Communication Skills - Updated

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Information about Communication Skills - Updated
Education

Published on April 21, 2010

Author: Maharonga

Source: authorstream.com

Communication Skills : Communication Skills General Member Training Activities 1 Contents : Contents Introduction Steps for Effective Communication Define the Context Identify Media and Timing Option Select and Organize Your Information Deliver Your Message Evaluate Feedback for Continued Success 2 Contents : Contents Barriers and Tips of Communication Barriers to Effective Communication Details of Perception Make A Great First Impression Tips for Reducing Stage Fright Other Components of Communication Nonverbal Communication Listening 3 I. Introduction : I. Introduction Communication – the Definition Conveying your messages to other people clearly, and Receiving information that others are sending to you, with as little distortion as possible. Effective communication requires efforts from both sender and recipient; otherwise it would becomes: A process of fraught with errors A deranged message from the sender A misinterpretation by the recipient 4 I. Introduction : I. Introduction 5 II. Steps for Effective Communication : II. Steps for Effective Communication 6 1. Defining the Context : 1. Defining the Context Define Situation Limit the problem Evaluate the problem within external climate Evaluate the corporate culture that impact the problem 7 2. Consider Media & Timing Options : 2. Consider Media & Timing Options Consider media options Consider your receivers’ media expectation Consider media capabilities Speed Feedback capacity Hard-copy availability Message intensity and complexity Formality Consider media ground rules 8 2. Consider Media & Timing… (cont.) : 2. Consider Media & Timing… (cont.) Consider media efficiency and effectiveness A message is effective when the RURU is achieved Received by the intended audiences Understood the same way of sender and receivers Remembered over a reasonable period of time Used when appropriate occasions arise Communication methods that are efficient are mostly least effective – and vice versa. Good communication is balanced between efficiency and effectiveness. Consider media mixing – or combination 9 2. Consider Media & Timing… (cont.) : 2. Consider Media & Timing… (cont.) Consider Timing Be aware of competing audience concerns Avoid communicate when you are upset Be aware of message sequencing and spacing A wide range of communication tools is available for you. Be Creative and Innovative! 10 3. Select & Organize Information : 3. Select & Organize Information 11 3. Select & Organize Info… (cont.) : 3. Select & Organize Info… (cont.) Grab audience attention and interest with your introduction Grab audience attention: use a statement of topic; use a startling statement or statistic; ask a rhetorical question; use a short quotation, definition, or short narrative; and/or employ audience participation. Preview your purpose and establish listener benefits: preview your purposes, set the agenda, and establish listener benefit. Avoid wasting introduction time: avoid apologetic beginning, avoid potentially offensive beginning, avoid the gimmicky beginning. 12 3. Select & Organize Info… (cont.) : 3. Select & Organize Info… (cont.) Develop the body of your message Organize your main points: chronological order, spatial order, problem-solution, cause-effect, STAR(R) – etc. Support each main point: use specific details or explanation, examples, statistics, formal quotation or testimonials, audiovisual aids – etc. Present a strong conclusion Summarize your key ideas and restate your main points Provide audience with a clear action step Close with a strong final statement 13 3. Select & Organize Info… (cont.) : BIF Advantages Saves time as you go straight to the points. Attracts attention with its direct beginning. Promote efficiency. Disadvantages Is damaging and hurting when communicating bad news. Cannot persuade audiences due to too early conclusion (big idea). Loses audiences’ attention. BILL Advantages Reduce disappointment when delivering bad news. Demonstrate sender’s empathy and desire to maintain goodwill. Is more likely to keep the reader reading the message. Disadvantages Take more time to create & deliver. Is sometimes predictable. Does not get to the point right away and wastes time. 3. Select & Organize Info… (cont.) 14 4. Deliver the Message : 4. Deliver the Message 15 4. Deliver the Message (cont.) : 4. Deliver the Message (cont.) Polishing your verbal delivery skills Speak clearly and expressively, pay attention to timing, avoid distracting vocal patterns, minimize verbalized pauses. Polishing your platform management skills Use notes, visual aids, and handle audiences’ questions constructively. Polishing your nonverbal delivery skills Dress and groom in your audiences’ expectation; Maintain eye contact, posture, gesture, facial expression, and movement. Expressing confidence Prepare thoroughly, rehearse the presentation, be idea-conscious, knowing that you and your audiences need each other. Being yourself and becoming your better self Be yourself, but adapt your style to audience corporate or social culture; and be sensitive to feedback you received. 16 5. Evaluate Feedback for Continued Success : 5. Evaluate Feedback for Continued Success 17 Give feedback Describe something positive first Express constructive criticism Give a specific example Offer an option for a solution Close with another positive statement Solicit feedback Identify your trusted individuals Ask them in advance to evaluate your presentation Specify your areas needed them to pay attention 5. Evaluate Feedback… (cont.) : 5. Evaluate Feedback… (cont.) Receive feedback Develop a feedback-receptive attitude – be open Listen carefully to comments and take notes Ask for specific info/aspect being criticized Notice nonverbal messages from your audiences Correct in direction of the evaluation – don’t overreact. Accept responsibility for any needs and changes Be aware of your audiences’ perception, but show appreciation to their point of view. Evaluate feedback This is internal feedback. Carefully assess how you are being perceived and make proper adjustment. Four areas that people usually perceive you: 1. Goodwill, 2. Expertise, 3. Power, and 4. Confidence. 