columbia dvp

80 %
20 %
Information about columbia dvp

Published on December 28, 2007

Author: Heng


Slide1:  What Every Engineer Should Know About Technology Transfer An IEEE DVP Presentation to Columbia University IEEE © 2001 Samuel J. Biondo All rights reserved [Drawing by NASA] Which of These Is “Technology?”:  Which of These Is “Technology?” Photo showing part of VALHAL. The Ethernet switch is surrounded by Compaq Alphastation XP1000 cabinets. To the left is a rack of AlphaServer DS10L systems. Date: April 20, 2001 Slide3:  Do Non-Human Animals Use Technology? Slide4:  A chimp {David Greybeard] picks a blade of grass and carefully trim the edges. He sticks the grass into a termite mound, leaves it there for a moment, and pulls it out. Termites swarmed over the blade of grass. He eats the termites clinging to the grass blade. Ans. Wild Animals Use Technology E.g., Chimps make fishing rods for termites What is “Technology?”:  What is “Technology?” Technology has existed since animals discovered tools, but the word wasn't invented until the 19th Century! Word adopted from Greek word 'techne' meaning art or craft. That suggests a set of crafts or techniques for making things. The word 'technology' has no precise definition. It can be viewed as a commodity, as knowledge, or as an socio-economic process. People develop technology [knowledge, facilities, and capabilities] to control the world in which we live What is “Technology Transfer?”:  What is “Technology Transfer?” A process by which existing knowledge, facilities, or capabilities developed by one or more entities are conveyed and utilized by others to fulfill actual or potential needs. The process is as old as technology itself and a natural result of communication. Perhaps it can be viewed as nature’s way of providing for adaptation. Economists Have Adopted the Term “Diffusion” :  Economists Have Adopted the Term “Diffusion” According to diffusion guru, Everett M. Rogers, innovation is “an idea perceived as new by the individual” and diffusion is “the process by which an innovation spreads.” After its conception, an innovation spreads slowly at first - usually through the work of change agents, who actively promote it - then picks up speed as more and more people adopt it. Eventually it reaches a saturation level, where virtually everyone who is going to adopt the innovation has done so. A key point, early in the process, is called take-off. After the forward-thinking change agents have adopted the innovation, they work to communicate it to others in the society by whatever means they believe appropriate. When the number of early adopters reaches a critical mass - between 5 and 15% - the process is probably irreversible. The innovation has a life of its own, as more and more people talk about or demonstrate the innovation to each other. Slide8:  Physics Models for Diffusion Don’t Apply to Technology Transfer Slide9:  Roger’s Model: Adopter Categorization on the Basis of Innovativeness Source: Rogers, Everett M.(1983). Diffusion of Innovations (3rd edition). London: The Free Press. Slide10:  Roger's work on diffusion was extended by marketing researchers. The model for diffusion of innovations in markets is usually a growth-curve model, e.g., Bass Curve. Bass Curve Using simple logistic function, various curves have been empirically derived to explain the idiosyncratic patterns of social diffusion or technological growth process. Slide11:  Examples of Growth-Curve Models Characteristics Non-linear, cumulative Non-linear, cumulative Non-linear, cumulative Linear, non cumulative Linear, non cumulative Linear, non cumulative Cumulative models -- observations are cumulative data during the reference period Non-cumulative models -- observations represent rate-of-change Technically the parameters of each model are to be estimated by either linear or nonlinear regression Slide12:  Non-cumulative models are used to forecast the diffusion process for technologies that are at the growth stage. Forecast accuracy might differ among models depending on the unique characteristics of the specific segments of particular industries. No unique best model exists. Slide13:  The premise behind these models is that an innovation is adopted by a small, select group of adopters in the population based on mass media communications. The adopters then influence others to adopt via word-of-mouth. As time goes on, and more people adopt the innovation, all non-adopters are subject to the same type of word of mouth, which continues until all members of the population who will eventually adopt have done so. Slide14:  Do Plants Use Technology Transfer? (Issue: are intelligent agents required?) What About Diffusion in the Absence Of Human Change Agents –E.g., Pollination?:  What About Diffusion in the Absence Of Human Change Agents –E.g., Pollination? How do plants get pollen from one plant to another? (plants are rooted in the ground) A. Wind 1. Gymnosperms and some flowering plants (grasses & many trees) 2. Hit or miss affair (very chancy) B. Many flowering plants rely on animals for cross-pollination 1. 