COMM 119 TVP1 - Chapter One PP#2 (full)

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Information about COMM 119 TVP1 - Chapter One PP#2 (full)
Education

Published on January 27, 2014

Author: ericluther355

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Chapter One: Section 1.1: What TV Production Is All About: Chapter One: Section 1.1: What TV Production Is All About COMM 119: TV Production I NOTICES:: NOTICES: * NO CLASS HELD – WED, 2/5 *April 2 – class will be held in the evening for a taping/tour of the Stamford Production facility where Maury, Trisha, etc. are filmed What Television Production Is All About: What Television Production Is All About PROCESS INTRODUCTION: Television is always a collaborative process and you are seldom, if ever, alone in your work – you take the system approach Process Introduction (DVD) What Television Production Is All About: What Television Production Is All About THREE PRODUCTION PHASES: PREPRODUCTION PRODUCTION POSTPRODUCTION What Television Production Is All About: What Television Production Is All About PREPRODUCTION: The Idea & Planning Phase = all the preparations and activities before you actually start shooting/production What Television Production Is All About: What Television Production Is All About PREPRODUCTION: STAGE ONE = what’s necessary to transform the basic idea into a workable concept or script STAGE TWO = all the necessary production details like location, crews, and equipment Phases: Preproduction (DVD) What Television Production Is All About: What Television Production Is All About PRODUCTION: As soon as “real” work starts, you’re in production; rehearsal, blocking, equipment set-up, shooting, etc. Phases: Production (DVD) What Television Production Is All About: What Television Production Is All About POSTPRODUCTION: Mostly editing (video and audio), music concerns, special effects, dubbing etc. – all done after the main production work has ended Phases: Postproduction (DVD) What Television Production Is All About: What Television Production Is All About PRODUCTION MODEL: Meant to help you move from the original idea to the finished production as efficiently as possible because time is money What Television Production Is All About: What Television Production Is All About PRODUCTION MODEL: Effect-to-Cause Model: Starts with a basic idea, but then considers the desired “communication effect” or “the general program objective” rather than running headlong into actual production What Television Production Is All About: What Television Production Is All About The desired “communication effect”/ “general program objective” = what do you want your audience to do with your message? What do you want to happen as a result? What Television Production Is All About: What Television Production Is All About What do you want your target audience to learn, do, and feel in response to your “process message”? Why are you making this? ~ Knowing this before you start on technical details will help you achieve your message goals EFFECT-TO-CAUSE MODEL: EFFECT-TO-CAUSE MODEL IDEA PRODUCTION COMMUNICATION EFFECT: “Why…?” NOW YOU’RE BEING DRIVEN BY THE DESIRED EFFECT RATHER THAN THE IDEA – THINKING THIS WAY HELPS KEEP YOUR EYE ON THE PRIZE RATHER THAN ALWAYS BEING CHAINED TO THE IDEA ITSELF Effect-to-Cause(DVD) What Television Production Is All About: What Television Production Is All About The Angle: The specific story focus and/or point of view – how are you going to tell your story? Picking your angle often comes directly out of considering your desired effect What Television Production Is All About: What Television Production Is All About The Angle: An angle does not have to be an obvious point of view – it can be an approach to the style and mechanics of production What Television Production Is All About: What Television Production Is All About Medium Requirements: Precise definition and consideration of both the desired effect and the angle will help both the content and the production people work as a team, as well as help the team itself be assembled What Television Production Is All About: What Television Production Is All About PRODUCTION PEOPLE TWO MAJOR CATEGORIES: Nontechnical ( above-the-line ) Technical ( below-the-line ) What Television Production Is All About: What Television Production Is All About PRODUCTION PEOPLE Nontechnical ( above-the-line ) = Generally involved in translating a script or an event into effective television images NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL: NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL Executive Producer: In charge of one or several large productions or program series Manages budget and coordinates with client, station management, advertising agencies, financial supporters, and talent and writers’ agents NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL: NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL Producer: In charge of individual production Responsible for all personnel working on the production and for coordinating technical and nontechnical production elements Often serves as writer and occasionally as director NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL: NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL Associate Producer (AP): Assists producer in all production matters. Often does the actual coordinating jobs, such as telephoning talent and confirming schedules NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL: NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL Line Producer: Supervises daily production activities on the set NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL: NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL Field Producer: Assists producer by taking charge of remote operations (away from the studio) At small stations function may be part of the producer’s responsibilities NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL: NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL Production Manager: Schedules equipment and personnel for all studio and field productions. Also called “Director of Broadcast Operations” NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL: NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL Production Assistant (PA): Assists producer and director during actual production. During rehearsal takes notes of producer’s and/or director’s suggestions for show improvement Often a glorified “Go-fer” NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL: NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL *Director: In charge of directing talent and technical operations Is ultimately responsible for transforming a script into effective video and audio messages Can also hold other positions NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL: NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL * Associate Director (AD): Assists director during the actual production In studio productions does timing/switches for director In complicated productions helps “ready” various operations Also called “assistant director” NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL: NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL *Floor Manager: In charge of all activities on the studio floor Coordinates talent, relays director’s cues to talent, and supervises floor personnel Is often responsible for setting up scenery and dressing set Also called “Floor Director” and/or “Stage Manager” NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL: NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL Floor Persons: Set up and dress sets Operate cue cards and other prompting devices Assist camera operators Also called “Grips”, “Stagehands”, and/or “Utilities Personnel” NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL: NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL Writer: Responsible for script(s) Often also a producer and/or director Often hired on freelance basis NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL: NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL Art Director: In charge of the creative design aspects of the show (set design, location, and/or graphics) NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL: NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL Graphic Artist: Prepares computer graphics, titles, charts, and digital backgrounds NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL: NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL Makeup Artist: Does the makeup for all talent Usually hired on a freelance basis NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL: NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL Costume Designer: Designs and sometimes constructs various costumes for productions Usually hired on a freelance basis NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL: NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL Wardrobe Person: Handles all wardrobe matters during production NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL: NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL Property Manager: Maintains and manages use of various set and hand properties Found in large productions only, otherwise props are managed by the Floor Manager NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL: NONTECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL Sound Designer: Constructs the complete sound track (dialogue and sound effects) in postproduction Often a freelancer What Television Production Is All About: What Television Production Is All About PRODUCTION PEOPLE Technical ( below-the-line ) = Primarily concerned with operating equipment and are part of the production crew TECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL (engineering staff): TECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL (engineering staff) Chief Engineer: In charge of all technical personnel, budgets, and equipment Designs systems, including transmission, and oversees installations and day-to-day operations TECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL (engineering staff): TECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL (engineering staff) Assistant Chief Engineer: Assists Chief Engineer in all technical matters and operations Also called “Engineering Supervisor” TECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL (engineering staff): TECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL (engineering staff) Studio or Remote Engineer-in-charge: Oversees all technical operations Usually called “EIC” TECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL (engineering staff): TECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL (engineering staff) Maintenance Engineer: Maintains all technical equipment and troubleshoots during productions TECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL (nonengineering staff): TECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL ( nonengineering staff) Technical Director (TD): Does the switching and usually acts as technical crew chief TECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL (nonengineering staff): TECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL ( nonengineering staff) ***Camera Operators: Operate the cameras and often do the lighting for simple shows When working in field often called “Videographers” or “Shooters” TECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL (nonengineering staff): TECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL ( nonengineering staff) Director of Photography (DP): In film productions, in charge of lighting Out in the field, operates camera TECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL (nonengineering staff): TECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL ( nonengineering staff) *Lighting Director (LD): In charge of lighting (normally found mostly in large productions) TECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL (nonengineering