Communication Technology(1)

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Information about Communication Technology(1)
Education

Published on November 25, 2012

Author: joetrichy

Source: authorstream.com

Communication and Information Technology: Communication and Information Technology Communication Technology: Communication Technology Information and the Teacher’s Job Communication, Information, and Management Nonverbal Communication Information Richness and Communication Media The Information Technology Revolution Types of Management Information Systems Limitations of Information Systems Information and the Teacher’s Job: Information and the Teacher’s Job Data Raw, unsummarized, and unanalyzed facts. Information Data that is organized in a meaningful fashion Information Technology the means by which information is acquired, organized, stored, manipulated, and transmitted Factors Influencing the Usefulness of Information: Factors Influencing the Usefulness of Information Information and the Teacher’s Job - Attributes: Information and the Teacher’s Job - Attributes Information and the Teacher’s Job: Information and the Teacher’s Job Management Information System – An information system that Teachers plan and design to provide themselves with the specific information they need Information and the Teacher’s Job: Information and the Teacher’s Job Planning and Delivery To ensure effectiveness, Teachers need information, both from inside and outside the Academia Information and the Teacher’s Job: Information and the Teacher’s Job Organizing the teaching Coordination of various information Teachers have adopted sophisticated IT that helps them coordinate the flow of information Information and the Teacher’s Job: Information and the Teacher’s Job Controlling the Information Teachers achieve control by: establishing measurable goals, measuring actual performance, compare actual performance with goals, take any corrective action Teachers must have information to achieve control over any Academic activity Communication, Information, and Management: Communication, Information, and Management Communication The sharing of information between two or more individuals or groups to reach a common understanding. Importance of Good Communication Increased efficiency in new technologies and skills Improved quality of teaching Increased responsiveness to students More innovation through communication Communication, Information, and Management: Communication, Information, and Management Phases of the Communication Process Transmission phase in which information is shared by two or more people. Feedback phase in which a common understanding is assured . The Communication Process: The Communication Process Communication, Information and Management: Sender – person or group wishing to share information Message – information that a sender wants to share Encoding – translating a message into understandable symbols or language Noise – anything that hampers any stage of the communication process Communication, Information and Management Communication, Information, and Management: Communication, Information, and Management Receiver – person or group for which a message is intended Medium – pathway through which an encoded message is transmitted to a receiver Decoding – interpreting and trying to make sense of a message Communication, Information, and Management: Communication, Information, and Management Teachers and their subordinates can become effective communicators by: Selecting an appropriate medium for each message—there is no one “best” medium. Considering information richness A medium with high richness can carry much more information to aid understanding. Communication, Information, and Management: Communication, Information, and Management Communication occurs on two levels Verbal Communication The encoding of messages into words, either written or spoken Nonverbal The encoding of messages by means of facial expressions, body language, and styles of dress . Nonverbal Communication: Nonverbal Communication Verbal v. Nonverbal Cues When contradictory messages are sent through both levels of communication, most adults see the nonverbal message as more accurate. Nonverbal Communication: Nonverbal Communication Esteem and Eye Contact People with low self-esteem use more eye contact when receiving negative messages than when receiving positive messages. People with high self-esteem use more eye contact when receiving positive messages than when receiving negative messages Nonverbal Communication: Nonverbal Communication The Eye and the Lie When people are conjuring up a lie, their pupils tend to constrict (get smaller). When people tell the lie, the pupils tend to dilate (enlarge). Nonverbal Communication: Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal Communicators Kinesic Behavior Physical Characteristics Paralanguage Proxemics Environmental Timing Nonverbal Communication: Nonverbal Communication Kinesic Behavior – Voluntary Gestures Dramaturgy Touching Protocol responses Expressed attitude Reinforcing statements (“I swear to God”) Changes in Issue Framing Reflex actions Nonverbal Communication: Nonverbal Communication Involuntary Kinesic Behavior Pupillary responses Changes in respiration rate Changes in pulse rate Changes in complexion Changes in perspiration rate Facial spasms Dry mouth Stuttering Yawning Nonverbal Communication: Nonverbal Communication Semi-Voluntary Kinesic Behavior Flinching Fidgeting or change in body posture Eye behavior Averted gaze Intent gaze Holding breath, catching breath, sighs Facial expressions Flustering, agitation, stammering Nervous habits Subconscious attitude Nonverbal Communication: Nonverbal Communication Physical Characteristics Apparel condition and appearance Hair Organizational display Facial wrinkles Overall posture Nonverbal Communication: Nonverbal Communication Paralanguage Voice quality Intonations and inflections Volume Speech rate Pitch Laughter Grunts Squeals Exclamations Nonverbal Communication: Nonverbal Communication Proxemics