3 main animal pollinators- insects, birds, and mammals a. Insect pollinators- beetles, bees, wasps, flies, butterflies, and moths b. Bird pollinators- hummingbirds, honey creepers, and honeyeaters c. Mammals- bats 2. Many plants have evolved relationships with animals that are their pollinators Slide16:  Wind pollination works for the conifers because they live in vast forests where there are many individuals of the few species (monocultures). Thus casting pollen to the wind can work as there are plenty of "receivers" downwind. Wind pollination can work in other plants too, where almost-monocultures occur. An example are the grasslands and savannahs, where huge stands of a relatively small number of species occur. There is plenty of opportunity for stigmas to be down-wind from anthers. Most grasses are wind-pollinated. Slide17:  What is needed in a complex biota (with several hundred different species) is a "magic bullet" or "smart bomb" that can visit one flower to pick up pollen, and then seek and find the next individual of that species and carry the pollen to it. Animals are smart enough and agile enough to do this. The plant must first attract the animal. Just getting the pollinator to land is not enough. The second law of thermodynamics applies here: The animal is usually intelligent enough to avoid the energy waste of behaviors that do not result in some kind of reward. The plant must reward the visit. This will result in training the animal to concentrate its efforts on visiting other flowers of this same species and achieving the pollination goal. The reward is usually one of three things: Nectar, Pollen, Behavior Homework :  Homework Are management scientists/economist’s “diffusion” models sufficient to account for the spread of technology? Can you build a model that includes spin-offs? Slide19:  What makes an innovation successful? Innovation diffusion theorists have identified five critical characteristics that may be helpful in explaining this. Note that these are not requirements for a successful innovation, but their presence or absence could greatly affect the rate at which it gets adopted. · Relative Advantage - Is the innovation better than the status quo? Will people perceive it as better? If not, the innovation will not spread quickly, if at all. · Compatibility - How does the innovation fit with people's past experiences and present needs? If it doesn't fit both well, it won't spread well. Does it require a change in existing values? If members of the culture feel as though they have to become very different people to adopt the innovation, they will be more resistant to it. · Complexity - How difficult is the innovation to understand and apply? The more difficult, the slower the adoption process. · Trial ability - Can people "try out" the innovation first? Or must they commit to it all at once? If the latter, people will be far more cautious about adopting it. · Operability - How visible are the results of using it? If people adopt it, can the difference be discerned by others? If not, the innovation will spread more slowly. Tech Transfer is Important Throughout The Science and Technology Spectrum:  Tech Transfer is Important Throughout The Science and Technology Spectrum Basic Research, Applied Research, Development Slide21:  It is important to understand tech transfer on a macro level And at the smaller scale of individual communications Recent History:  Recent History The value of technology transfer wasn’t formally recognized by the government in the U.S. until the “cold war” with the Soviet Union [September 2, 1945 (Japan surrenders) to December 26, 1991 (USSR dissolves)]. Formal recognition occurred with the establishment of the “Military/Industrial Complex” [MIC] MIC was an effort aimed at garnering all of the U.S. resources towards the goal of winning the cold war. Slide23:  Cold War research funded many project that eventually led to “innumerable commercial projects of immense value.” Few of these projects were undertaken to advance commercial technology, but that was one of the significant byproducts. Support for federal research undertakings such as the space program was promoted by frequent references to commercial spin-offs. Slide24:  Concerns about lagging U.S. productivity and increasing competition from U.S. trading partners in the mid-1980s, and the subsequent end of the Cold War in 1991 began to change the focus from government needs to government-funding of commercial R&D. The government began to put even more emphasis on research leading to commercially viable outcomes. Slide25:  For many years, U.S. policy promoted the unrestricted dissemination of the scientific and technical information produced by the Federal government, with little concern for the role of intellectual property protection in encouraging the commercial development of inventions. Slide26:  . Consequently, U.S. companies were sometimes unwilling to turn federally funded technologies into commercially attractive products and processes. In cases where the private sector company would have to commit its own resources to develop the final products, the lack of exclusive rights provided by intellectual property protection made companies reluctant to commercialize federal technology. Slide27:  Major legislation was enacted to address this issue. The legislation as a whole, promotes the vesting of exclusive rights in government-funded technology with the private sector to encourage the private investment of commercialization funds. The most pertinent legislation includes: Slide28:  Chiles Act of 1978 (PL 97-258) Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980 (PL 96-480) Bayh-Dole Act of 1980 (PL 96-517) Trademark Clarification Act of 1984 ( PL 98-620) Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986 (PL 99-502) Executive Order 12591 Facilitating Access to Science and Technology of 1987 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 (PL 100-418) National Institute of Standards and technology Authorization Act of 1989 ((PL 100-519) National Competitiveness Technology Transfer Act of 1989 ( PL101-189) National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (PL104-113) E.g., Stevenson-Wydler:  E.g., Stevenson-Wydler Leveraged the economic impact of federal R & D investments by providing for a strong national policy supporting domestic technology transfer and utilization of the science and technology resources of the federal govt. Directed the federal govt. to conduct a wide range of research and cooperative activities to assess and improve American technological competitiveness. E.g., Bayh-Dole Act –A Public Law for Tech Transfer:  E.g., Bayh-Dole Act –A Public Law for Tech Transfer The Bayh-Dole Act Provided the Platform for University Technology Transfer The underlying tenet of the Bayh-Dole Act is that federally funded inventions should be licensed for commercial development in the public interest. That principle is reflected in virtually all university policies whether or not the invention is federally funded. Slide32:  In theory, the government funds the majority of basic research, where “market failures” are presumably greatest. Much of government support for basic research goes to universities and colleges. Basic research is crucial for long run growth and is a key ingredient in more applied research and development. Firms have little incentive to fund basic research on their own because: Commercial applications of basic research are rarely obvious, and commercial products and innovations are rarely the stimulus for basic research. Well Known Examples of Fruits of Basic Research:  Well Known Examples of Fruits of Basic Research X-rays were discovered by a physicist observing discharges in vacuum tubes, Penicillin came from enzyme studies of bacterial lysis, Major investigations that seemed totally irrelevant to any practical objective have yielded most of the major discoveries of medicine— Slide34:  The polio vaccine came from learning how to grow cells in culture, Cisplatin, a widely used drug in cancer chemotherapy, came about from studying whether electric fields affect the growth of bacteria and observing inhibition due to the unexpected reactions of the platinum electrodes, and Slide35:  The genetic engineering revolution and recombinant DNA depended on reagents developed in exploring DNA biochemistry. All these discoveries have come from the pursuit of curiosity about questions unrelated at the outset to a specific medical or practical problem. Slide36:  Under-investment occurs because firms cannot appropriate all the returns [“spillovers”] to their R&D investments And because capital market imperfections may make financing R&D more expensive [i.e. R&D cannot be collateralized] than other investments. “Market failures” cause firms acting in their own best interests to under-invest in R&D from society’s perspective. Slide37:  Much of government direct R&D funding goes to applied research and development in industry, Traditionally, most of this funding has been to satisfy directly government objectives like space, defense, health research, environment, energy, transportation, agriculture, etc. While the “market failures” may be less extreme in applied research and development than in basic research, they still exist. Even the most applied R&D is inherently risky and can generate large “spillovers.” Slide38:  From the firm’s perspective, the firm invests in R&D until the expected risk-adjusted private returns of the last research project equals its costs. Average returns to R&D to the firm are high— 20 to 30 percent, on average1— but the returns to society are even higher— often 50 percent or more. These R&D “spillovers” occur as others use research results and extend them in directions the original innovator often could not have imagined. The result of spillovers is that an innovator