Common Laboratory Procedures

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Information about Common Laboratory Procedures

Published on April 29, 2008

Author: pinoynurze2

Source: slideshare.net

Description

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Common Laboratory procedures: Nursing Responsibilities and Implications pinoynursing.webkotoh.com

3 Phases of Diagnostic testing Pretest Client preparation Intra-test specimen collection and VS monitoring Post-test Monitoring and follow-up nursing care

Pretest

Client preparation

Intra-test

specimen collection and VS monitoring

Post-test

Monitoring and follow-up nursing care

Related Nursing Diagnoses Anxiety Fear Impaired physical mobility Deficient knowledge

Anxiety

Fear

Impaired physical mobility

Deficient knowledge

Blood tests

BLOOD TESTS CBC Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, WBC, RBC and platelet Serum Electrolytes Arterial blood gases Blood Chemistry Drug and Hormone Assay

CBC

Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, WBC, RBC and platelet

Serum Electrolytes

Arterial blood gases

Blood Chemistry

Drug and Hormone Assay

Complete Blood Count Specimen: Venous blood Pretest : obtain syringe, tourniquet, vial with appropriate anticoagulant Intratest: Cubital vein commonly used for venipuncture Post-test : direct pressure and observe for bleeding, label vial

Specimen: Venous blood

Pretest : obtain syringe, tourniquet, vial with appropriate anticoagulant

Intratest: Cubital vein commonly used for venipuncture

Post-test : direct pressure and observe for bleeding, label vial

Normal values for CBC RBC (M) 4.7-6.1/ (F) 4.2-5.4 Hgb (M) 14-18/ (F) 12-16 mg/dL Hct (M) 42-52/ (F) 33-47 % WBC 5-10,000 cells/cubic cm Differential count Neutrophils- 55- 70% Lymphocytes- 20-40% Monocytes- 2-5% Eosinophils- 1-4% Platelets 150,000-400,000

RBC (M) 4.7-6.1/ (F) 4.2-5.4

Hgb (M) 14-18/ (F) 12-16 mg/dL

Hct (M) 42-52/ (F) 33-47 %

WBC 5-10,000 cells/cubic cm

Differential count

Neutrophils- 55- 70%

Lymphocytes- 20-40%

Monocytes- 2-5%

Eosinophils- 1-4%

Platelets 150,000-400,000

 

Table. 11.2

 

CBC PARASITIC infection Increased Eosinophils CHRONIC bacterial infection VIRAL infection Increased Lymphocytes ACUTE bacterial infection Increased Neutrophils More than 10, 000 Increased WBC (Leukocytosis) 5-10,000 cell/cm3 Normal WBC count

Serum Electrolytes Specimen: venous blood Pretest/Intratest/Post-test- same Commonly ordered: Sodium- 135-145 mEq/L Potassium- 3.5-5.0 mEq/L Chloride- 95-105 mEq/L Magnesium- 1.3 to 2.1 mEq/L Calcium- 8 to 10 mg/dL

Specimen: venous blood

Pretest/Intratest/Post-test- same

Commonly ordered:

Sodium- 135-145 mEq/L

Potassium- 3.5-5.0 mEq/L

Chloride- 95-105 mEq/L

Magnesium- 1.3 to 2.1 mEq/L

Calcium- 8 to 10 mg/dL

Serum Electrolytes Problems can be Hyper  if increased Hypo  if decreased

Problems can be

Hyper  if increased

Hypo  if decreased

Blood Chemistry Specimen: Venous blood, serum Pretest/Intratrest/Post-test-same Examined are enzymes, hormones, lipid profile BUN , Creatinine, etc… Place patient on NPO for 8 h * Creatinine is produced relatively constant by muscles, excreted by the kidneys and is the RELIABLE Reflection of Renal Status

Specimen: Venous blood, serum

Pretest/Intratrest/Post-test-same

Examined are enzymes, hormones, lipid profile BUN , Creatinine, etc…

Place patient on NPO for 8 h

* Creatinine is produced relatively constant by muscles, excreted by the kidneys and is the RELIABLE Reflection of Renal Status

Blood Chemistry Normal values for : Creatinine: 0.7 to 1.4 mg/dL BUN: 10-20 mg/dL Creatinine clearance: 1.67 to 2.5 mL/s Serum uric acid: 2.5 to 8 mg/dL Blood osmolality= 250 to 290 mOsm/L

Normal values for :

Creatinine: 0.7 to 1.4 mg/dL

BUN: 10-20 mg/dL

Creatinine clearance: 1.67 to 2.5 mL/s

Serum uric acid: 2.5 to 8 mg/dL

Blood osmolality= 250 to 290 mOsm/L

Blood Chemistry SLE diagnosis Anti-DNA antibody For Rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid factor Gout detection Uric acid Identifies Cardiac damage or muscle damage CK-MB, LDH and Troponin Liver function test SGOT/SGPT Purpose Enzymes/acids