18 III. Barriers & Tips for Effective Communication : III. Barriers & Tips for Effective Communication Figure out the barriers to achieve effective communication. Study the details of perception, the major influence in interpreting someone or something. Learn the tips to establish a great first impression. Learn some more tips on how to reduce stage fright when doing presentation. 19 In term of communication, we convey our thought through our message. However, people may get it different or differently. 1. Barriers to Effective Communication : 1. Barriers to Effective Communication Filtering Sender manipulate info so that it will be seen more favorably by the receivers. Selective Perception People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, and attitude. Information Overload A condition in which info inflow exceeds an individual’s processing capacity. 20 1. Barriers to Effective… (cont.) : 1. Barriers to Effective… (cont.) Communication Apprehension Undue tension and anxiety about oral communication, written communication, or both. Emotions How a receiver feels at the time a message is received will influence how the message is interpreted. Language Words have different meanings to different people. 21 2. Details of Perception : 2. Details of Perception Perception a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. People’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself. The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviorally important. 22 2.1. Factors Influencing Perception : 2.1. Factors Influencing Perception 23 2.2. Stages of Perception : 2.2. Stages of Perception Selective exposure The tendency to expose ourselves to info that reinforces rather than contradicts our beliefs. Selective perception The tendency to see, hear, and believe only what we want to see, hear, and believe. Selective retention Tendency to remember better the things that reinforce our beliefs than those that oppose them. Selective attention The tendency, when we expose ourselves to info, to focus on certain cue & ignore others. SELECTION 24 2.2. Stages of Perception (cont.) : 2.2. Stages of Perception (cont.) Figure: the focal point of a person’s attention. Ground: the background against which a person’s focused attention occurs. Proximity The principle that objects physically closed to each other will be perceived as a unit or group. Similarity The principle that elements are grouped together because they share similar attributes. Closure The tendency to fill in missing info in order to complete any otherwise incomplete figure. ORGANIZATION The last stage is “Interpretation”, in which we assign meaning to external stimuli according to the internal stimuli and the context. 25 2.3. Errors in Perception : 2.3. Errors in Perception 26 Slide 27: 27 3. Make A Great First Impression : 3. Make A Great First Impression Tips in making a great first impression Be on time, be yourself, be at ease Present yourself appropriately A word about individuality A winning smile Be open and confident Small talk goes a long way Be positive, courteous, and attentive At a new encounter, you are evaluated and another person’s impression of you is formed. 28 4. Tips for Reducing Stage Fright : 4. Tips for Reducing Stage Fright Be well prepared. Rehearse several times. Co-operate with your body - rest, eat and sleep well beforehand. Dress in clothes that make you feel good. Take several deep breaths to relax your body. Concentrate on the messages you want to get over to your audience. Move around and release your nervous energy. Visualize yourself doing well. Remember that your audience want you to do well. 29 4. Tips for Reducing… (cont.) : 4. Tips for Reducing… (cont.) Think of a similar occasion in the past when you did it before and did it well. Think about it for a moment. Make no negative confessions "I'm so nervous“. Put the situation into perspective. If you get nerves during your talk, move around or do something different to get into a different "state". Pick out some friendly faces and make eye contact with them. If you make a mistake you make a mistake, laugh at it and the audience with laugh with you. Make a joke out of it. The more you do it the better you will become. Practice makes perfect. 30 IV. Other Components of Communication : IV. Other Components of Communication 31 1. Nonverbal Communication : 1. Nonverbal Communication Definition – the process of using messages that are not words to generate meaning. Functions of “Nonverbal Communication” Express emotions Express interpersonal attitudes Accompany and support speech Self-presentation of one’s personality Rituals (greetings) 32 1.1. Interaction of Verbal & NV Codes : 1.1. Interaction of Verbal & NV Codes Repetition: the same message is sent both verbally and nonverbally. Emphasis: nonverbal cues strengthen verbal messages. Complementation: nonverbal and verbal codes add meaning to each other and expand the meaning of either message alone. Contradiction: verbal and nonverbal message conflict. Regulation: nonverbal cues are used to monitor and control interactions with others. Substitution: nonverbal codes are used instead of verbal codes. 33 1.2. Difficulties and Solutions of NVC : 1.2. Difficulties and Solutions of NVC Difficulties in NVC One code communicates a variety of meanings A variety of codes communicate the same meaning Interpretation of intentionality vary Possible solutions to improve NVC Consider communication context Consider your audiences Use descriptive feedback to minimize misunderstanding 34 2.3. Nonverbal Codes : 2.3. Nonverbal Codes 1. Kinesics: the study of bodily movements, including body movements, postures, gestures, and facial expressions. 