is compensated for only a fraction of the total returns. Slide39:  An overall under investment in R&D does not mean that there may not be over investment in certain types of research [-- non seq.]: Obvious example: pharmaceutical research attempting to innovate around a patent. The objective of firms is not so much to produce a better drug (though that may be an unintended byproduct) as to divert the “monopoly rents” of an existing patent holder towards themselves. There can also be “excessive” expenditures in a patent race, where the marginal contribution—the earlier arrival of the innovation compared to when it would otherwise have arrived— may be small compared to the average return. The Buts About It Slide40:  The rationale for government intervention is not that the government is better than the private sector at picking winners, but that there exist important spillovers even for applied technology. The objective of the government is thus to identify winning projects that would be privately unprofitable but socially beneficial because of high spillovers. Slide41:  Social Returns Private Returns No need for govt. subsidy; private sector will do it on their own No spillovers expected Do not subsidize. Subsidize Relatively high spillovers and low private returns Candidates for Subsidies: Expected Social v Private Returns (adapted from Stiglitz and Wallsten: Public-Private Technology Partnerships: Promises and Pitfalls) NASA SPINOFFS:  NASA SPINOFFS See: Consumer/Home/Recreation Environmental and Resource Management Health and Medicine Industrial Productivity/Manufacturing Technology Public Safety Medical - Implantable Pacemaker :  Medical - Implantable Pacemaker Bi-directional telemetry, a type of two-way communications developed by NASA, provides the means to both instruct and query a state-of-the-art, implantable pacemaker. Using the same communications technology that bridges the gap between Earth stations and satellites, doctors can send signals to the pacemaker to alter its rate, and also receive signals from the device regarding the status of its interaction with the heart. Helmet-Mounted Infrared Imaging and Communications System Aids Firefighters:  Helmet-Mounted Infrared Imaging and Communications System Aids Firefighters A major leap forward in firefighter-capable infrared imaging devices. Designed exclusively for firefighters, the system's enhanced video and audio capabilities provide clear images and uninterrupted communications through dense smoke often encountered in burning buildings or aircraft. Communications - Klystron Tube Vacuum tube technology:  Communications - Klystron Tube Vacuum tube technology Technology developed in the NASA communications Satellite Technology Program has been fitted to the klystron tubes used in UHF-TV transmitters. The "MDC klystron" tube is twice as efficient as previous klystrons, reducing the power consumption of the UHF TV station by one-half. U.S. Air Force: T-ray Technology Entering Production:  U.S. Air Force: T-ray Technology Entering Production Terahertz radiation or "T-rays" act much like Superman's x-ray vision, permitting the nondestructive evaluation of myriad opaque samples. Novel published applications of this technology include: examining circuit traces/interconnects inside integrated circuits, detecting tooth decay, Air Force Advancements in Optical Absorption Monitoring Aid Lithographic Coatings Research :  Air Force Advancements in Optical Absorption Monitoring Aid Lithographic Coatings Research Academia and industry use an absorbed ultraviolet light measuring technology, developed for the Air Force to detect rocket fuel emissions, to improve microscopic electronic circuit boards and miniature transistors. Some of the many applications of technologies developed at CERN for particle physics research. :  Some of the many applications of technologies developed at CERN for particle physics research. Cancer therapy, medical and industrial imaging, radiation processing, electronics, measuring instruments, new manufacturing processes and materials, food preservation techniques, destruction of toxic products, etc. Slide50:  Since 1990, Berkeley Lab licensed technology has formed the basis for 15 start-ups, creating over 500 new jobs in those companies alone. These technologies include genomics-related software, nanotechnology, x-ray imaging, materials sciences processing, biomolecular tagging, and energy-efficiency home improvements. Spin-offs Are Frequently NOT Unexpected:  Spin-offs Are Frequently NOT Unexpected Millimeter-wave instruments and their constituent component devices have many applications outside astronomy. a new area: making broadband communications links for wireless access to services normally served by fiber or cable. the possibilities for further commercial applications in communications, automobile collision avoidance radars, and night-time imaging are projected to be significant. MITI in Japan estimates a world-wide market for millimeter-wave