Community Interactions APBio

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Information about Community Interactions APBio

Published on February 28, 2008

Author: MrDPMWest

Source: slideshare.net

Community Interactions

Exotic Species Zebra mussels (left) Brown tree snakes in Hawaii Kudzu Fire ants

Zebra mussels (left)

Brown tree snakes in Hawaii

Kudzu

Fire ants

Why Are Exotic Populations Out of Control? Native populations within communities have evolved together Community persists in a delicate balance between populations Introduction of an "exotic" species destroys the balance Lack of coevolution Two interacting species interacting over time Act as agents of natural selection on one another

Native populations within communities have evolved together

Community persists in a delicate balance between populations

Introduction of an "exotic" species destroys the balance

Lack of coevolution

Two interacting species interacting over time

Act as agents of natural selection on one another

Ecological Niche Encompasses all aspects of a species’ way of life, including Physical home or habitat Physical and chemical environmental factors necessary for survival How the species acquires its energy and materials All the other species with which it interacts

Encompasses all aspects of a species’ way of life, including

Physical home or habitat

Physical and chemical environmental factors necessary for survival

How the species acquires its energy and materials

All the other species with which it interacts

Community Interactions Ecological niche No two species ever occupy exactly the same niche Niches of different species will overlap Effects on balance of community of species Competition Predation Symbiosis Competition Interspecific competition helps control population size Competitive exclusion Resource partitioning—develops during the course of coevolution

Ecological niche

No two species ever occupy exactly the same niche

Niches of different species will overlap

Effects on balance of community of species

Competition

Predation

Symbiosis

Competition

Interspecific competition helps control population size

Competitive exclusion

Resource partitioning—develops during the course of coevolution

Reduction of Niche Overlap The competitive exclusion principle states that if two species occupy exactly the same niche, one will eliminate the other

The competitive exclusion principle states that if two species occupy exactly the same niche, one will eliminate the other

Competitive Exclusion: The Ciliate Paramecium over 24 d Grown in Separate Flasks Grown in the Same Flask

Reduction of Niche Overlap When species with largely overlapping niches are allowed to compete, their niches may focus on a different part of the resource spectrum This is called resource partitioning This reduces interspecific competition Example: North American warblers

When species with largely overlapping niches are allowed to compete, their niches may focus on a different part of the resource spectrum

This is called resource partitioning

This reduces interspecific competition

Example: North American warblers

Resource Partitioning

Predator-Prey Interactions Predators kill and eat other organisms Broadly defined, predators include herbivorous as well as carnivorous organisms, including cows, pika, and bats hunting moths Predators tend to be larger and more numerous than their prey

Predators kill and eat other organisms

Broadly defined, predators include herbivorous as well as carnivorous organisms, including cows, pika, and bats hunting moths

Predators tend to be larger and more numerous than their prey

Evolutionary Adaptations Predators have evolved characteristics that increase their chances of catching prey Examples: tearing claws of mountain lions and keen eyesight of hawks Prey have evolved characteristics that decrease the chances of being eaten Examples: dappling spots and motionless behavior of deer fawns

Predators have evolved characteristics that increase their chances of catching prey

Examples: tearing claws of mountain lions and keen eyesight of hawks

Prey have evolved characteristics that decrease the chances of being eaten

Examples: dappling spots and motionless behavior of deer fawns

Predator–Prey Interactions: Shape Evolutionary Adaptations Camouflage—both predator and prey Warning coloration Mimicry—prey species "evolve" resemblance to dangerous/poisonous species Aggressive mimicry—predators resemble harmless species or objects Chemical warfare Bombardier beetle Plant chemicals, secondary metabolites Venoms/poisons

Camouflage—both predator and prey

Warning coloration

Mimicry—prey species "evolve" resemblance to dangerous/poisonous species

Aggressive mimicry—predators resemble harmless species or objects

Chemical warfare

Bombardier beetle

Plant chemicals, secondary metabolites

Venoms/poisons

Camouflage Camouflage renders animals inconspicuous even when in plain sight May include evolved colors, patterns, and shapes that resemble one’s surroundings

Camouflage renders animals inconspicuous even when in plain sight

May include evolved colors, patterns, and shapes that resemble one’s surroundings

Camouflage by Blending in Sand dab (fish) Nightjar (bird)

Camouflage To avoid detection by predators, some animals have evolved to resemble objects such as bird droppings, leaves, or thorns

To avoid detection by predators, some animals have evolved to resemble objects such as bird droppings, leaves, or thorns