Blood Chemistry Measures Platelet function Bleeding time 1-9 minutes Same as PTT, measures effectiveness of HEPARIN (more specific than PTT) aPTT 30-40 seconds The BEST single screening test for coagulation disorders PTT 60-70 seconds Measures the effectiveness of Warfarin PT 12-16 seconds Purpose Coagulation studies

Blood Chemistry To detect hyperlipidemia Blood lipids Cholesterol= 150-200 mg/dL Triglycerides= 140-200 mg/dL Measures the rate at which the RBCs settle out of the anti-coagulated blood Elevates in inflammation auto immune diseases ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate) 10-20 mm/hour Purpose Others

Diabetes Mellitus DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FBS equal to or greater than 126 mg/dL (7.0mmol/L) (Normal 8 hour FBS- 80-109 mg/dL)

DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA

FBS equal to or greater than 126 mg/dL (7.0mmol/L)

(Normal 8 hour FBS- 80-109 mg/dL)

Diabetes Mellitus DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA OGTT value 1 and 2 hours post-prandial equal to or greater than 200 mg/dL Normal OGTT 1 and 2 hours post-prandial- is 140 mg/dL

DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA

OGTT value 1 and 2 hours post-prandial equal to or greater than 200 mg/dL

Normal OGTT 1 and 2 hours post-prandial- is

140 mg/dL

Diabetes Mellitus DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA RBS of equal to or greater than 200 mg/dL PLUS the 3 P’s

DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA

RBS of equal to or greater than 200 mg/dL PLUS the 3 P’s

Diabetes Mellitus DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is a monitoring test to assess the adherence to diabetic medication

DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA

Glycosylated hemoglobin

(HbA1c) is a monitoring test to assess the adherence to diabetic medication

Arterial Blood Gases Specimen: arterial blood Pretest : obtain syringe with heparin, rubber stopper, container with ice Intratest : usual site-radial artery, perform Allen’s test Post-test : Apply direct pressure on site for 5-10 minutes, send specimen with occluded needle on ice

Specimen: arterial blood

Pretest : obtain syringe with heparin, rubber stopper, container with ice

Intratest : usual site-radial artery, perform Allen’s test

Post-test : Apply direct pressure on site for 5-10 minutes, send specimen with occluded needle on ice

Normal ABG values pH 7.35-7.45 pCO2 35-45 mmHg paO2 80-100 mmHg HCO3 22-26 mEq/L Base excess -2 to +2 O2 sat 95-98%

pH 7.35-7.45

pCO2 35-45 mmHg

paO2 80-100 mmHg

HCO3 22-26 mEq/L

Base excess -2 to +2

O2 sat 95-98%

ABG interpretation Metabolic >26 Metabolic <22 22-26 mEq/L HCO3 Respiratory <35 Respiratory >45 35-45 mmHg paCO2 95-98% SaO2 95-100 mmHg paO2 Above 7.45 Below 7.35 7.35-7.45 pH Alkalosis Acidosis Normal Value

Urine exams

Urine Analysis Specimens Clean-voided urine for routine urinalysis Clean-catch or midstream urine for urine culture Suprapubic and catheterized urine for urine culture

Specimens

Clean-voided urine for routine urinalysis

Clean-catch or midstream urine for urine culture

Suprapubic and catheterized urine for urine culture

Routine Urinalysis Specimen: Clean voided Pretest : give clean vial and instruct to void directly into the specimen bottle Intratest: Allow a 10 ml collection Post-test : prompt delivery to laboratory * First voided urine in a.m. is highly concentrated, more uniform concentration and with more acidic pH

Specimen: Clean voided

Pretest : give clean vial and instruct to void directly into the specimen bottle

Intratest: Allow a 10 ml collection

Post-test : prompt delivery to laboratory

* First voided urine in a.m. is highly concentrated, more uniform concentration and with more acidic pH

Urine Culture: Normal is <100,000 Specimen: clean catch, midstream or catheterized urine Pretest : Instruct to wash and dry genitalia/perineum with soap and water. (M)- circular motion, (F)-front to back direction Intratest: Midstream urine , 30-60 ml Post-test: Cap and label, prompt delivery and documentation

Specimen: clean catch, midstream or catheterized urine

Pretest : Instruct to wash and dry genitalia/perineum with soap and water. (M)- circular motion, (F)-front to back direction

Intratest: Midstream urine , 30-60 ml

Post-test: Cap and label, prompt delivery and documentation

Special Urine Collection Infants Special urine bag Or cut a hole of the diaper (front for the boy, middle for the girl) pulling out through the hole the special bag Children May use potty chair or bedpan Give another vial to play with, allow parent to assist Elderly Assistance may be required

