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Community- Acquired Pneumonia

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Information about Community- Acquired Pneumonia
Health & Medicine

Published on February 25, 2014

Author: sunny_8162

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Community- Acquired Pneumonia
NEJM 2014;370:543-51.
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CLINICAL PRACTICE CommunityAcquired Pneumonia NEJM 2014;370:543-51.

67 y/o woman with mild Alzheimer’s disease who has a 2-day history of productive cough, fever, and increased confusion is transferred from a nursing home to the ED. Vital Signs: BT 38.4°C, BP 145/85 mmHg, HR 120, RR 30, SpO2 91% (ambient air) PE: crackles in both lower lung fields oriented to person only Lab: WBC 4000, Na+ 130, BUN 25 CXR: infiltrates in both lower lobes How and where should this patient be treated?

The WHO estimates that lower respiratory tract infection is the most common infectious cause of death in the world (the 3rd most common cause overall), with almost 3.5 million deaths yearly. Together, pneumonia and influenza constitute the 9th leading cause of death in the US, resulting in 50,000 estimated deaths in 2010. This article focuses on management strategies for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), with particular emphasis on interventions to reduce mortality and costs.

DIAGNOSIS of CAP 1. Evidence of infection (fever or chills and leukocytosis) 2. Signs or symptoms localized to the respiratory system (cough, increased sputum production, shortness of breath, chest pain, or abnormal pulmonary examination) 3. New or changed infiltrate on CXR

Three Decisions 1. Choice of antibiotic therapy 2. Extenting testing to determine the cause of the pneumonia 3. Location of treatment (home, inpatient floor, or ICU).

Choice of Antibiotic Therapy The key to appropriate therapy is adequate coverage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and the atypical bacterial pathogens (mycoplasma, chlamydophila, and legionella).

For outpatients, the coverage of atypical bacterial pathogens is most important, especially for young adults, for whom herd immunity from widespread vaccination of infants and children with a conjugate pneumococcal vaccine has decreased the rates of pneumococcal pneumonia. Macrolides, doxycycline, and fluoroquinolones are the most appropriate agents for the atypical bacterial pathogens.

For patients admitted to a regular hospital unit, guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Thoracic Society (IDSA-ATS) recommend first-line treatment with either a respiratory fluoroquinolone (moxifloxacin 400 mg qd or levofloxacin 750 mg qd) or the combination of a 2nd or 3rd generation cephalosporin and a macrolide.

S. pneumoniae remains the most common cause of severe CAP requiring ICU admission, combination therapy consisting of a cephalosporin with either a fluoroquinolone or a macrolide is recommended. Observational evidence suggests that the macrolide combination may be associated with better outcomes.

Timing of Initiation of Therapy A CMS–TJC quality metric for CAP is administration of the first antibiotic dose within 6 hours after presentation. The IDSA–ATS guidelines do not recommend a specific time to the administration of the first antibiotic dose but instead encourage treatment as soon as the diagnosis is made. An exception is made for patients in shock; antibiotics should be given within the first hour after the onset of hypotension. An observational study involving patients with septic shock showed a decrease in survival rates of 8% for each hour of delay.

Duration of Antibiotic Treatment The currently recommended duration of antibiotic therapy for CAP is 5 to 7 days. There is no evidence that prolonged courses lead to better outcomes, even in severely ill patients, unless they are immunocompromised.

Criteria for Health CareAssociated Pneumonia Original criteria* • Hospitalization for ≥2 days during the previous 90 days • Residence in a nursing home or extended-care facility • Long-term use of infusion therapy at home, including antibiotics • Hemodialysis during the previous 30 days • Home wound care • Family member with multidrug-resistant pathogen • Immunosuppressive disease or therapy† Pneumonia-specific criteria‡ • Hospitalization for ≥2 days during the previous 90 days • Antibiotic use during the previous 90 days • Nonambulatory status • Tube feedings • Immunocompromised status • Use of gastric acid suppressive agents * Original criteria are from the IDSA–ATS. † This criterion was not included in the original criteria but is frequently included in many studies of health care–associated pneumonia. ‡ Pneumonia-specific criteria are from Shindo et al.

Empirical broad-spectrum therapy with dual coverage for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and routine MRSA coverage has therefore been recommended for patients with risk factors for health care-associated pneumonia. Another group of patients at risk for pathogens resistant to the usual antibiotics for CAP are those with structural lung disease (bronchiectasis or severe COPD) who have received multiple courses of outpatient antibiotics; the frequency of P. aeruginosa infection is particularly increased in this population.

Clinical Features Suggesting Community-Acquired MRSA Pneumonia Cavitary infiltrate or necrosis Rapidly increasing pleural effusion Gross hemoptysis (not just blood-streaked) Concurrent influenza Neutropenia Erythematous rash Skin pustules Young, previously healthy patient Severe pneumonia during summer months

MRSA is commonly identified in patients with risk factors for health care-associated pneumonia, exotoxin production results in characteristic presenting features, treatment is recommended with antibiotics that suppress toxin production, such as linezolid or clindamycin (added to vancomycin)

