advertisement

Communication As A Spatial Problem

50 %
50 %
advertisement
Information about Communication As A Spatial Problem

Published on December 6, 2008

Author: uberme

Source: slideshare.net

Description

space, communication, research, network analysis, sorin adam matei, purdue
advertisement

Sorin A. Matei Purdue University Communication as a Spatial Problem: Methods and Theories

Sorin A. Matei

Purdue University

One spring day…. A long time ago, too long to mention… I receive a letter From USC Dear Mr. Matei We are glad to announce you that you have been accepted….

A long time ago, too long to mention…

I receive a letter

From USC

Dear Mr. Matei

We are glad to announce you that you have been accepted….

Three months later, I am on the road…

Philosophical assumptions Space is constructed Space is social Space is a set of relationally defined locations Space is about vicinities and the communication processes they enable Vicinity is that space defined by our communication practices

Space is constructed

Space is social

Space is a set of relationally defined locations

Space is about vicinities and the communication processes they enable

Vicinity is that space defined by our communication practices

Space is of two kinds

Space is of two kinds… Space is everywhere

Space is connections Space is intangible Space is a set of network relationships Space is want we imagine space to be Space is social and communicative

Space is intangible

Space is a set of network relationships

Space is want we imagine space to be

Space is social and communicative

Looking at space from a meso- perspective How to (relatively) small scale communities exist in space? What kind of space? How does communication intersect with space? How does this intersection matter?

How to (relatively) small scale communities exist in space?

What kind of space?

How does communication intersect with space?

How does this intersection matter?

Integrity and viability of social spaces depends on communication infrastructures Institutional: Media Channels Content: Group narratives, self-image, identity, perception of others, perception of space Communication infrastructure fosters a storytelling environment and a mental imagery of a place that encourages residents to image themselves as a cohesive group The communication infrastructure ceases to have a positive effect (integration) when it fosters fear and distrust – when it generates mental maps of fear especially during and after urban conflicts Thematic assumptions. Three propositions

Integrity and viability of social spaces depends on communication infrastructures

Institutional: Media Channels

Content: Group narratives, self-image, identity, perception of others, perception of space

Communication infrastructure

fosters a storytelling environment and a mental imagery of a place that encourages residents to image themselves as a cohesive group

The communication infrastructure ceases to have a positive effect (integration) when it fosters fear and distrust – when it generates mental maps of fear especially during and after urban conflicts

How do you capture affective mental imagery (geographies of fear)? How do you assess the spatial goodness of fit between mental maps of fear and objective spatial reality? How do you detect the role of the communication infrastructure in constructing spatial images of fear? Measuring communicative construction of space and fear

How do you capture affective mental imagery (geographies of fear)?

How do you assess the spatial goodness of fit between mental maps of fear and objective spatial reality?

How do you detect the role of the communication infrastructure in constructing spatial images of fear?

Multilingual Telephone Surveys 1812 Households LA 801 Lexington 699 Brasov Communication Behavior Media Connections Belonging Index Avoidance/Desirability Demographics LA Focus Groups Community Issues Brasov/Lexington mail-out Sociospatial Mapping Of fear/Comfort RESEARCH DESIGN

LOS ANGELES STUDY AREAS REFERENCE MAP

Paper and pencil map Mental mapping Methodology

Westside Sample COLOR KEY Feared Unknown Cautious Comfortable Affective Maps of Los Angeles example

COLOR KEY Very feared = -2 Feared =- 1 Unknown = 0 Cautious = 1 Comfortable = 2 ArcView Map digitization 1 -1 2 0 Constructing a mental map Note: Lexington & Brasov, added one color to balance scale Average the maps using their similar pixel structure

Los Angeles comfort composite map

Lexington avoidance vs. desirability maps

Brasov center-periphery geography of fear with focus on Gypsy/migrant worker area

Research questions Spatial Fear: Perceptions and Reality General Is likelihood of crime victimization correctly represented in people's geographic mental maps? Are social indicators of area desirability associated with fear? How do communication channels match avoidance/preference goals and feelings in mapping avoidance/desirability? LA Specific Are comfort and fear color-coded? What is the epicenter of fear in Los Angeles? What shaped the epicenter of fear in LA? (conflict related)

Spatial Fear: Perceptions and Reality

General

Is likelihood of crime victimization correctly represented in people's geographic mental maps?

Are social indicators of area desirability associated with fear?

How do communication channels match avoidance/preference goals and feelings in mapping avoidance/desirability?

LA Specific

Are comfort and fear color-coded?

What is the epicenter of fear in Los Angeles?