devices of $10-billion by 2005. But Some Still Don’t Get the Picture:  But Some Still Don’t Get the Picture Despite the significant achievements resulting from tech transfer overall acceptance and implementation has been painfully slow. See Nice Technology Transfer:  Nice Technology Transfer direct purchases licensing franchising foreign direct investment sale of turn-key plants joint ventures subcontracting cooperative research arrangements and co-production agreements Nice Technology Transfer:  Nice Technology Transfer export of products and capital goods exchange of scientific and technical personnel science and technology conferences, trade shows and exhibits education and training (of nationals and foreigners) commercial visits open literature (journals, magazines, books, and articles) government assistance programs Slide55: USPTO grants patents for the protection of inventions and registers trademarks. Slide56:  US. PATENTS provide rights for up to 20 years for inventions in three broad categories: Utility patents protect useful processes, machines, articles of manufacture, and compositions of matter. Some examples: fiber optics, computer hardware, medications. Design patents guard the unauthorized use of new, original, and ornamental designs for articles of manufacture. The look of an athletic shoe, a bicycle helmet, the Star Wars characters are all protected by design patents. Plant patents are the way we protect invented or discovered, asexually reproduced plant varieties. Hybrid teas roses, Silver Queen corn, Better Boy tomatoes are all types of plant Patents. Slide57:  International Protection Patent Cooperation Treaty PTC Member Non-PTC Treaties provide for IP protection beyond the borders of the US and for non-US customers who wish to seek patent or trademark protection in the US. Slide58:  Only 23 of the more than 729,000 trademarks in force in the United States are sounds. After six years of legal proceedings and no resolution in sight, Harley caved, claiming it had won in the court of public opinion, etc. Harley Davidson trademark attorneys argued the sound of their legendary V-twin motorcycle engine is so unique that it " deserves a trademark". "The sound we like to use, the verbal description, is, very fast, 'potato-potato-potato,'". Honda Motor Co. and Yamaha Motor Corp. argued,” Harley's claim is unfounded." " Yamaha has been building V-twin engines since the early '80's and...(claims)... there is no difference between the sound their engine makes and the sound our engine makes." A trademark is a word, name, symbol, or device that is used in trade with goods to indicate the source of the goods and to distinguish them from the goods of others. E.g., the familiar chimes of (NBC) Scent Marks:  Scent Marks Marks consisting of scents are the most problematic. In addition to the practical difficulties of describing such marks sufficiently to determine where conflicts may exist, there is little legislation or jurisprudence on the subject. A scent mark was first recognized in 1990 in the United States, where a scent, described as a high impact, fresh, floral fragrance reminiscent of plumeria blossoms, applied to sewing thread, was deemed a registrable trademark. Slide60:  COPYRIGHTS protect works of authorship, such as writings, music, and works of art that have been tangibly expressed. The Library of Congress registers copyrights which last the life of the author plus 50 years. Gone With The Wind (the book and the film), Beatles recordings, and video games are all words that are copyrighted. Trade Secrets:  Trade Secrets Coke, 17-18 ingredients KFC, 11 herbs and spices Orange Julius, secret powder Trade secrets are information that companies keep secret to give them an advantage over their competitors. Not Nice Technology Transfer:  Not Nice Technology Transfer Industrial espionage –EEA of 1996 –see End-user or third country diversions Reverse engineering Unintentional Tech Transfer:  Unintentional Tech Transfer E.g., Disclosures at conferences and trade shows; federal and local EPA filings; trade mark applications, local newspapers or journalists; websites; customers, consultants, or suppliers; Tech Transfer and CI:  Tech Transfer and CI CI is a process of determining how competitors will (or are) try(ing) to beat you or the process of figuring out how to beat them. Tech Transfer if often not a factor in CI RONALD H. COASE, 1991 Nobel Laureate in Economics, for his discovery and clarification of the significance of transaction costs and property rights for the institutional structure and functioning of the economy. Slide65:  Technology often provides a temporary advantage by reducing transaction costs –the day-to-day costs incurred in purchasing raw materials, making sales, hiring employees, etc. – that leads to bigger profits. What is often more important in the longer term is the ability of the firm to mobilize its people to help it reduce transactions costs creatively and innovatively. Slide66:  