Diagnostic Testing Severe community acquired pneumonia Health care– acquired pneumonia Other condition or circumstance Blood Culture Strongly recommended if the patient is hypotensive or if patient has been transferred from a general medical unit to the ICU Recommended Recommended if there is cirrhosis or asplenia Respiratory Tract Culture Strongly recommended if there is tracheal aspirate or bronchoalveolarlavage aspirate in an intubated patient; recommended if there is productive cough in a nonintubated patient Strongly recommended if there is a productive cough; not recommended if there is no cough Recommended if the patient has structural lung disease or severe COPD with productive cough Influenza Test during Influenza Season Strongly recommended Recommended Recommended Test for Urinary Pneumococcal Antigen Strongly recommended Strongly recommended No specific recommendation Test for Urinary Legionella Antigen Strongly recommended Recommended if patient resides in a nursing home Recommended if patient has traveled recently Pleural-Fluid Culture Strongly recommended Strongly recommended Strongly Recommended

Hospital Admission Between 40% and 60% of patients who present to the emergency department with CAP are admitted. Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) and the CURB-65 scores

Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) NEJM 1997; 336:243-50 Demographic factors Age (in years) Men Women -10 Nursing home resident +10 Coexisting illnesses Neoplastic disease +30 Liver disease +20 CHF +10 CVA +10 Renal disease +10 Findings on physical examination Altered mental status +20 RR ≧ 30/min +20 SBP <90 mmHg +20 BT <35ºC or ≧ 40ºC +15 HR ≧ 125 beats/min +10 Laboratory and CXR findings Arterial pH <7.35 +30 BUN ≧ 30 +20 Sodium < 130 +20 Glucose ≧ 250 +10 Hematocrit <30% +10 PaO2 < 60 mmHg or SpO2< 90% +10 Pleural effusion +10

CURB-65 Scores Thorax 2001. 56 S4: IV1–64. Confusion BUN ≥20 Respiratory rate ≥30 bpm BP: SBP <90 mmHg or DBP ≤60 mmHg Age ≥65 years

PSI results in fewer admissions of patients with mild illness, with no increase in adverse outcomes. However, calculating the PSI score is complex, requiring formal scoring or electronic decision support (http://pda.ahrq.gov/clinic/psi/psicalc.asp). CURB-65 Scores is easy to remember and calculate but has not been as well validated as the PSI score.

ICU Admission The percentage of hospitalized patients with pneumonia who are admitted to the ICU also varies widely (ranging from 5 to 20%) depending on hospital and health-system characteristics.

IDSA-ATS guidelines suggest that the presence of 3 or more of 9 minor criteria should warrant consideration of ICU admission. ED patients with 3 or more IDSA-ATS minor criteria resulted in a decrease in mortality (from 23 to 6%) and fewer floor-to-ICU transfers (from 32 to 15%) without substantially increasing direct ICU admissions.

IDSA-ATS Guidelines Clinical Infectious Diseases 2007; 44:S27–72 Minor criteria • • • • • • • • • Respiratory rate≧ 30 breaths/min PaO2/FiO2 ratio< 250 CXR: Multilobar infiltrates Confusion/disorientation BUN > 20 mg/dL Leukopenia (WBC< 4000) Thrombocytopenia (platelet< 100,000) Hypothermia (core temperature< 36 ºC) Hypotension (SBP< 90 mmHg) requiring aggressive fluid resuscitation Major criteria • Invasive mechanical ventilation • Septic shock with the need for vasopressors

67 y/o woman with mild Alzheimer’s disease who has a 2-day history of productive cough, fever, and increased confusion is transferred from a nursing home to the ED. Vital Signs: BT 38.4°C, BP 145/85 mmHg, HR 120, RR 30, SpO2 91% (ambient air) PE: crackles in both lower lung fields oriented to person only Lab: WBC 4000, Na+ 130, BUN 25 CXR: infiltrates in both lower lobes How and where should this patient be treated?

CURB-65 Scores ✔  Confusion ✔  BUN ≥20 ✔  Respiratory rate ≥30 bpm  BP: SBP <90 mmHg or DBP ≤60 mmHg ✔  Age ≥65 years ✔

IDSA/ATS Guidelines Minor criteria  Respiratory rate ≧30 breaths/min ✔  PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 250  ✔CXR: Multilobar infiltrates  ✔Confusion/disorientation  ✔BUN > 20 mg/dL  Leukopenia (WBC <4000)  Thrombocytopenia (platelet <100,000)  Hypothermia (core temperature < 36 ºC)  Hypotension (SBP < 90 mmHg) requiring aggressive fluid resuscitation Major criteria  Invasive mechanical ventilation  Septic shock with the need for vasopressors

Criteria for Health Care– Associated Pneumonia Original criteria* • Hospitalization for ≥2 days during the previous 90 days • Residence in a nursing home or extended-care facility • Long-term use of infusion therapy at home, including antibiotics • Hemodialysis during the previous 30 days • Home wound care • Family member with multidrug-resistant pathogen • Immunosuppressive disease or therapy† Pneumonia-specific criteria‡ • Hospitalization for ≥2 days during the previous 90 days • Antibiotic use during the previous 90 days • Nonambulatory status • Tube feedings • Immunocompromised status • Use of gastric acid suppressive agents * Original criteria are from the IDSA–ATS. † This criterion was not included in the original criteria but is frequently included in many studies of health care–associated pneumonia. ‡ Pneumonia-specific criteria are from Shindo et al.

Further Evaluation  Blood cultures  Sputum cultures ✔  Arterial blood gas ✔  Lactate levels ✔  Influenza testing

Management Hydrate aggressively Initiate antibiotics treatment? Ceftriaxone and azithromycin.

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