Communication and Consumer Behavior

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Information about Communication and Consumer Behavior
Marketing

Published on February 27, 2014

Author: omershahzad91

Source: slideshare.net

Communication and Consumer Behaviour Consumer Behaviour Presentation Ma’am Farasat

Waqas Javed MB12-05

What is Communication?  The transmission of a message from a sender to a receiver via a medium of transmission.

Elements of the Communication Process  The Message Initiator (the Source)  The Sender  The Receiver  The Medium  The Message  The Target Audience (the Receivers)  Feedback - the Receiver’s Response

Basic Communication Model ■ The Communication Process Source Encoding Message Feedback Medium Decoding Receiver

Factors Affecting Communication Process  Characteristics of the source  Message characteristics  Characteristics of the receiver  Characteristics of the medium

Message Characteristics  Source Credibility – Reputation of the retailer – Consumer’s previous experience with product – Reputation of the medium

Message Characteristics  Message Structure and Presentation – Resonance or wordplay – Message Framing: positive or negative – One-sided versus Two-sided Messages – Comparative Advertising – Order Effects – Repetition

Message Characteristics  Advertising Appeal – Factual or Emotional Used  Types of Emotional Appeals – Fear – Humor – Abrasive advertising – Sex in advertising

M. Amir MB-12-50

Medium  Medium can be: – Impersonal (mass media) – Interpersonal (with salesperson or a friend) – Interactive (direct feedback possibility exists)

Characteristics of the Medium - Newspaper  Access to large audiences  Effective for local reach  Flexible  Fast  Feedback possible through coupon redemption, etc.  Not selective  Short message life  Clutter  Cost varies based on ad size and vehicle circulation

Characteristics of the Medium - Magazines  Highly selective  Selective binding possible  High quality production  High credibility  Long message life  High pass along rate  High clutter  Delayed and indirect feedback  Rates vary based on circulation and selectivity

Characteristics of the Medium - Television  Large audiences possible  Appeals to many senses  Emotion and attention possible  Demonstration possible  Very high costs overall  Long lead time  High clutter  Short message life  Viewers can avoid exposure with zapping  Day-after recall tests for feedback

Characteristics of the Medium - Radio  High geographic and demographic selectivity  Audio only  Relatively inexpensive  Good local coverage  Short exposure time  High clutter  Zapping possible  Delayed feedback through day-after recall tests

Characteristics of the Medium - Internet  Potential for audience selectivity  Customized tracking possible and other feedback tools possible  Useful for branding and reinforcement of messages  Demographic skew to audience  Very high clutter  Zapping possible  Great variation in pricing  Privacy concerns

Characteristics of the Medium – Direct Mail  High audience selectivity  Personalization possible  Novel, interesting stimuli possible  Low clutter  Perception of junk mail  Feedback possible through response

Characteristics of the Medium – Direct Marketing  Development of databases  High audience selectivity  Relatively free of clutter  Privacy concerns  Measurable responses  Cost per inquiry, cost per sale, revenue per ad can be calculated

Characteristics of the Target Market  Personal characteristics and comprehension  Involvement and congruency  Mood  Barriers to communication – Selective exposure to messages – Psychological noise

Feedback: The Receiver’s Response  Feedback should – Promptly – Accurately be gathered:

Humayoon Askry MB-12-14

Issues in Credibility  Credibility of Informal Sources  Credibility of Impersonal, Neutral Sources  Credibility of Spokespersons and Endorsers  Sleeper Effect

The Message Source Issues with Credibility  Credibility of Informal Sources  Credibility of Formal Sources  Credibility of Spokespersons and Endorsers  Message Credibility   Includes word of mouth These sources also called opinion leaders  Informal sources may not always be credible

The Message Source Issues with Credibility  Credibility of Informal Sources  Credibility of Formal Sources  Credibility of Spokespersons and Endorsers  Message Credibility    Neutral sources have the greatest credibility Source credibility judged on past performance, reputation, servic e, quality, spokesperson image, retailers, social responsibility Institutional advertising used to promote favorable company image

The Message Source Issues with Credibility  Credibility of Informal Sources  Credibility of Formal Sources  Credibility of Spokespersons and Endorsers  Message Credibility  Effectiveness related to: – The message – Synergy between endorser and type of product – Demographic characteristics of endorser – Corporate credibility – Endorsement wording

This ad has strong synergy between the endorser and the type of product.

The Message Source Issues with Credibility  Credibility of Informal Sources  Credibility of Formal Sources  Credibility of Spokespersons and Endorsers  Message Credibility   Credibility of retailers Reputation of the medium that carries the ad  Consumer’s previous experience with product

MB-12-32 Khurram Khalil

Sleeper Effect  The idea that both positive and negative credibility effects tend to disappear after a period of time.

Barriers to Communication  Selective Perception  Psychological Noise

Communication and Marketing Strategy  Establish communication objectives  Select target audience  Choose the best media  Develop suitable message strategies – Match message with audience characteristics – Develop suitable message structure, presentation – Develop suitable message appeals  Reduce barriers to effective communication  Measure effectiveness of marketing communications

Designing Persuasive Communications  Message Presentation – Resonance – Message Framing – Comparative advertising – One-sided Versus Two-sided Messages – Order Effects

Omer Shahzad MB-12-08

Designing Persuasive Communications  Message Presentation – Resonance – Message Framing – Comparative advertising – One-sided Versus Two-sided Messages – Order Effects

Designing Persuasive Communications Message Structure and Presentation  Resonance  Message framing  Comparative advertising  Order effects   Wordplay Used to create a double meaning when used with a relevant picture

Wordplay on Cigarettes Cases of Morven Gold

Designing Persuasive Communications Message Structure and Presentation  Resonance  Message framing  Comparative advertising  Order effects    Positive framing Negative framing One-sided vs. two-sided

Positive Framing in Fair & Lovely Ad

This ad uses negative framing.

Designing Persuasive Communications Message Structure and Presentation  Resonance  Message framing  Comparative advertising  Order effects  Marketer claims product superiority over another brand  Useful for positioning

Wordplay on Death Cigarettes

Comparative ad scenario between GoAir and KingFisher Airlines

Dove in a comparative ad against Pantene

Designing Persuasive Communications Message Structure and Presentation  Resonance  Message framing  Comparative advertising  Order effects   Primacy effect Recency effect

MB-12-48 Nouman Ashraf

Advertising Appeals  Fear  Humor  Abrasive advertising  Sex in advertising  Audience participation

Fear Appeal

Sex in Advertisement Appeal

Humor Appeal

Impact of Humor on Advertising •Humor attracts attention. •Humor does not harm comprehension. •Humor is not more effective at increasing persuasion. •Humor does not enhance source credibility. •Humor enhances liking. •Humor that is relevant to the product is superior to humor that is unrelated to the product. •Audience demographic factors affect the response to humorous advertising appeals. •The nature of the product affects the appropriateness of a humorous treatment. •Humor is more effective with existing products than with new products. •Humor is more appropriate for low-involvement products and feeling-oriented products than for high-involvement products.

Message Effectiveness  Market communications are designed for a target audience  The effectiveness can be measured through communication feedback

Communication Feedback  Exposure effects  Persuasion effects  Sales effects

Summary  Communication process  Barriers to communication  Modes of designing an effective message  Effective advertising appeals  Feedback importance for message effectiveness

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