Infants

Special urine bag

Or cut a hole of the diaper (front for the boy, middle for the girl) pulling out through the hole the special bag

Children

May use potty chair or bedpan

Give another vial to play with, allow parent to assist

Elderly

Assistance may be required

Timed-urine collection Collection of ALL urine voided over a specified time Refrigerated or with preservative Pretest: Specimen container with preservative, receptacle for collection, a post sign Intratest: A t the start of collection, have patient void and discard the urine At the end of collection period, instruct to completely void and save the urine Post test: Documentation

Collection of ALL urine voided over a specified time

Refrigerated or with preservative

Pretest: Specimen container with preservative, receptacle for collection, a post sign

Intratest: A t the start of collection, have patient void and discard the urine

At the end of collection period, instruct to completely void and save the urine

Post test: Documentation

Catheter specimen Sterile urine Insert needle of the syringe through a drainage port Only done with the rubber catheter not the plastic, silastic or silicone catheter. Intratest : Clamp catheter x 30 mins if no urine Wipe area where needle will be inserted 30-45 ° angle, 3 ml for culture Post-test : Unclamp catheter after collection

Sterile urine

Insert needle of the syringe through a drainage port

Only done with the rubber catheter not the plastic, silastic or silicone catheter.

Intratest : Clamp catheter x 30 mins if no urine

Wipe area where needle will be inserted

30-45 ° angle, 3 ml for culture

Post-test : Unclamp catheter after collection

Stool Exams

Stool Analysis Occult Blood  GUAIAC test Steatorrhea Ova/Parasites Bacteria Viruses

Occult Blood  GUAIAC test

Steatorrhea

Ova/Parasites

Bacteria

Viruses

General Nursing consideration for stool collection Pretest : Determine purpose/s, obtain gloves, container and tongue blade Intratest: Instruct to defecate in clean bed pan Void before collection Do not discard tissue in bedpan Obtain 2.5 (1 inch) formed stool 15-30 ml of liquid stool Post-test : prompt delivery

Pretest : Determine purpose/s, obtain gloves, container and tongue blade

Intratest:

Instruct to defecate in clean bed pan

Void before collection

Do not discard tissue in bedpan

Obtain 2.5 (1 inch) formed stool

15-30 ml of liquid stool

Post-test : prompt delivery

Occult Blood: Guaiac Test Detect the presence of enzyme: Peroxidase (+) blue color  positive guaiac Restrict intake of red meats, some medications and Vitamin C for 3-7 days FALSE (+): red meat , raw fruits and vegetables especially radish, turnip, melon and horseradish; meds like aspirin, NSAIDS, iron and anticoagulants FALSE (-): Vitamin C, ingested 250 mg per day from any source

Detect the presence of enzyme: Peroxidase

(+) blue color  positive guaiac

Restrict intake of red meats, some medications and Vitamin C for 3-7 days

FALSE (+): red meat , raw fruits and vegetables especially radish, turnip, melon and horseradish; meds like aspirin, NSAIDS, iron and anticoagulants

FALSE (-): Vitamin C, ingested 250 mg per day from any source

Sputum Exams

Sputum Analysis For Culture and sensitivity For sputum cytology For sputum AFB For monitoring of the effectiveness of therapy

For Culture and sensitivity

For sputum cytology

For sputum AFB

For monitoring of the effectiveness of therapy

Sputum examination Pretest: Morning specimen is collected Intratest: Mouthwash with plain water Deeply inhale x 2 then cough Wear gloves in collecting specimen Expectorate needed- 1-2 Tbsp or 15-30 ml Post-test : oral care and prompt delivery to lab

Pretest: Morning specimen is collected

Intratest:

Mouthwash with plain water

Deeply inhale x 2 then cough

Wear gloves in collecting specimen

Expectorate needed- 1-2 Tbsp or 15-30 ml

Post-test : oral care and prompt delivery to lab

Visualization: DIRECT and INDIRECT

VISUALIZATION PROCEDURES Invasive procedures are direct methods and need CONSENT Non-invasive procedures are indirect methods and may need written consent in some instances

Invasive procedures are direct methods and need CONSENT

Non-invasive procedures are indirect methods and may need written consent in some instances

Visualization procedures They can be: Radiographic procedures “ Scopic” procedures

They can be:

Radiographic procedures

“ Scopic” procedures

GI tract Visualization

GIT Visualization Barium Swallow- UGIS Pretest: written consent, NPO the night Intratest: administer barium orally, then followed by X-ray Post-test: Laxative for constipation, increased fluids, assess for intestinal obstruction , warn that stool is light colored!