staff): TECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL ( nonengineering staff) Video Operator (VO): Adjusts camera controls for optimal performance Takes on more duties in field Sometimes called a “ Shader ” TECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL (nonengineering staff): TECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL ( nonengineering staff) *Audio Technician: In charge of all audio operations Works audio console during show Also called “audio engineer” TECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL (nonengineering staff): TECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL ( nonengineering staff) Video-Record Operator: Runs the video recorder TECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL (nonengineering staff): TECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL ( nonengineering staff) *Character Generator: Types and/or inputs from the computer the names and other graphic material to be integrated with the video image Also called “CG Operator” TECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL (nonengineering staff): TECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL ( nonengineering staff) Video Editor: Operates postproduction editing equipment Often makes or assists in creative editing decisions TECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL (nonengineering staff): TECHNICAL PRODUCTION PERSONNEL ( nonengineering staff) Digital Graphic Artist: Renders digital graphic artists for on-air use Can be nontechnical personnel NEWS PRODUCTION PERSONNEL : NEWS PRODUCTION PERSONNEL Dedicated exclusively to the production of news at a television station NEWS PRODUCTION PERSONNEL : NEWS PRODUCTION PERSONNEL News Director: In charge of all news operations Bears ultimate responsibility for all newscasts NEWS PRODUCTION PERSONNEL : NEWS PRODUCTION PERSONNEL Producer: Directly responsible for the selection and placement of the stories in a newscast so that they form a unified, balanced whole NEWS PRODUCTION PERSONNEL : NEWS PRODUCTION PERSONNEL Assignment Editor: Assigns reporters and videographers to specific events to be covered NEWS PRODUCTION PERSONNEL : NEWS PRODUCTION PERSONNEL Reporter: Gathers the stories Often reports on-camera from the field NEWS PRODUCTION PERSONNEL : NEWS PRODUCTION PERSONNEL Video Journalist: Reporter who shoots and edits his or her own footage More and more the norm NEWS PRODUCTION PERSONNEL : NEWS PRODUCTION PERSONNEL Videographer: Camcorder operator When without a reporter, decides what part of the event to cover Also called “News Photographer” or “Shooter” NEWS PRODUCTION PERSONNEL : NEWS PRODUCTION PERSONNEL Writer: Writes on-air copy for anchors The copy is based on reporter’s notes, published material, and available video NEWS PRODUCTION PERSONNEL : NEWS PRODUCTION PERSONNEL Video Editor: Edits video according to reporter’s notes, writer’s script, or producer’s instructions NEWS PRODUCTION PERSONNEL : NEWS PRODUCTION PERSONNEL Anchor: Principal presenter of newscast, normally from a studio set NEWS PRODUCTION PERSONNEL : NEWS PRODUCTION PERSONNEL Weathercaster: On-camera talent reporting the weather NEWS PRODUCTION PERSONNEL : NEWS PRODUCTION PERSONNEL Traffic Reporter: On-camera talent reporting the traffic conditions NEWS PRODUCTION PERSONNEL : NEWS PRODUCTION PERSONNEL Sportscaster: On-camera talent reporting the sports news What Television Production Is All About: What Television Production Is All About TV Production can have lots of overlap and sharing of duties depending on the size of your station/production and, often times, union requirements (if any) What Television Production Is All About: What Television Production Is All About Understanding Production Phases & Concepts – what, when and why? Understanding Personnel Duties & Titles – where does everyone fit it? ASSIGNMENT #1: JOB LISTING: ASSIGNMENT #1: JOB LISTING Pick a TV show you already watch List at least 10 of the positions we’ve discussed today and who does them: 5 TECHNICAL & 5 NON-TECHNICAL JOBS Describe what each of the 10 jobs entail based on your experience with the program – BE SPECIFIC AND USE EXAMPLES! ASSIGNMENT #1: ASSIGNMENT #1 BE SPECIFIC AND USE EXAMPLES!: “In THE RUNNING DEAD episode, “Death By Dawn”, the zombie makeup used in the scene where Holly kills her mother was done by makeup artist, John Smith. I thought his detail and artistry was outstanding and crucial to the success of the scen e . For instance, the fact that one of the mother’s eyes was still “normal” served to remind Holly - and the audience - of the woman she used to be, and that glimmer of humanity made the scene that much more moving.” ASSIGNMENT #1: ASSIGNMENT #1 Submission should be substantial – shoot for total of at least 600 words Submit via BLACKBOARD ONLY Due Wednesday, 2/12/14 LOOKING AHEAD: LOOKING AHEAD QUIZ #1 due on 2/12 (please hand in hard copy so we can go over it together in class) You are NOT responsible for the Problem-Solving Applications in the Quizzes Chapter One: Section 1.2: Technical Production Systems: Chapter One: Section 1.2: Technical Production Systems COMM 119: TV Production I The Television System: The Television System Equipment + People = The Television System Basic Television System: Basic Television System = Electricity Signals The camera and microphone take what they “see” and “hear” and convert it into electrical signals that are reconverted back into pictures and sound by your receiving device Basic Television System: Basic Television System = Energy Converting Television converts one state of energy (optical images/actual sounds) into another state of energy (electric energy) Basically the same process from the largest studio to the smallest video recorder Basic Television System: Basic Television System Expanded Television System: Expanded Television System Basic Multicamera Studio System = Two or more cameras Camera Control Units (CCUs) Preview Monitors A Switcher A Line Monitor ( P rogram/Master Monitor) One or more video recorders A Line-Out to recorders and/or transmission device Expanded Television System: Expanded Television System Multicamera Studio System extras Computer Servers for playback Character/Graphic Generators An Editing System Expanded Television System: Expanded Television System Multicamera Studio System Audio One or more microphones Audio Mixer or Console Audio Monitor Audio Line-Out to recorder and/or transmitter Expanded Television System: Expanded Television System Multicamera Studio System News Programs Interview Shows Game Shows Soap Operas Sit-coms (traditionally) If you’re in a studio, you’re most likely using a multicamera system Field Production Systems: Field Production Systems ENG System = Electronic News Gathering System Camcorder (a studio in a small box) +External Microphone +Transmitter of some kind Field Production Systems: Field Production Systems EFP System = Electronic Field Production System Better and more cameras Better and more microphones More crew and longer shoots Expanded Television System: Expanded Television System 6 Basic Production Elements: Video (Camera) Audio Lighting Switcher Video Recorder Postproduction Editing Expanded Television System: Expanded Television System Camera: Now come in all shapes and sizes When they are huge and heavy, a camera mount is required ENG/EFP cameras are always portable to some degree and are better than consumer models but still similar Variety of recording media (tape, hard drives, optical discs & memory cards) Camera Introduction (DVD) Expanded Television System: Expanded Television System Camera Control Units (CCU): Equipment separate from (but usually attached to) the camera that contains various video controls including Color Fidelity & Balance Contrast & Brightness Adjusted by camera operator Expanded Television System: Expanded Television System Audio: “Tele vision ” is only half the equation – it’s also “ Tele audio ” Microphones Sound Control Devices Sound Recording & Playback Devices Audio Introduction (DVD) Expanded Television System: Expanded Television System Microphones: Convert sound waves into electric energy Lavalier Microphones (lapel/clip-on) Hand Microphones (with handle) Boom Microphones (out of frame) Microphone Types (DVD) Expanded Television System: Expanded Television System Sound Control Equipment: Audio Console & Mixer The Audio Console where you control and manipulate the microphones patched through it – boost levels, amplify weak signals, balance levels, etc. Consoles & Mixers (DVD) Expanded Television System: Expanded Television System Sound Recording & Playback: Used in postproduction to fix, add, and “sweeten” audio Audio Systems (DVD) Expanded Television System: Expanded Television System Lighting: Controlling Lights & Shadow DIRECTIONAL LIGHTING = Sharp Beam that Produces Harsh Shadows (spotlights) Light Introduction (DVD) Expanded Television System: Expanded Television System Lighting: Controlling Lights & Shadow DIFFUSED LIGHTING = Wide & Indistinct Beam that Produces Soft, Translucent Shadows (floodlights) Lights –Instruments-studio-field (DVD) Expanded Television System: Expanded Television System Lighting Techniques & “Falloff”: Flat = Little Contrast between light & shadows (slow/no falloff) Sharp =High Contrast between light & shadows (fast faloff ) Lights-fallout-fast/slow/none (DVD) Expanded Television System: Expanded Television System Switcher: Choosing Video Signal & What To Do With It Select Source (which camera) Perform Basic Transitions (wipe, fade, etc.) Create or Retrieve Special Effects (split screen for example) Switching Introduction (DVD) Expanded Television System: Expanded Television System Video Recorder: Videotape (analog) Tapeless (digital) Expanded Television System: Expanded Television System Postproduction Editing: Unless you’re live – you’ll be editing in postproduction to some degree Picking most effective shots and putting them together to tell best story Can be complicated and costly Editing Introduction (DVD) Expanded Television System: Expanded Television System Postproduction Editing: LINEAR EDITING = Videotape Editing (destructive) NONLINEAR EDITING = Digital Editing (nondestructive) Editing-Nonlinear (DVD) Expanded Television System: Expanded Television System Postproduction Editing: Think of editing as part of the creative process and not as a salvage operation Learn to “Edit In Your Mind” as you’re shooting – take notes if possible ASSIGNMENT #1 DUE Wed, 2/12: ASSIGNMENT #1 DUE Wed, 2/12 Pick a TV show you already watch List at least 10 of the positions we’ve discussed today and who does them: 5 TECHNICAL & 5 NON-TECHNICAL JOBS Describe what each of the 10 jobs entail based on your experience with the program – BE SPECIFIC AND USE EXAMPLES! ASSIGNMENT #1: ASSIGNMENT #1 BE SPECIFIC AND USE EXAMPLES!: “In THE RUNNING DEAD episode, “Death By Dawn”, the zombie makeup used in the scene where Holly kills her mother was done by makeup artist, John Smith. I thought his detail and artistry was outstanding and crucial to the success of the scen e . For instance, the fact that one of the mother’s eyes was still “normal” served to remind Holly - and the audience - of the woman she used to be, and that glimmer of humanity made the scene that much more moving.” ASSIGNMENT #1: ASSIGNMENT #1 Submission should be substantial – shoot for total of at least 600 words Submit via BLACKBOARD ONLY Due Wednesday, 2/12/14 LOOKING AHEAD…: LOOKING AHEAD… CHAPTER ONE QUIZ DUE NEXT CLASS: 2/12 (taken from workbook) DOWNLOAD FROM BLACKBOARD IF YOU NEED TO You are NOT responsible for the Problem-Solving Applications in the Quizzes REMINDERS:: REMINDERS: * NO CLASS HELD – WED, 2/5 *Be sure to work on the assignment & quiz – both are due Wed, 2/12 *April 2 – class will be held in the evening for a taping/tour of the Stamford Production facility where Maury, Trisha, etc. are filmed

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