Published on February 11, 2014
EHS 402 COMMUNITY RESEARCH PROJECT (4 CREDITS) MS. OLULEGAN
“Happiness doesn't result from what we get, but from what we give.” ― Ben carson
“You give but little when you give of your possessions. It is when you give of yourself that you truly give.” ― Kahlil Gibran …
ACRONYMS AND DEFINITIONS • • • • • • • • • CLTS: Community-Led Total Sanitation CC: Community Consultant INGO: International Non Government Organization MDG: Millennium Development Goal NL: Natural Leader; Leaders emerging from ODF villages as a result of CLTS triggering process at the local level OD: Open Defecation ODF: Open Defecation Free PRA: Participatory rural appraisal WSSCC: Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council
ACRONYMS AND DEFINITIONS • IHHS: Individual Household Hardware Subsidy • IRSP: Integrated Rural Support Programme • Plan RESA :Plan International, Region of Eastern and Southern Africa • PM: Participatory Methodology • RSPN: Rural Support Programme Network, Pakistan • TSC: Total Sanitation Campaign of the Indian Government • UNICEF: United Nations Children‟s Fund • VERC: Village Education Resource Centre • WSP: Water and Sanitation Programme, World Bank
Community-Led Total Sanitation Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) focuses on igniting a change in sanitation behavior rather than constructing toilets. It does this through a process of social awakening that is stimulated by facilitators from within or outside the community.
When it occurs well, CLTS • Is total, meaning that it affects all in the community and visitors as well • Is based on collective community decision-making and action by all • Is driven by sense of collective achievement and motivations that are internal to communities, not by external subsidies or pressures
When it occurs well, CLTS • Leads to the emergence of new Natural Leaders and/or highly encourages new commitment of the existing leaders who do not need or follow a blue print, but do things their own way • Generates diverse local actions and innovations • Revives traditional social practices of self-help and community cooperation and creates new examples of social solidarity and cooperation between rich and the poor in achieving ODF status
• When it occurs well, CLTSand children in a Engages men, women, youth time-bound campaign and local action to end OD followed by general cleaning up • Often through the collective drive of communities attracts local leaders, elected people‟s representatives, the local government and NGOs to help, support, encourage and spread ideas
When it occurs well, CLTS • ODF communities gradually move up along the sanitation ladder and improve structure and design of their toilets through better linkages with the local businessmen and traders/dealers of sanitation hardware • Often ODF communities don‟t stop at achieving ODF status but move on to achieving other collective common goals like „no hunger or starvation in the village‟, „no children without school enrolment and all going to school‟ „equal wages for all labours and reduced inequality of men‟s and women‟s labour‟ etc.
Two conditions are crucial: 1. The attitudes and behaviour of facilitators: Not everyone can be a good facilitator. Facilitating CLTS is an aptitude. It can be learnt, but it will come more naturally to some than to others. It is different from facilitating conventional participatory processes like PRA. Behaviour and attitudes are crucial. What works best for triggering CLTS is a combination of boldness, empathy, humour and fun. It demands a hands-off approach, not teaching or lecturing, but facilitating to enable people to confront their unpalatable realities.
2. The sensitive support of institutions. Not every organization is suitable for promoting CLTS. Institutional support needs to be consistent and flexible. Any top-down target and disbursement-driven approach is liable to undermine CLTS, though general sanitation campaigns can be effective provided they are used in a „community empowerment‟ mode rather than a „prescriptive‟ and „target achievement‟ mode. Two big dangers are too much money, because CLTS needs relatively little, and rapid recruitment and inadequate orientation, training and socializing of staff. This demands a form of restraint that is difficult in many bureaucracies.
The sequence of steps The following is a rough outline of sequence of steps which could be followed, and tools that could be applied in triggering CLTS in villages. • Pre-triggering: Selecting a community, Introduction and building rapport • Triggering: Participatory sanitation profile analysis, Ignition moment • Post-triggering: Action planning b the community, Follow up
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