Barium Swallow- UGIS

Pretest: written consent, NPO the night

Intratest: administer barium orally, then followed by X-ray

Post-test: Laxative for constipation, increased fluids, assess for intestinal obstruction , warn that stool is light colored!

 

 

GIT Visualization Barium Enema- LGIS Pretest: Informed consent, NPO the night, Enema the morning Intratest: Position on LEFT side, administer enema, then X-ray follow Post-test: Cleansing enema , Laxative for constipation, assess for intestinal obstruction

Barium Enema- LGIS

Pretest: Informed consent, NPO the night, Enema the morning

Intratest: Position on LEFT side, administer enema, then X-ray follow

Post-test: Cleansing enema , Laxative for constipation, assess for intestinal obstruction

 

GIT Visualization Esophagogastroscopy Pretest: Informed consent, NPO for 8 hours, warn that gag reflex is abolished Intratest: Position on LEFT side during scope insertion Post-test: NPO until gag returns. Monitor for complications

Esophagogastroscopy

Pretest: Informed consent, NPO for 8 hours, warn that gag reflex is abolished

Intratest: Position on LEFT side during scope insertion

Post-test: NPO until gag returns. Monitor for complications

 

GIT Visualization Anoscopy, proctoscopy, proctosigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy Pretest: Consent, NPO, and enema administration the morning Intratest: Position on the LEFT side during scope insertion Post-test: Monitor for complications

Anoscopy, proctoscopy, proctosigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy

Pretest: Consent, NPO, and enema administration the morning

Intratest: Position on the LEFT side during scope insertion

Post-test: Monitor for complications

 

 

Gallbladder Oral cholescystogram PTC ERCP Ultrasound

Oral cholescystogram

PTC

ERCP

Ultrasound

IV Cholecystogram X-ray visualization of the gallbladder after administration of contrast media intravenously Pre-test: Allergy to iodine and sea-foods Intra-test: ensure patent IV line Post-test: increase fluid intake to flush out the dye, Assess for delayed hypersensitivity reaction to the dye like chills and N/V

X-ray visualization of the gallbladder after administration of contrast media intravenously

Pre-test: Allergy to iodine and sea-foods

Intra-test: ensure patent IV line

Post-test: increase fluid intake to flush out the dye, Assess for delayed hypersensitivity reaction to the dye like chills and N/V

 

Oral Cholecystogram X-ray visualization of the gallbladder after administration of contrast media Done 10 hours after ingestion of contrast tablets Done to determine the patency of biliary duct

X-ray visualization of the gallbladder after administration of contrast media

Done 10 hours after ingestion of contrast tablets

Done to determine the patency of biliary duct

 

 

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography Examination where a flexible endoscope is inserted into the mouth and via the common bile duct and pancreatic duct to visualize the structures Iodinated dye can also be injected after for the x-ray procedure

Examination where a flexible endoscope is inserted into the mouth and via the common bile duct and pancreatic duct to visualize the structures

Iodinated dye can also be injected after for the x-ray procedure

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography Pre-test: consent, NPO for 12 hours, Allergy to sea-foods, Atropine sulfate Intra-test: Gag reflex is abolished, Position on LEFT side Post-test: NPO until gag reflex returns, Position side lying and monitor for perforation and hemorrhage

Pre-test: consent, NPO for 12 hours, Allergy to sea-foods, Atropine sulfate

Intra-test: Gag reflex is abolished, Position on LEFT side

Post-test: NPO until gag reflex returns, Position side lying and monitor for perforation and hemorrhage

 

 

 

Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiogram Under fluoroscopy, the bile duct is entered percutaneously and injected with a dye to observe filling of hepatic and biliary ducts

Under fluoroscopy, the bile duct is entered percutaneously and injected with a dye to observe filling of hepatic and biliary ducts

 

Ultrasound of the liver, gallbladder and pancreas Consent MAY be needed Place patient on NPO!!! Laxative may be given to decrease the bowel gas

Consent MAY be needed

Place patient on NPO!!!

Laxative may be given to decrease the bowel gas

urinary visualization

Urinary Visualization Non-invasive: KUB, IVP, Ultrasound Pretest: Elicit allergy to iodine and seafood, NPO after midnight Intra-test: IV iodinated Dye is administered then X-ray is taken Post-test: Increase fluids to flush the dye. Documentation, VS monitoring

Non-invasive: KUB, IVP, Ultrasound

Pretest: Elicit allergy to iodine and seafood, NPO after midnight

Intra-test: IV iodinated Dye is administered then X-ray is taken

Post-test: Increase fluids to flush the dye. Documentation, VS monitoring

 

 

Urinary Visualization Invasive: retrograde cystourethrogram Pretest: Elicit allergy to iodine and seafood Intra-test: catheter is inserted with dye is administered then X-ray is taken as patient voids Post-test: Increase fluids to flush the dye. Documentation, VS monitoring