What shaped the epicenter of fear in LA? (conflict related)

LA findings: TV and interpersonal connector maps Suggest that strong connection to the communication infrastructure increases fear Fear greatest of Hispanic/Black populations

LA violence and fear: The fear epicenter is situated in the 1965 riot hotspot

LA: TV instills greater fear of Watts Dependent on television Dependent on newspapers People with strongest connections to television fear Watts the most

Brasov vs. Lexington goals, avoidance, desirability, media Americans > Romanians fear areas due to safety concerns Romanians > Americans prefer areas due to their perceived qualities (urban architecture, resources, etc.) Romanians > Americans fear neighborhoods due to ethnic/cultural/social reasons Americans > Romanians prefer areas due to the quality of their people. Television affects the most perception of safety in both groups (as do newspapers and other people, but not significant under log linear testing) 43 44 8 17 4 11 15 3 Lexington 50 53 0 20 25 23 1 10 Braşov                 People related 37 37 7 15 4 12 25 13 Lexington 29 33 12 17 10 15 27 30 Braşov                 Instrumental reasons 39 45 8 19 5 11 53 19 Lexington 33 40 10 14 11 13 69 15 Braşov                 Perceived place qualities 49 54 16 39 2 31 6 64 Lexington 27 43 17 25 22 31 3 45 Braşov Prefer Avoid Prefer Avoid Prefer Avoid Prefer Avoid Safety related Other People Newspapers Television Overall Percent  

Americans > Romanians fear areas due to safety concerns

Romanians > Americans prefer areas due to their perceived qualities (urban architecture, resources, etc.)

Romanians > Americans fear neighborhoods due to ethnic/cultural/social reasons

Americans > Romanians prefer areas due to the quality of their people.

Television affects the most perception of safety in both groups (as do newspapers and other people, but not significant under log linear testing)

Conclusions/recommendations Perceptual redlining (LA, but NOT ONLY) Television creates and maintains image of fear Combination TV/interpersonal effect on maps of fear Television involved in proroguing images of past conflict Interpersonal communication heightens media effects Recommendation It the TV, stupid! Education of television producers/station managers TV constructs space TV dramatic coverage during urban conflict constructs fear TV constructs stereotyping even when it uses spatial labeling Public/audience education Watch out what you are fearing! It might come true! http:// www.mentalmaps.info

Perceptual redlining (LA, but NOT ONLY)

Television creates and maintains image of fear

Combination TV/interpersonal effect on maps of fear

Television involved in proroguing images of past conflict

Interpersonal communication heightens media effects

Recommendation

It the TV, stupid!

Education of television producers/station managers

TV constructs space

TV dramatic coverage during urban conflict constructs fear

TV constructs stereotyping even when it uses spatial labeling

Public/audience education

Watch out what you are fearing! It might come true!

http:// www.mentalmaps.info

Looking at space from a macro-perspective What kind of spaces do telecommunication ties describe? How do nations bunch together in this space? Over time, do we see a process of uniformization or of fragmentation? Heterogenization vs. Homogenization?

What kind of spaces do telecommunication ties describe?

How do nations bunch together in this space?

Over time, do we see a process of uniformization or of fragmentation?

Heterogenization vs. Homogenization?

Research question Three ways of asking the same question: If we analyze flows of exchanges between nations, should we expect an increasing alignment of nations that share same cultural/civilizational characteristics? Do nations that speak the same language or have the same beliefs send more information to one another? Is there evidence of a “heterogenization” effect in technoscape?

Three ways of asking the same question:

If we analyze flows of exchanges between nations, should we expect an increasing alignment of nations that share same cultural/civilizational characteristics?

Do nations that speak the same language or have the same beliefs send more information to one another?

Is there evidence of a “heterogenization” effect in technoscape?

Data 2 who-to-whom matrices—networks—of international telephony ties between 107/110 nations (80% world population) – 1989 – 1999 Matrices define “telecommunicative neighbors” Countries are neighbors of each other if they send at least 5% of their traffic to each other 5% threshold is based on analysis of tie distribution Logarithmic A nation typically sends 80% of its outgoing traffic to 4 nations These nations typically absorb between 5 to 90% of the traffic (average 35%), each All the other nations (109) absorb under 5%

2 who-to-whom matrices—networks—of international telephony ties between 107/110 nations (80% world population) – 1989 – 1999

Matrices define “telecommunicative neighbors”

Countries are neighbors of each other if they send at least 5% of their traffic to each other

5% threshold is based on analysis of tie distribution

Logarithmic

A nation typically sends 80% of its outgoing traffic to 4 nations

These nations typically absorb between 5 to 90% of the traffic (average 35%), each

All the other nations (109) absorb under 5%

Data cntd. Node attributes: cultural afilliation (linguistic): rated civilizational affiliation (religious): percentage 4 linguistic and 4 civilizational areals English French Arabic Spanish Protestant Catholic Islamic Buddhist-Hindu

Node attributes:

cultural afilliation (linguistic): rated

civilizational affiliation (religious): percentage

4 linguistic and 4 civilizational areals

English

French

Arabic

Spanish

Protestant

Catholic

Islamic

Buddhist-Hindu

Statistical Analysis Spatial correlation (Moran’s I) Measures likelihood of countries that have high values on certain attributes to be surrounded by nations that are like them Global and Local Versions

Spatial correlation (Moran’s I)

Measures likelihood of countries that have high values on certain attributes to be surrounded by nations that are like them

Global and Local Versions

Global Moran’s I Global version: what is the magnitude of spatial association in the entire dataset? 0 - 1: Countries are systematically surrounded by nations with similar values on the key attribute -1 - 0: Countries are systematically surrounded by nations with dissimilar values on the key attribute 0: No association

Global version: what is the magnitude of spatial association in the entire dataset?

