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Published on January 13, 2008

Author: Susett

Source: authorstream.com

Expectancy-Value Theory:  Expectancy-Value Theory Presented by: Louis Tomsic Jill Geiger Zachary Keever Outline:  Outline Modern Expectancy-Value Theory Applied to Media. Expectancy-Value Theory Fundamentals Expectancy-Value Theory Evolution 1985 Research from Theory Pretest: Interest:  Pretest: Interest Q1. How many students enjoy action movies? Q2. How many students would like to watch the movie now? Communication and Media Theories:  Communication and Media Theories Expectancy-Value Theory Using Gsi Philip Palmgreen modernized the theory Formula: Gsi = ∑biei Gsi = gratification sought bi = belief ei = evaluation Application: As you gain experience with a particular media, the gratifications you obtain will affect your beliefs, reinforcing the viewing pattern. Expectancy-Value Model:  Expectancy-Value Model Defining an Attitude:  Defining an Attitude An attitude is a mental and neural state of readiness, organized through experience, exerting a directive or dynamic influence on the individual’s response to all objects and situations which which it is related. (Allport, 1935) Elements of an Attitude:  Elements of an Attitude Attitudes are private. Attitudes are formed and organized through experience. (Acquire through socialization process, not born with them). Attitude believed to directly influence behavior. Components of an Attitude:  Components of an Attitude Affective component: Emotional (like-dislike) component. Behavioral component: Overt behavior attached to internal attitude. Cognitive component: Storage component where we organize information about an attitude object. Functions of an Attitude:  Functions of an Attitude Badge Value: Who we are and what we believe. Utilitarian, Adaptive Function: liking for things to achieve goals and vice versa. Knowledge, Economy Function: categorize & manage our world Value Expressive Function: express right & wrong Ego Defensive Function: protects us from fears and rejections. Expectancy-Value Model of Attitudes I:  Expectancy-Value Model of Attitudes I Fishbein & Ajzen, 1976 A person holds many beliefs about an attitude object; An object is seen as having many attributes. Associated with each attribute is an evaluative response (i.e. an attitude). Through a learning process, evaluative responses are associated with the attitude objects. Learned evaluative responses summate. Expectancy-Value Model of Attitudes II:  Expectancy-Value Model of Attitudes II Fishbein & Ajzen, 1976 Attitude conceptualization Ao = (biei) Ao = The attitude towards an object (O) bi = A belief about the object’s attributes ei = The evaluation of an attribute A belief is the subjective probability that an object has a given attribute (i.e. Bill Clinton is dishonest) The evaluation is a rating of the attribute along some evaluation dimension (i.e. good/bad or 1 to 7). Expectancy-Value Model of Attitudes III:  Expectancy-Value Model of Attitudes III Fishbein & Ajzen, 1976 One’s attitude is a sum of the product of each belief times its evaluation. Beliefs are held in a hierarchy. An attitude is determined at any given time by the five to nine most salient beliefs in one’s belief hierarchy. Type of belief: Descriptive belief – based on direct experience Inferential Belief – belief from another belief Informational Belief – info from outside source The Attitude-Behavior Relationship I:  The Attitude-Behavior Relationship I Single acts verse behavioral trends Research tended to focus on single acts and not behavioral trends Attitudes predict behavioral trends better than any one behavior making up that trend A behavior is often related to more than one attitude. Measure multiple attitudes and you get a better relationship. The Attitude-Behavior Relationship II:  The Attitude-Behavior Relationship II For many years it was assumed that attitudes were strong predictors of behavior. Research shows that the relationship between attitudes and behavior is not as strong as once believed. The Attitude-Behavior Relationship II:  The Attitude-Behavior Relationship II Several reasons for weak attitude-behavior relationship: Measurement error: attitude measures may not accurately measure a person’s attitude. The nature of the attitude measured: attitude researchers used to measure general attitudes and then try to predict specific behavior. You get a better relationship when a specific attitude and specific behavior are measured. University of Illinois News Study 1985:  University of Illinois News Study 1985 Sample: 314 University of Illinois undergraduate students. Assumed everyone has seen the news. Survey Instrument: 14 gratification items were measured. Method: uncontrolled survey research. News Survey Gratification Items:  News Survey Gratification Items 1. Helps me keep up with current events and issues. 2. Helps me find out about government 3. It is entertaining 4. Helps me learn about things that can be used to support my views to other people. 5. Newscasters give a human quality to the news. 6. Provides information that can be passed on to others. 7. It is dramatic 8. Allows me to compare my ideas to the commentators’. 9. Gives me things to talk about 10. It is exciting 11. Reporters are like people I know. 12. Helps me make up my mind about important issues. 13. Gives information that can be trusted. 14. Helps me find out about issues affecting me. News Survey Belief Items:  News Survey Belief Items Belief = Behavioral Intention to watch news 1. Rate intention to watch television news during average week on a 7 point likert scale with the end point extremely likely to extremely unlikely. 2. Social Norm which was defined as whether people important to the respondents thought they should watch television or news an average week on a 7 point likert scale with the end point should to should not. Evaluation = Behavioral Attitude 3. Measured attitude toward behavior of viewing television news on a 7 point likert scale with the end point extremely good/wise/beneficial to extremely good /wise/beneficial. Gratifications Sought = Behavioral Attitude 4. Measured social gratification on a 7 point likert scale with the end point always applies to me to never applies to me. Conclusions:  Conclusions Need to be familiar with theory foundations to accurately assess current theoretical applications.

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