Invasive: retrograde cystourethrogram

Pretest: Elicit allergy to iodine and seafood

Intra-test: catheter is inserted with dye is administered then X-ray is taken as patient voids

Post-test: Increase fluids to flush the dye. Documentation, VS monitoring

 

Pulmonary test

Pulmonary visualization Invasive: Bronchoscopy, laryngoscopy Non-invasive: CXR and Scan

Invasive: Bronchoscopy, laryngoscopy

Non-invasive: CXR and Scan

Bronchoscopy Purpose: Diagnostic and therapeutic Pretest: Consent, NPO, client teaching, anti-anxiety drugs Intratest : gag reflex is abolished, instruct to remain still during procedure, FOWLER or SUPINE Post-test : NPO until gag reflex returns, monitor patient for complication like perforation/bleed

Purpose: Diagnostic and therapeutic

Pretest: Consent, NPO, client teaching, anti-anxiety drugs

Intratest : gag reflex is abolished, instruct to remain still during procedure, FOWLER or SUPINE

Post-test : NPO until gag reflex returns, monitor patient for complication like perforation/bleed

 

 

Pulmonary function test Test to determine lung volumes and capacities

Test to determine lung volumes and capacities

 

 

LUNG VOLUMES 1. Tidal volume – TV 2. Inspiratory Reserve Volume- IRV 3. Expiratory Reserve Volume- ERV 4. Residual volume- RV

1. Tidal volume – TV

2. Inspiratory Reserve Volume- IRV

3. Expiratory Reserve Volume- ERV

4. Residual volume- RV

LUNG CAPACITIES Lung volume + another lung volume 1. Inspiratory Capacity- IC 2. Functional Residual Capacity- FRC 3. Vital capacity- VC 4. Total Lung capacity- TLC

Lung volume + another lung volume

1. Inspiratory Capacity- IC

2. Functional Residual Capacity- FRC

3. Vital capacity- VC

4. Total Lung capacity- TLC

Pulmonary &quot;Volumes” 1. Tidal Volume: -volume of air inspired or expired with each normal breath, about 500ml 2. Inspiratory Reserve Volume -extra volume of air than can be inspired over & beyond the normal tidal volume, about 3000ml

1. Tidal Volume:

-volume of air inspired or expired with each normal breath, about 500ml

2. Inspiratory Reserve Volume

-extra volume of air than can be inspired over & beyond the normal tidal volume, about 3000ml

Pulmonary &quot;Volumes” 3. Expiratory Reserve Volume -amount of air that can still be expired by forceful expiration after the end of a normal tidal expiration -about 1100ml 4. Residual Volume -volume of air still remaining in the lungs after the most forceful expiration, averages about 1200ml

3. Expiratory Reserve Volume

-amount of air that can still be expired by forceful expiration after the end of a normal tidal expiration

-about 1100ml

4. Residual Volume

-volume of air still remaining in the lungs after the most forceful expiration, averages about 1200ml

Pulmonary &quot;Capacities:&quot; 1. Inspiratory Capacity -equals TV + IRV, about 3500ml -amount of air that a person can breathe beginning at the normal expiratory level & distending his lungs to maximum amount 2. Functional Residual Capacity -equals ERV + RV -about amount of air remaining in the lungs at the end of normal expiration, about 2300ml

1. Inspiratory Capacity

-equals TV + IRV, about 3500ml

-amount of air that a person can breathe beginning at the normal expiratory level & distending his lungs to maximum amount

2. Functional Residual Capacity

-equals ERV + RV

-about amount of air remaining in the lungs at the end of normal expiration, about 2300ml

Pulmonary &quot;Capacities:&quot; 3. Vital Capacity -equals IRV + TV + ERV or 1C + ERV, about 4600ml -maximum amount of air that a person can expel from the lungs after filling the lungs to their maximum extent & expiring to the maximum extent 4. Total Lung Capacity -maximum volume to which the lungs can be expanded with the greatest possible effort -volume of air in the lungs at this level is equal to FRC (2300ml) in young adult

3. Vital Capacity

-equals IRV + TV + ERV or 1C + ERV, about 4600ml

-maximum amount of air that a person can expel from the lungs after filling the lungs to their maximum extent & expiring to the maximum extent

4. Total Lung Capacity

-maximum volume to which the lungs can be expanded with the greatest possible effort

-volume of air in the lungs at this level is equal to FRC (2300ml) in young adult

Heart exams

Cardiac Visualization Invasive: angiography. Cardiac catheterization Non-invasive: ECG, Echocardiography, Stress ECG