Conversational distance Respected space Talking distance Gesture span Changing space Backing away “In your face” Leaving Motions Selected seating Nonverbal Communication: Nonverbal Communication Environmental Building and room design Landscaping Furniture Artwork, other displays Lighting Sound control and music Cleanliness Nonverbal Communication: Nonverbal Communication Timing Arriving early or late Keeping others waiting Dramatic pauses before answering Quick, staccato-like responses Interrupting the speaker Over-explaining or filibustering Information Richness and Communication Media: Information Richness and Communication Media Information Richness The amount of information that a communication medium can carry The extent to which the medium enables the sender and receiver to reach a common understanding Information Richness and Communication Media: Information Richness and Communication Media Face-to-Face Has highest information richness. Can take advantage of verbal and nonverbal signals. Provides for instant feedback. Information Richness and Communication Media: Information Richness and Communication Media Management by Wandering Around Face-to-face communication technique in which a Teacher walks around a work area and talks informally with employees about issues and concerns Information Richness and Communication Media: Information Richness and Communication Media Spoken Communication Electronically Transmitted Has the second highest information richness. Telephone conversations are information rich with tone of voice, sender’s emphasis, and quick feedback, but provide no visual nonverbal cues. Information Richness and Communication Media: Information Richness and Communication Media Personally Addressed Written Communication Has a lower richness than the verbal forms of communication, but still is directed at a given person. Excellent media for complex messages requesting follow-up actions by receiver Information Richness and Communication Media: Information Richness and Communication Media E-mail allows telecommuting employees to work from home and keep in contact. The use of e-mail is growing rapidly and e-mail etiquette is expected Information Richness and Communication Media: Information Richness and Communication Media Impersonal Written Communication Has the lowest information richness. Good for messages to many receivers where little or feedback is expected (e.g., newsletters, reports) Information Richness and Communication Media: Information Richness and Communication Media Information Overload A superabundance of information that increases the likelihood that important information is ignored or overlooked and tangential information receives attention The Information Technology Revolution: The Information Technology Revolution The Tumbling Price of Information The cost of computer hardware has dropped dramatically while the power of computers has risen sharply. The Information Technology Revolution: The Information Technology Revolution Wireless communications Cellular service has grown rapidly to over 110 million users. Wireless access now connects laptops to networks. The Information Technology Revolution: The Information Technology Revolution Computer Networks Networking The exchange of information through a group or network of interlinked computers Servers are powerful computers that relay information to client computers connected on a Local Area Network (LAN). The Information Technology Revolution: Figure 13.4 A Typical Three-Tier Information System © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Information Technology Revolution The Information Technology Revolution: The Information Technology Revolution Software Developments Operating system software – software that tells computer hardware how to run Applications software – software designed for a specific task or use Artificial intelligence – behavior performed by a machine that, if performed by a human being, would be called intelligent The Information Technology Revolution: The Information Technology Revolution Traditionally, Teachers have used the organizational hierarchy as the main system for gathering information necessary to make decisions and coordinate and control activities Drawbacks Can reduce timeliness of information Reduces quality of information Tall structure can make for an expensive information system Four Computer-Based Management Information Systems: Four Computer-Based Management Information Systems Types of Management Information Systems © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Types of Management Information Systems: Types of Management Information Systems Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) Systems designed to handle large volumes of routine transactions. First computer-based information systems handling billing, payroll, and supplier payments. Operations Information Systems (OIS) Systems that gather, organize, and summarize comprehensive data in a form of value to Teachers. Can help Teachers with non-routine decisions such as customer service and productivity. Types of Management Information Systems: Types of Management Information Systems Decision Support Systems (DSS) An interactive computer-based management information system with model-building capability that Teachers can use when they must make non-routine decisions Types of Management Information Systems: Types of Management Information Systems Expert Systems and Artificial Intelligence Employ human knowledge captured in a computer to solve problems that ordinarily require human expertise. Uses artificial Intelligence to recognize, formulate, solve problems, and learn from experience. Limitations of Information Systems: Limitations of Information Systems Loss of the Human Element Information systems cannot present all kinds of information accurately. Thick information, which is rich in meaning and not quantifiable, is best suited to human analysis. Information systems should support face-to-face communication, and not be expected to replace it

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