Communist China

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Information about Communist China

Published on April 10, 2008

Author: dmcdowell

Source: slideshare.net

Revolution in China Modern World History, by Dan McDowell. Teaching Point, ©2003 Class Notes 12:2

Background Manchu Dynasty maintains power despite forced concessions to western nations and Japan Finally falls in 1911 - ending 2000 year dynasty

Manchu Dynasty maintains power despite forced concessions to western nations and Japan

Finally falls in 1911 - ending 2000 year dynasty

Background Between 1925 – 1937 a power struggle emerged between Chiang Kai-shek of the Nationalist party and Mao Zedong of the Communist party

Between 1925 – 1937 a power struggle emerged between Chiang Kai-shek of the Nationalist party and Mao Zedong of the Communist party

Chiang Kai-shek Leader of the GMD National Revolutionary Army – fought the warlords, the Japanese starting in 1937, and the communists He promoted Chinese culture, but he was a Christian and he strongly supported western ideas

Leader of the GMD National Revolutionary Army – fought the warlords, the Japanese starting in 1937, and the communists

He promoted Chinese culture, but he was a Christian and he strongly supported western ideas

Chiang Kai-shek Encouraged continued western investment in China Worked closely with foreign investors – enforcing their demands Failed to consolidate power and modernize China

Encouraged continued western investment in China

Worked closely with foreign investors – enforcing their demands

Failed to consolidate power and modernize China

Mao Zedong Not influenced by the west – raised and educated away from foreign influences More concerned with the plight of the Chinese peasant – who had been ignored by the GMD

Not influenced by the west – raised and educated away from foreign influences

More concerned with the plight of the Chinese peasant – who had been ignored by the GMD

Mao Zedong Most supporters were peasants, industrialization put aside for land redistribution Created army and developed guerilla war tactics to fight Nationalists and then Japanese

Most supporters were peasants, industrialization put aside for land redistribution

Created army and developed guerilla war tactics to fight Nationalists and then Japanese

The Long March In 1934 Chiang Kai-shek attacked communist strong-hold in Northern China 80,000 men retreated 6000 miles over 370 days to a new communist base in Northern China This experience of bravery, survival, and comradeship would define first generation of communist leaders

In 1934 Chiang Kai-shek attacked communist strong-hold in Northern China

80,000 men retreated 6000 miles over 370 days to a new communist base in Northern China

This experience of bravery, survival, and comradeship would define first generation of communist leaders

The Long March

Civil War / Japanese Invasion 1931 – Japan invaded Manchuria (Northern China) GMD continued to attack communists after Long March 1937 – Japan invaded China proper Communists and Nationalists fight Japanese separately

1931 – Japan invaded Manchuria (Northern China)

GMD continued to attack communists after Long March

1937 – Japan invaded China proper

Communists and Nationalists fight Japanese separately

Civil War / Japanese Invasion After WWII ends civil war reigns Americans begin sending military and tactical help to Chiang Kai-shek and Russia provides minimal help to Mao Zedong 1949 – Chiang Kai-shek and Nationalists driven out of mainland China to Taiwan, Communists claim victory and found the Communist People’s Republic of China

After WWII ends civil war reigns

Americans begin sending military and tactical help to Chiang Kai-shek and Russia provides minimal help to Mao Zedong

1949 – Chiang Kai-shek and Nationalists driven out of mainland China to Taiwan, Communists claim victory and found the Communist People’s Republic of China

Power Base Communist Army already established in the fight against Japanese and GMD Peasant support grew even more with early redistributions of land First years saw massive propaganda movements against “enemies” of the state – many dissidents imprisoned or killed in first years

Communist Army already established in the fight against Japanese and GMD

Peasant support grew even more with early redistributions of land

First years saw massive propaganda movements against “enemies” of the state – many dissidents imprisoned or killed in first years

Economic Development 1949 – Foreign economic influence eliminated – most foreigners kicked out of China 1950 – Soviet style five year plan implemented to encourage collectivization with limited success 1952 – Industrialization five year plan had more success

1949 – Foreign economic influence eliminated – most foreigners kicked out of China

1950 – Soviet style five year plan implemented to encourage collectivization with limited success

1952 – Industrialization five year plan had more success

Great Leap Forward 1958 Mao attempted to reinvent Chinese economy Wished to industrialize outside the western model as quickly as possible Eliminated private enterprise Forced people out of the cities and into communes “ Backyard steel mills” – small industrial centers scattered throughout China Plan failed miserably – famine caused millions to die, program ended early, Mao’s power reduced

1958

Mao attempted to reinvent Chinese economy

Wished to industrialize outside the western model as quickly as possible

Eliminated private enterprise

Forced people out of the cities and into communes

“ Backyard steel mills” – small industrial centers scattered throughout China

Plan failed miserably – famine caused millions to die, program ended early, Mao’s power reduced

The Hundred Flowers Policy 1957 After end of the successful Industrialization five year plan, government loosened control of people People allowed to question government policies Significant rise in anti-government rhetoric causes Mao to end policy and arrest top detractors

1957

After end of the successful Industrialization five year plan, government loosened control of people

People allowed to question government policies

Significant rise in anti-government rhetoric causes Mao to end policy and arrest top detractors

Cultural Revolution 1966 Mao wished to regain power lost in the Great Leap Forward Created Red Guard from the Chinese youth Questioned traditional culture, education, and leadership (except Mao) Cult of personality forms around Mao

1966

Mao wished to regain power lost in the Great Leap Forward

Created Red Guard from the Chinese youth

Questioned traditional culture, education, and leadership (except Mao)

Cult of personality forms around Mao

Cultural Revolution Traditional culture and education destroyed, intellectuals and leaders imprisoned or killed Chaos causes economic decline and Mao stabilizes revolution through the reorganization of party

Traditional culture and education destroyed, intellectuals and leaders imprisoned or killed

Chaos causes economic decline and Mao stabilizes revolution through the reorganization of party

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