Invasive: angiography. Cardiac catheterization

Non-invasive: ECG, Echocardiography, Stress ECG

The Cardiovascular System LABORATORY PROCEDURES ECHOCARDIOGRAM Non-invasive test that studies the structural and functional changes of the heart with the use of ultrasound No special preparation is needed

ECHOCARDIOGRAM

Non-invasive test that studies the structural and functional changes of the heart with the use of ultrasound

No special preparation is needed

2 D-echocardiogram

Angiography Pretest: informed consent, allergy to dyes, seafood and iodine Intratest: Monitor VS Post-test: maintain pressure dressing over puncture site Immobilize for 6 hours

Pretest: informed consent, allergy to dyes, seafood and iodine

Intratest: Monitor VS

Post-test: maintain pressure dressing over puncture site

Immobilize for 6 hours

 

arteriography

Cardiac Catheterization Introduction of catheter into heart chambers Pretest: informed consent, allergy to dyes, seafood and iodine, NPO 8-12 hours Intra-test: Empty bladder, Monitor VS, explain palpitations Post-test: maintain pressure dressing over puncture site Immobilize for 6-8 hours with extremity straight

Introduction of catheter into heart chambers

Pretest: informed consent, allergy to dyes, seafood and iodine, NPO 8-12 hours

Intra-test: Empty bladder, Monitor VS, explain palpitations

Post-test: maintain pressure dressing over puncture site

Immobilize for 6-8 hours with extremity straight

Spinal column

Myelography Radiographic examination of the spinal column and sub-arachnoid space to help diagnose back pain causes Pre-test: Consent, NPO, allergy to seafoods Intra-test: like LT Post-test: supine for 12 hours

Radiographic examination of the spinal column and sub-arachnoid space to help diagnose back pain causes

Pre-test: Consent, NPO, allergy to seafoods

Intra-test: like LT

Post-test: supine for 12 hours

Myelography

Arthroscopy Insertion of fiber optic scope into the joint to visualize it, perform biopsy Performed under OR condition After care: Dressing over the puncture site for 24 hours to prevent bleeding Limit activity for several days (7 usually)

Insertion of fiber optic scope into the joint to visualize it, perform biopsy

Performed under OR condition

After care: Dressing over the puncture site for 24 hours to prevent bleeding

Limit activity for several days (7 usually)

 

Arthrogram X-ray visualization of the joint after introduction of contrast medium Pre-test: consent, allergy to seafoods Post-test: Dressing over puncture site and limit joint activity

X-ray visualization of the joint after introduction of contrast medium

Pre-test: consent, allergy to seafoods

Post-test: Dressing over puncture site and limit joint activity

 

Electromyelography Records the electrical activity in muscles at rest and during involuntary and electrical stimulation Detects disorders such as MG, MS and Parkinson’s Explain the use of electrode inserted into the muscles Mild discomfort may be experienced About 45 minutes for one muscle

Records the electrical activity in muscles at rest and during involuntary and electrical stimulation

Detects disorders such as MG, MS and Parkinson’s

Explain the use of electrode inserted into the muscles

Mild discomfort may be experienced

About 45 minutes for one muscle

 

Scans

CT scan Painless, non-invasive, x-ray procedure Mechanism: distinguish density of tissues

Painless, non-invasive, x-ray procedure

Mechanism: distinguish density of tissues

 

MRI Painless, non-invasive, no radiation Creates a magnetic field Contraindications: (+) pacemaker (+) metal prosthesis Client teaching: Lie still during the procedure for 60-90 minutes Earplugs to reduce noise discomfort Claustrophobia No radiation

Painless, non-invasive, no radiation

Creates a magnetic field

Contraindications:

(+) pacemaker

(+) metal prosthesis

Client teaching:

Lie still during the procedure for 60-90 minutes

Earplugs to reduce noise discomfort

Claustrophobia

No radiation

MRI

PET scan

Bone Scan

Aspiration and Biopsy

ASPIRATION AND BIOSPY Aspiration : withdrawal of fluid Biopsy : removal and exam of tissue Invasive procedure needs INFORMED CONSENT

Aspiration : withdrawal of fluid

Biopsy : removal and exam of tissue

Invasive procedure needs INFORMED CONSENT

Lumbar Puncture Withdrawal of CSF from the arachnoid space Purpose: diagnostic and therapeutic To obtain specimen, relieve pressure and inject medication Pretest: consent, empty bladder

Withdrawal of CSF from the arachnoid space

Purpose: diagnostic and therapeutic

To obtain specimen, relieve pressure and inject medication

Pretest: consent, empty bladder

Lumbar Puncture Intra-test: Site used-between L4/L5 Position- flexion of the trunk Post-test: Flat on bed (8-12 hours) Offer fluids to 3 Liters Oral analgesic for headache Monitor bleeding, swelling and changes in neurologic status