Camouflage by Resembling Specific Objects Moth “ poop” Leafy Sea Dragon Treehoppers

Camouflage Some plants have evolved to resemble rocks to avoid detection by herbivores

Some plants have evolved to resemble rocks to avoid detection by herbivores

A Plant That Mimics a Rock Cactus

Camouflage Camouflage also helps predators ambush their prey Examples: the cheetah blending with tall grass and the frogfish resembling a rock

Camouflage also helps predators ambush their prey

Examples: the cheetah blending with tall grass and the frogfish resembling a rock

Camouflage Assists Predators (a) Cheeta Frogfish (b)

Bright Colors Some animals have evolved bright warning coloration that attracts the attention of potential predators Advertises that they are distasteful or poisonous before the predator attacks Examples: poison arrow frogs, coral snakes, and yellow jackets

Some animals have evolved bright warning coloration that attracts the attention of potential predators

Advertises that they are distasteful or poisonous before the predator attacks

Examples: poison arrow frogs, coral snakes, and yellow jackets

Warning Coloration

Protection Through Mimicry Mimicry refers to a situation in which one species has evolved to resemble another organism Two or more distasteful species may each benefit from a shared warning coloration pattern ( M ü llerian mimicry ) Predators need only experience one distasteful species to learn to avoid all with that color pattern

Mimicry refers to a situation in which one species has evolved to resemble another organism

Two or more distasteful species may each benefit from a shared warning coloration pattern ( M ü llerian mimicry )

Predators need only experience one distasteful species to learn to avoid all with that color pattern

 

Protection Through Mimicry Some harmless organisms can gain a selective advantage by resembling poisonous species (Batesian mimicry) Example: harmless hoverfly resembles bee Example: harmless mountain king snake resembles the venomous coral snake

Some harmless organisms can gain a selective advantage by resembling poisonous species (Batesian mimicry)

Example: harmless hoverfly resembles bee

Example: harmless mountain king snake resembles the venomous coral snake

 

Protection Through Mimicry Snowberry flies avoid by jumping spider predation by mimicking them both visually and behaviorally

Snowberry flies avoid by jumping spider predation by mimicking them both visually and behaviorally

Visual and Behavioral Mimicry (a) (b)

Protection Through Mimicry Some animals deter predators by employing startle coloration Have spots that resemble eyes of a large predator

Some animals deter predators by employing startle coloration

Have spots that resemble eyes of a large predator

Startle Coloration Swallowtail butterfly caterpillar Peacock moth

Chemical Warfare Both predators and prey have evolved toxic chemicals for attack and defense Spiders and poisonous snakes use venom to paralyze their prey and deter predators Many plants have evolved chemicals to deter herbivores Bombardier beetle sprays hot chemicals from its abdomen

Both predators and prey have evolved toxic chemicals for attack and defense

Spiders and poisonous snakes use venom to paralyze their prey and deter predators

Many plants have evolved chemicals to deter herbivores

Bombardier beetle sprays hot chemicals from its abdomen

Chemical Warfare

Coevolutionary Adaptations Plants have evolved a variety of chemicals to deter herbivores Example: the toxic and distasteful chemicals in milkweed Some animals evolve ways to detoxify these chemicals, allowing them to eat the plants Plants may then evolve other toxic substances

Plants have evolved a variety of chemicals to deter herbivores

Example: the toxic and distasteful chemicals in milkweed

Some animals evolve ways to detoxify these chemicals, allowing them to eat the plants

Plants may then evolve other toxic substances

The monarch butterfly uses deterrent chemicals of milkweed, acquired by a feeding caterpillar, to make itself distasteful to its predators

Symbiosis—a Close Interaction Between Different Species Parasitism—one benefits, other is harmed Parasites smaller, more numerous than hosts Parasites with higher reproductive rate Commensalism—one benefits, other is neither harmed nor benefits Mutualism—relationship benefits both species Ruminants Nitrogen fixation

Parasitism—one benefits, other is harmed

Parasites smaller, more numerous than hosts

Parasites with higher reproductive rate

Commensalism—one benefits, other is neither harmed nor benefits

Mutualism—relationship benefits both species

Ruminants

Nitrogen fixation

Symbiosis

Keystone Species In some communities a keystone species plays a major role in determining community structure Role is out of proportion to its abundance Removal of keystone species dramatically alters community

In some communities a keystone species plays a major role in determining community structure