35 2.3. Nonverbal Codes (cont.) : 2.3. Nonverbal Codes (cont.) 2. Physical attraction Particular physical features, such as face, skin color, bright eyes, medium build – are viewed as physical attraction. 36 Physical attractiveness generally leads to more social success in adulthood as they receive higher initial credibility ratings than do those who are viewed as unattractive. 2.3. Nonverbal Codes (cont.) : 2.3. Nonverbal Codes (cont.) 3. Space: the use of space & distance to indicate inter-personal relationship and communication. 37 2.3. Nonverbal Codes (cont.) : 2.3. Nonverbal Codes (cont.) 4. Time: the way people organize and use time may conveys several qualities such as task-oriented, people oriented, punctuality, and so on. 5. Vocal Cue: the uses of nonword sounds and non-word characteristics of language, such as pitch, volume, rate, and quality to influence the meaning of the verbal message. 38 2.3. Nonverbal Codes (cont.) : 2.3. Nonverbal Codes (cont.) 6. Touching: it is when we use physical touches to communicate. Because it always involves invasion of another’s personal space, it commands attention. 39 2.3. Nonverbal Codes (cont.) : 2.3. Nonverbal Codes (cont.) 7. Clothing and other artifacts: the way people dress and wearing ornaments hold communicative potential as nonverbal codes. 40 2. Listening : 2. Listening Definition – the active process of receiving, constructing meaning from, and responding to spoken and/or nonverbal messages. It involves the ability to retain information, as well as to react empathically or appreciatively to spoken and/or nonverbal message. 41 2.1. Purposes of Listening : 2.1. Purposes of Listening Why do we listen? We listen to obtain information. We listen to understand. We listen to learn. We listen for enjoyment. By having good listening skill, you can better influence, persuade, and negotiate; and avoid conflicts and misunderstandings. Researchers have found that individuals recall only 50% of a message immediately after listening to it and only 25% after a short delay. 42 2.2. Barriers to Listening : 2.2. Barriers to Listening Physical Distractions All the stimuli in the environment that keep you from focusing on the message. Mental Distractions The wandering of the mind when it is supposed to be focusing on something. Semantic Distractions Overesponding to an emotion-laden word or concept. Factual Distractions Focusing so intently on the details that you miss the main point/idea of the message. NOISE 43 2.2. Barriers to Listening (cont.) : 2.2. Barriers to Listening (cont.) Status Devoting to attention based on social standing, rank, or perceived value of others. Sights and Sounds Letting the appearance or voice qualities affect your listening. Stereotypes Treating individuals as if they are the same as others in a given category or group. PERCEPTION OF OTHERS 44 2.2. Barriers to Listening (cont.) : 2.2. Barriers to Listening (cont.) Egocentrism Excessive self-focus or seeing yourself as the central concern in every conversation. Experiential Superiority Looking down on others as if their experience with life is not as good as yours. Personal Bias Your own predispositions interfere your ability to interpret information correctly. Defensiveness Acting Threatened and feeling like you must defend what you have said or done. YOURSELF 45 2.3. Becoming a Better Listener : 2.3. Becoming a Better Listener Keep in mind that the most important of “active listening” is that the listeners try to capture the message and also encourage the speaker to utter all or most of his words. Five key elements of active listening: Pay attention Show that you’re listening Provide feedback Defer judgment Respond appropriately - Look at the speaker directly. - Don’t mentally prepare a rebuttal. - Avoid being distracted by everything around. - Listen to the speaker’s body language. - Most importantly, listen to the speaker! No one else! - Nod occasionally - Smile and use other facial expression - Saying ‘yes’ or ‘uh huh’ to convey your attention - Posture as open to and inviting the speaker - Reflect what has been said by paraphrasing - Ask question to clarify certain points - Summarize the speaker’s comment periodically - Allow the speaker to finish - Do not interrupt with counterargument. - Be open and honest in your response - Assert your opinion respectfully - Treat others the ways you want to be treated 46 Summing-Up : 47 Summing-Up Understand the communication and its process. Define situation, audiences, and your objectives in the communication. Select the most appropriate media and time for delivering your message. Organize your message properly and effectively in accordance with the communication context – situation, audiences, and your objectives. Deliver your powerful message through your best communication skills – practices make perfect. Learn to give and receive feedback, and take necessary actions for continued improvement. Understand some important barriers that you usually face. Don’t judge book by its covers. Don’t judge people at first sight. However, most of the time you are judged and evaluated at the first encounter, and another person’s impression on you is formed. Realize that nonverbals somehow even convey more meaning than do verbals, so carefully consider your audiences and the context. To be an effective communicator, you need to be a good listener. Sources and References : Sources and References Sherron Bienvenu, Paul R. Timm, Business Communication - Discovering Strategy, Developing Skills, First Edition, ISBN: 0-13-0913-138 Pearson, Nelson, Titsworth, Harter, Human Communication, Second Edition, ISBN: 2-00-4058-568 Stephen P. Robins, Organizational Behavior, Tenth Edition, ISBN: 0-13-018635-X Sean McPheat, How to Make Great Conversation and Small Talk. Allan Pease, Body Language – How to Read Others’ Thoughts by Their Gestures, ISBN: 0-85969-406-2. 48

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