Intra-test: Site used-between L4/L5

Position- flexion of the trunk

Post-test: Flat on bed (8-12 hours)

Offer fluids to 3 Liters

Oral analgesic for headache

Monitor bleeding, swelling and changes in neurologic status

 

 

Abdominal Paracentesis Withdrawal of fluid from the peritoneal space Purpose: diagnostic and therapeutic Pretest: consent, empty bladder Position: sitting Site: midway between the umbilicus and symphysis

Withdrawal of fluid from the peritoneal space

Purpose: diagnostic and therapeutic

Pretest: consent, empty bladder

Position: sitting

Site: midway between the umbilicus and symphysis

Abdominal Paracentesis Intratest: 1,500 ml maximum amount collected at one time, Monitor VS Post-test : monitor VS, bleeding complication Measure abdominal girth and weight

Intratest: 1,500 ml maximum amount collected at one time, Monitor VS

Post-test : monitor VS, bleeding complication

Measure abdominal girth and weight

 

Thoracentesis Removal of fluid from the pleural space Purpose: Diagnostic and therapeutic Pretest: Consent, teach to avoid coughing Position: sitting with arms above head

Removal of fluid from the pleural space

Purpose: Diagnostic and therapeutic

Pretest: Consent, teach to avoid coughing

Position: sitting with arms above head

Thoracentesis Intra-test: Support and observation Post-test: Assess VS Position Post-procedure: lie on the UNAFFECTED SIDE with head elevated 30 ° x 30 minutes to facilitate expansion of the affected lungs

Intra-test: Support and observation

Post-test: Assess VS

Position Post-procedure: lie on the UNAFFECTED SIDE with head elevated 30 ° x 30 minutes to facilitate expansion of the affected lungs

Thoracentesis

 

Bone marrow Biopsy Removal of specimen of bone marrow Purpose: diagnostic Pretest : consent, teach that procedure is painful Site: POSTERIOR SUPERIOR ILIAC CREST (adult); PROXIMAL TIBIA (pedia) Position: prone or lateral

Removal of specimen of bone marrow

Purpose: diagnostic

Pretest : consent, teach that procedure is painful

Site: POSTERIOR SUPERIOR ILIAC CREST (adult); PROXIMAL TIBIA (pedia)

Position: prone or lateral

Bone marrow Biopsy Intratest: Monitor, maintain pressure dressing over punctured site X 10 mins Post-test: Asses for discomfort, administer prescribed pain meds

Intratest: Monitor, maintain pressure dressing over punctured site X 10 mins

Post-test: Asses for discomfort, administer prescribed pain meds

Liver Biopsy Liver tissue obtained for diagnostic purpose Pretest: consent, administer Vitamin K, monitor bleeding parameters, NPO 2 hours before procedure Position: Supine or semi-fowlers with upper right quadrant of abdomen exposed

Liver tissue obtained for diagnostic purpose

Pretest: consent, administer Vitamin K, monitor bleeding parameters, NPO 2 hours before procedure

Position: Supine or semi-fowlers with upper right quadrant of abdomen exposed

Liver Biopsy Intra-test : Monitor VS Take few deep inhalation and exhalation and hold final breath in exhalation x 10 seconds as needle is injected Post-test: monitor VS, bleeding Position post-procedure: RIGHT side-lying with folded towel/pillow under biopsy site for 4-6 hours

Intra-test : Monitor VS

Take few deep inhalation and exhalation and hold final breath in exhalation x 10 seconds as needle is injected

Post-test: monitor VS, bleeding

Position post-procedure: RIGHT side-lying with folded towel/pillow under biopsy site for 4-6 hours

Papanicolau Smear Done as screening test for cervical cancer, for culture Pre-test: no coitus for 2-3 days, no menstrual bleeding Intra-test: Lithotomy, speculum with water for lubrication, specimen obtained for cervix and vagina Post-test: monitor for bleeding

Done as screening test for cervical cancer, for culture

Pre-test: no coitus for 2-3 days, no menstrual bleeding

Intra-test: Lithotomy, speculum with water for lubrication, specimen obtained for cervix and vagina

Post-test: monitor for bleeding

Others

The Cardiovascular System LABORATORY PROCEDURES ELECTROCARDIOGRAM (ECG) A non-invasive procedure that evaluates the electrical activity of the heart Electrodes and wires are attached to the patient

ELECTROCARDIOGRAM (ECG)

A non-invasive procedure that evaluates the electrical activity of the heart

Electrodes and wires are attached to the patient

 

 

 

What the waves represent? P wave= Atrial Depolarization QRS= Ventricular Depolarization T wave= Ventricular REPOLARIZATION

P wave= Atrial Depolarization

QRS= Ventricular Depolarization

T wave= Ventricular REPOLARIZATION

 

