# Communication - Frequency Modulation Class 12 Part-2

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Information about Communication - Frequency Modulation Class 12 Part-2
Education

Published on March 16, 2014

Author: rahulkushwaha06

Source: slideshare.net

FREQUENCY MODULATION The Chapter includes: • Wave Forms • Theory • Modulation Index • Bandwidth & Bessel functions • Merits & Demerits “The process of changing the frequency of a carrier wave in accordance with the AF signal.” Created by C. Mani, Principal, K V No.1, AFS, Jalahalli West, Bangalore

Wave Forms Uniform AF signal modulating the Carrier wave frequency Non-uniform AF signal modulating the Carrier wave frequency (Courtesy: Internet)

Theory: The instantaneous frequency ‘ν’of modulated wave is: ν = νc + kEm cos ωmt (where k is proportionality constant which depends on the modulating system) If cos ωmt = ± 1, then ν = νc ± kEm or ν = νc ± δ (where δ = kEm is maximum or peak deviation in carrier frequency) Note that δ depends on the magnitude of Em and not upon νc. Instantaneous value of FM voltage is: e = Ec cos θ θ is given by the following steps: d θ = ω dt ⇒ d θ = 2π ν dt ⇒ d θ = 2π (νc + kEm cos ωmt ) dt On integration, we get θ = ωct + (δ/ νm) sin ωmt ∴ e = Ec cos [ωct + (δ/ νm) sin ωmt] = Ec cos (ωct + mf sin ωmt) e m= Em cos ωmt & ec = Ec cos (ωct + φ)

Deviation: The amount by which the frequency of the carrier wave is changed from its original unmodulated frequency. The rate at which this change occurs is equal to modulating frequency. Modulation Index: M I for F M is the ratio of maximum frequency deviation to the modulating frequency. mf = δ/ νm Observations: 1. mf is measured in radians. 2. Eqn. for frquency modulated wave is sine of sine function which gives a complex solution whereby the modulated wave consists of a carrier frequency and infinite number of pairs of side bands (Bessel functions). 3. In F M, the overall amplitude and hence the total transmitted power remains constant.

Band Width & Bessel Functions (Courtesy: Internet)

Merits: 1. FM is inherently and practically free from noise. 2. Noise can be further reduced by increasing δ. 3. FM receivers can further be improved with the help of limiters to remove amplitude changes, if any. 4. All the transmitted power is useful in FM. 5. Many independent transmitters can be operated on same frequency without interference. Demerits: 1. About 10 times wider channel is required by FM as compared to AM. 2. Area of reception for FM is much smaller than for AM. 3. FM receivers and transmitters are very complex and costly. END

Merits: 1. FM is inherently and practically free from noise. 2. Noise can be further reduced by increasing δ. 3. FM receivers can further be improved with the help of limiters to remove amplitude changes, if any. 4. All the transmitted power is useful in FM. 5. Many independent transmitters can be operated on same frequency without interference. Demerits: 1. About 10 times wider channel is required by FM as compared to AM. 2. Area of reception for FM is much smaller than for AM. 3. FM receivers and transmitters are very complex and costly. END

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January 23, 2018

January 23, 2018

January 23, 2018

January 23, 2018

January 23, 2018

January 23, 2018

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