0 - 1: Countries are systematically surrounded by nations with similar values on the key attribute

-1 - 0: Countries are systematically surrounded by nations with dissimilar values on the key attribute

0: No association

Local Moran’s I Magnitude of spatial association between each observation and its immediate neighbors Values range between larger values Compares the value of each observation with the average of the observations considered to be its neighbor Produces cluster of “highest correlated” nations

Magnitude of spatial association between each observation and its immediate neighbors

Values range between larger values

Compares the value of each observation with the average of the observations considered to be its neighbor

Produces cluster of “highest correlated” nations

Results: Global values Global Moran’s I values increase for all, except one areal, Arabic Value increases are significant (t-test for paired samples), except for the Islamic areal There is an increasing tendency of countries that are similar culturally or civilizationally to cluster together in telecommunicative space

Global Moran’s I values increase for all, except one areal, Arabic

Value increases are significant (t-test for paired samples), except for the Islamic areal

There is an increasing tendency of countries that are similar culturally or civilizationally to cluster together in telecommunicative space

Results: local values Clusters are generally bigger in 1999; Overall more countries are + highly correlated with their neighbors in 1999 (9 join, 4 drop) Average values for cluster-level local correlations generally increase in 1999 (exception, English areal) Supporting evidence, the burden of the proof is on the global analysis Clusters= Local moran value > 0 and significant

Clusters are generally bigger in 1999; Overall more countries are + highly correlated with their neighbors in 1999 (9 join, 4 drop)

Average values for cluster-level local correlations generally increase in 1999 (exception, English areal)

Supporting evidence, the burden of the proof is on the global analysis

Discussion Evidence for heterogenization Countries of common cultural and civilizational heritage more likely to be surrounded by their peers Small decline in English cluster size a fortiori evidence Exception to the rule: Islamic & Arabic areals Arabic nations less likely to connect with each other (rich nations leave poorer nations behind) Islamic nations stagnant (no sig diff) In these areals we can talk about a loss of local ties Signs for the backlash to come?

Evidence for heterogenization

Countries of common cultural and civilizational heritage more likely to be surrounded by their peers

Small decline in English cluster size a fortiori evidence

Exception to the rule: Islamic & Arabic areals

Arabic nations less likely to connect with each other (rich nations leave poorer nations behind)

Islamic nations stagnant (no sig diff)

In these areals we can talk about a loss of local ties

Signs for the backlash to come?

Let’s have a conversation How can we apply these methods to organizational communication? How can we extend this paradigm? What kind of research issues would you address with this toolkit?

How can we apply these methods to organizational communication?

How can we extend this paradigm?

What kind of research issues would you address with this toolkit?

Add a comment

Related pages

Globalization and the “Spatial Fix” - publish.UP Home

Globalization and the “Spatial Fix ... and communication nets, ... One such strategy is to seek out some “spatial fix” to the problem.
Read more

GRAPHICAL COMMUNICATION & SPATIAL ANALYSIS

GRAPHICAL COMMUNICATION & SPATIAL ... technical skills and personal discipline required to be successful utilizing sketching abilities for creative problem
Read more

Spatial analysis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Spatial analysis or spatial statistics includes any of the ... analysis and communication of geographic ... Boundary problem (in spatial analysis) Spatial ...
Read more

Spatial Sense: Problem Solving, Communication, and ...

Spatial Sense: Problem Solving, Communication, and Reasoning (Hot Math Topics, Grade 1) [Carole Greenes, Linda Schulman Dacey, Rika Spungin] on Amazon.com ...
Read more

Communication Problems in a Business | Chron.com

Communication Problems in a Business ... Communication problems occur when care isn’t taken to make an effort to ... The Communication Problem Solver;
Read more

The Nature of Gestures' Beneficial Role in Spatial Problem ...

The Nature of Gestures’ Beneficial Role in Spatial ... role in reasoning and communication, ... of Gestures' Beneficial Role in Spatial Problem ...
Read more

Spatial - definition of spatial by The Free Dictionary

Define spatial. spatial synonyms, spatial pronunciation, spatial translation, English dictionary definition of spatial. also spa·cial adj. Of, ...
Read more

Spatial | Definition of Spatial by Merriam-Webster

When patients have this kind of problem, ... They also share a peculiar set of mental impairments. Most stumble over the simplest spatial tasks, ...
Read more

Problem Solving and Analytical Skills - University of Kent

Problem Solving and Analytical Skills . ... such as communication, ... of a time when you have successfully resolved a complex problem: 1: ...
Read more