LABORATORY PROCEDURES CVP The CVP is the pressure within the SVC Reflects the pressure under which blood is returned to the SVC and right atrium

CVP

The CVP is the pressure within the SVC

Reflects the pressure under which blood is returned to the SVC and right atrium

LABORATORY PROCEDURES CVP Normal CVP is 0 to 8 mmHg/ 4-10 cm H2O

CVP

Normal CVP is 0 to 8 mmHg/ 4-10 cm H2O

LABORATORY PROCEDURES Measuring CVP 1. Position the client supine with bed elevated at 45 degrees (CBQ) 2. Position the zero point of the CVP line at the level of the right atrium. Usually this is at the MAL, 4 th ICS 3. Instruct the client to be relaxed and avoid coughing and straining.

Measuring CVP

1. Position the client supine with bed elevated at 45 degrees (CBQ)

2. Position the zero point of the CVP line at the level of the right atrium. Usually this is at the MAL, 4 th ICS

3. Instruct the client to be relaxed and avoid coughing and straining.

 

Tubes and drainage

Tubes Levine Salem Sump tube Gastrostomy tube Jejunostomy tube

Levine

Salem Sump tube

Gastrostomy tube

Jejunostomy tube

Salem Sump tube

 

T-tube

Drainage Penrose Drain Hemovac Pleuravac Jackson-Pratt

Penrose Drain

Hemovac

Pleuravac

Jackson-Pratt

Hemovac

Jackson-Pratt

Penrose

Asked in the local boards DRE Snellen’s chart Weber’s test Rinnes’ test

DRE

Snellen’s chart

Weber’s test

Rinnes’ test

DRE Position: Left Lateral or Sim’s position with upper leg acutely flexed. Females can also be examined in lithotomy Ask client to BEAR DOWN To accentuate rectal fissure, prolapse ,polyps To relax the anal sphincter

Position: Left Lateral or Sim’s position with upper leg acutely flexed. Females can also be examined in lithotomy

Ask client to BEAR DOWN

To accentuate rectal fissure, prolapse ,polyps

To relax the anal sphincter

Snellen’s Chart: test for visual acuity 20 ft or 6 m distance 3 readings: L, R and Both eyes Report: 20/ xxx Numerator: denotes the distance from the chart

20 ft or 6 m distance

3 readings: L, R and Both eyes

Report: 20/ xxx

Numerator: denotes the distance from the chart

 

Snellen’s Chart: test for visual acuity Denominator denotes the distance from which the normal eye can read the chart 20/60: the person can see at 20 feet, what a normal person can see at 60 feet.

Denominator denotes the distance from which the normal eye can read the chart

20/60: the person can see at 20 feet, what a normal person can see at 60 feet.

Weber’s test Test for lateralization and bone conduction Tuning fork is placed on top of head NORMAL: sound is heard in BOTH ears, localized at the center of the head: WEBER NEGATIVE

Test for lateralization and bone conduction

Tuning fork is placed on top of head

NORMAL: sound is heard in BOTH ears, localized at the center of the head: WEBER NEGATIVE

Weber’s test Sound is heard BETTER in the affected ear: Bone conductive hearing loss Sound is heard only or better on the NORMAL ear: Sensorineural heating loss ABNORMAL: WEBER POSITIVE

Sound is heard BETTER in the affected ear: Bone conductive hearing loss

Sound is heard only or better on the NORMAL ear: Sensorineural heating loss

ABNORMAL: WEBER POSITIVE

Rinne’s Test Test for AIR and BONE conduction Tuning fork is initially placed on the mastoid process until no vibration is heard Tuning fork is now placed in front of the ear until sound disappears

Test for AIR and BONE conduction

Tuning fork is initially placed on the mastoid process until no vibration is heard

Tuning fork is now placed in front of the ear until sound disappears

Rinne’s Test Air conduction is LONGER than bone conduction Normal is POSITIVE Rinne’s

Air conduction is LONGER than bone conduction

Normal is POSITIVE Rinne’s

Rinne’s Test CONDUCTIVE HEARING LOSS: Bone conduction is GREATER than or equal to the AIR conduction Abnormal is NEGATIVE RINNEs

CONDUCTIVE HEARING LOSS:

Bone conduction is GREATER than or equal to the AIR conduction

Abnormal is NEGATIVE RINNEs

Rinne’s Test SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS: No bone conduction and air conduction vibration can be assessed NEGATIVE RINNEs

SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS:

No bone conduction and air conduction vibration can be assessed

NEGATIVE RINNEs

Weber

Rinne’s

Rinne’s

FAILING TO PREPARE IS PREPARING TO FAIL…

FAILING TO PREPARE

IS

PREPARING TO FAIL…

END

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