Role is out of proportion to its abundance

Removal of keystone species dramatically alters community

Keystone Species Example: The predatory starfish Pisaster from Washington’s rocky intertidal coast When removed from their ecosystem their favored prey, mussels, increase and competitively exclude other invertebrates and algae, simplifying the community Example: Destruction of encroaching shrubs and trees by African elephants Helps maintain the grass savanna which supports many species

Example: The predatory starfish Pisaster from Washington’s rocky intertidal coast

When removed from their ecosystem their favored prey, mussels, increase and competitively exclude other invertebrates and algae, simplifying the community

Example: Destruction of encroaching shrubs and trees by African elephants

Helps maintain the grass savanna which supports many species

Keystone Species: Starfish

Succession: Predictable Sequence of Community Changes Primary succession—bare rock, barren environments No previously established ecosystems Occurs over a longer period of time (thousands of years) Pioneer species Climax community (influenced by environment) Secondary succession—occurs in a disturbed, established ecosystem Plowed field, timbered forest, etc. Occurs over shorter time (hundreds of years)

Primary succession—bare rock, barren environments

No previously established ecosystems

Occurs over a longer period of time (thousands of years)

Pioneer species

Climax community (influenced by environment)

Secondary succession—occurs in a disturbed, established ecosystem

Plowed field, timbered forest, etc.

Occurs over shorter time (hundreds of years)

Succession in Progress Mount St. Helens explosion, 1980 Same view, 20 y later

Succession During succession, most terrestrial communities go through stages Succession begins with arrival of a few hardy invaders called pioneers They alter the ecosystem in ways that favor other species, which eventually displace the pioneers Succession often progresses to a relatively stable and diverse climax community Recurring disturbances can set back the progress of succession Maintain communities in subclimax stages

During succession, most terrestrial communities go through stages

Succession begins with arrival of a few hardy invaders called pioneers

They alter the ecosystem in ways that favor other species, which eventually displace the pioneers

Succession often progresses to a relatively stable and diverse climax community

Recurring disturbances can set back the progress of succession

Maintain communities in subclimax stages

Primary Succession Primary succession occurs “from scratch,” where there is no trace of a previous community May take thousands or even tens of thousands of years Examples: succession starting on bare rock, sand, or in a clear glacial pool

Primary succession occurs “from scratch,” where there is no trace of a previous community

May take thousands or even tens of thousands of years

Examples: succession starting on bare rock, sand, or in a clear glacial pool

Primary Succession

Secondary Succession Secondary succession occurs after a disturbance changes, but does not obliterate an existing community Often takes just hundreds of years Example: succession when a disturbance leaves behind soil and seeds

Secondary succession occurs after a disturbance changes, but does not obliterate an existing community

Often takes just hundreds of years

Example: succession when a disturbance leaves behind soil and seeds

Secondary Succession

Succession in Ponds and Lakes Lakes and ponds form when a disturbance blocks the flow of a river or stream Nutrient influx, sediment deposition, and other aquatic processes can convert a body of water into a bog, then to a dry land community

Lakes and ponds form when a disturbance blocks the flow of a river or stream

Nutrient influx, sediment deposition, and other aquatic processes can convert a body of water into a bog, then to a dry land community

Succession in a Freshwater Pond (a) (b) (c)

Climax Community Unless disturbances intervene, succession usually ends with a relatively stable climax community Species in climax communities have narrower niches than pioneer species Allows many species to coexist without replacing one another

Unless disturbances intervene, succession usually ends with a relatively stable climax community

Species in climax communities have narrower niches than pioneer species

Allows many species to coexist without replacing one another

Climax Community Climax species tend to be larger and longer-lived than pioneer species The exact nature of the climax community at a site reflects local geological and climatic conditions Examples: type of bedrock, temperature, and rainfall

Climax species tend to be larger and longer-lived than pioneer species

The exact nature of the climax community at a site reflects local geological and climatic conditions

Examples: type of bedrock, temperature, and rainfall

Subclimax State Frequent disturbances maintain subclimax communities in some ecosystems Sub climax community example: Tallgrass prairies that once covered northern Missouri and Illinois Periodic fires prevented forest from encroaching Suburban lawns Mowing and herbicides keep weeds and woody species in check Agriculture Plowing and pesticides keep competing weeds and shrubs from replacing early successional cereal grains

Frequent disturbances maintain subclimax communities in some ecosystems

Sub climax community example: Tallgrass prairies that once covered northern Missouri and Illinois

Periodic fires prevented forest from encroaching

Suburban lawns

Mowing and herbicides keep weeds and woody species in check

Agriculture

Plowing and pesticides keep competing weeds and shrubs from replacing early successional cereal grains

The End

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