Our fingers are straight; that of the chimps and other apes are curved

We have a much longer thumb than do the apes

Importance: we are capable of a more precise grip than the apes

This implies that we can make finer tools than those apes who can make and use tools

Human Hand Structure: Diagram Note The Following: Our digits are straight Our thumb is opposable The thumb is long

Note The Following:

Our digits are straight

Our thumb is opposable

The thumb is long

Ape and Human Hands: Diagram Hands of orangutan, chimpanzee, gorilla and human Note the following: Our thumbs are longer than the others’ We can make a finer grip than the others can Less visible: apes’ digits are curved, ours are straight

Hands of orangutan, chimpanzee, gorilla and human

Note the following:

Our thumbs are longer than the others’

We can make a finer grip than the others can

Less visible: apes’ digits are curved, ours are straight

Power and Precision Grip Note the Following: Power grip: Fingers and thumbs wrap around the object Precision grip: Forefingers and thumb hold the object Importance: We can do finer work compared to nonhuman primates

Note the Following:

Power grip: Fingers and thumbs wrap around the object

Precision grip: Forefingers and thumb hold the object

Importance: We can do finer work compared to nonhuman primates

Comparative Primate Anatomy: Bipedalism vs. Quadrupedalism Homo sapiens is the only mammal capable of bipedalism, or the ability to stand and walk entirely on two feet. Kangaroos stand on two feet, but they hop rather than walk and their forepaws are too small for any function. Chimpanzees can walk on two feet, but not very efficiently; they are closer to quadrupedalism, or the ability to move around on four feet. What are the advantages of bipedalism over quadrupedalism. Answer the question and then look at the next slide.

Homo sapiens is the only mammal capable of bipedalism, or the ability to stand and walk entirely on two feet.

Kangaroos stand on two feet, but they hop rather than walk and their forepaws are too small for any function.

Chimpanzees can walk on two feet, but not very efficiently; they are closer to quadrupedalism, or the ability to move around on four feet.

What are the advantages of bipedalism over quadrupedalism. Answer the question and then look at the next slide.

Advantages of Bipedalism Efficient locomotion Freeing of hands for many proposes : Foraging and hunting/scavenging Tool making and use Care and provisioning of offspring Increased height for viewing across landscape : Tracking migrating herds Predator avoidance

Efficient locomotion

Freeing of hands for many proposes :

Foraging and hunting/scavenging

Tool making and use

Care and provisioning of offspring

Increased height for viewing across landscape :

Tracking migrating herds

Predator avoidance

Bipedalism: Diagram We are the only mammals that can stand and walk on two feet Apes are semi-bipedal, but use their knuckles to get around (top photo) The bottom photo compares the “quadrupedalism” of a human with that of a chimp Notice the human is on his knees, not just his feet The chimp is using its hind feet, not its knees.

We are the only mammals that can stand and walk on two feet

Apes are semi-bipedal, but use their knuckles to get around (top photo)

The bottom photo compares the “quadrupedalism” of a human with that of a chimp

Notice the human is on his knees, not just his feet

The chimp is using its hind feet, not its knees.

Comparative Human Anatomy: Locomotion You will need to make a close comparison of human and chimp anatomy in the next diagram Pelvis: Compare the length of the ilium of the chimp with that of the human Compare the arm length of the chimp with the human Compare the leg bones of the chimp with the human Compare the foot structure of the chimp with the human What are the differences between each set of characteristics? Write your answers, then look at each of these characteristics in detail.

You will need to make a close comparison of human and chimp anatomy in the next diagram

Pelvis: Compare the length of the ilium of the chimp with that of the human

Compare the arm length of the chimp with the human

Compare the leg bones of the chimp with the human

Compare the foot structure of the chimp with the human

What are the differences between each set of characteristics? Write your answers, then look at each of these characteristics in detail.

Chimp and Human Locomotion Compared

Vertebral Column and Pelvis Note the following: Human vertebral column is S-shaped, supporting the upper torso Chimp vertebral column is bow-shaped Human pelvis, with ilium, is bowl-shaped; muscles from the thigh keep him upright Chimp pelvis is long, with flat ilium

Note the following:

Human vertebral column is S-shaped, supporting the upper torso

Chimp vertebral column is bow-shaped

Human pelvis, with ilium, is bowl-shaped; muscles from the thigh keep him upright

Chimp pelvis is long, with flat ilium

Pelvis and Femur Note the following: Longer ilium of chimp Shorter, more curved ilium of human Straight vertical orientation of chimp femurs, which do not support the upper body well Inward angle of human femurs, which support the upper body more efficiently

Note the following:

Longer ilium of chimp

Shorter, more curved ilium of human

Straight vertical orientation of chimp femurs, which do not support the upper body well

Inward angle of human femurs, which support the upper body more efficiently

Foot Structure Note the following: Large toe of chimp foot (right) is opposable to other digits Large toe of human foot (left) is aligned with other digits Ankle bones (tarsals) of human food are larger and more rigid than the chimps

Note the following:

Large toe of chimp foot (right) is opposable to other digits

Large toe of human foot (left) is aligned with other digits

Ankle bones (tarsals) of human food are larger and more rigid than the chimps

Foot Arch: Longitudinal and Transverse Note the following: Longitudinal arch that runs from the first metatarsal to the calcaneus (heel bone) Large tarsals to the rear contribute to the rigid structure of the foot and its arch Transverse arch can be inferred from lower placement of outside foot to the instep

Note the following:

Longitudinal arch that runs from the first metatarsal to the calcaneus (heel bone)

Large tarsals to the rear contribute to the rigid structure of the foot and its arch

Transverse arch can be inferred from lower placement of outside foot to the instep

What We Have Learned We have learned the hardware essential to culture They include our brain, where language and tool use originate We have learned about our ability to stand and walk on two feet and the importance of this ability We have also learned about the characteristics of ape anatomy This comparison gives us a clue on the next phase of this unit, human biological evolution

We have learned the hardware essential to culture

They include our brain, where language and tool use originate

We have learned about our ability to stand and walk on two feet and the importance of this ability

We have also learned about the characteristics of ape anatomy

This comparison gives us a clue on the next phase of this unit, human biological evolution

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