Pre-patent Activities and Military Technology are Notable Exceptions “Above all, make dead certain nobody has the slightest idea what you're going to do.” “That was very perceptive. The highest level of security comes when you start. Because if it's blown then, you give the other fellow an equal chance to compete. If you blow security when you've already developed the components and made the parts and so on, the competitor has got to do all that in order to catch up. “ --- Ernest Pollard recalling the direction he got that led to his WW II radar inventions (L’il Abner project) at MIT. Louis Ridenour: CI is Performed by Various Types of Analysis:  CI is Performed by Various Types of Analysis Market/Industry Analysis -- determining the profit potential of an industry/market Customer Analysis -- analyzing customer needs Corporate-level Competitive Analysis – determining a competitor’s corporate strategies Business-level Competitive Analysis – determining a competitor's business strategies Competitive Benchmarking – measuring your performance against “best-in-class” Business-level Competitive Analysis:  Business-level Competitive Analysis R & D Competitive Analysis is a component of overall business level strategy This is where technology transfer is of interest in competitive intelligence Slide69:  New technology New products Product line extensions As percent of revenues Size of R & D force Total By types of employee Process vs. product Innovator v. follower Product v. process Funding patterns Funding philosophy In-house v. outsourced Technology acquisition Joint venture Culture Product attributes Performance Quality New product Development Timeliness Strengths and Weaknesses Patent history Slide70:  Sometimes only one property right covers the entirety of a marketable product. Often products will often be assembled from a number of components. One or more of these components may be covered by IPRs. Complex, multi-component products are the norm in many industries (e.g., autos and consumer electronics), and individual patents often cover only a single component or sub-component. Slide71:  Often, there is no simple “one-to-one” mapping of products and property rights. Some components may not be subject to proprietary rights. Others may be, but the rights will be of different types (patents and copyrights), scopes, and durations. Slide72:  Intended Product Innovation spin-off spin-off spin-off The “Big Bang” Scenario is Likely to be Quite Rare Slide73:  Intended Product Innovation spin-off spin-off spin-off Spin-off based Products that Produce no spin-offs are more likely Slide74:  Intended Product Innovation spin-off spin-off spin-off spin-off spin-off spin-off I Ideal Situation Slide75:  Intended Product Innovation spin-off spin-off spin-off (could be $0) The 3M Story Slide76:  Example: Public + Company Benefits from Govt. Sponsored Development of New Technology Govt. pays industrial firm to develop new engine that is more efficient. Public Benefit = Save Fuel + Reduce Pollution Industrial firm creates new technology to create new engine that is too expensive (learning curve has small slope) to sell in large volumes. Industrial firm utilizes new technology (spin-offs) in it existing product line. Makes firm’s products more competitive, increases their revenues, allows slower introduction on new engine in low volumes at high prices. Public benefits accrue sooner because not dependent on cost reductions from large scale manufacturing. Example: Public + Company Benefits from Govt. Sponsored Development of New Technology:  ~2% of Today’s Consumption of Natural Gas 0.515 0.430 0.345 0.260 0.170 0.085 TCF Natural Gas Saved / Yr Example: Public + Company Benefits from Govt. Sponsored Development of New Technology So, Every Engineer Should Know:  So, Every Engineer Should Know Tech Transfer creates innumerable commercial projects of immense value. Average returns from spin-offs can exceed the returns from the original innovations. Governments invest in projects that would be privately unprofitable but socially beneficial because of high spillovers. Tech transfer can make or break a firm Engineers, not CI analysts, are key agents in tech transfer. Tech Transfer is a naturally occurring adaptive adoptive process. Slide79:  An Engineer Needs to be Behind the Wheel Not in the Path of the Headlights

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

Dennis V. Perepelitsa - Columbia University

teaching From 2009-2010, I was one of the Physics Preceptors. Classes I've TA'd: Fall 2008: F1291 General Physics I Laboratory; Spring 2009: F1291 General ...
Read more

News - DVB - Digital Video Broadcasting

DVB-T and DVB-T2 have been trailed, adopted or deployed in 150 countries with DVB-T2 deploying an in increasing number of countries around the world.
Read more

DVP Pain Relief Clinic

DVP Pain Relief Clinic, Quesnel, British Columbia. 152 likes · 12 talking about this · 3 were here. Laser Therapist Lensen™ Therapist - Using techniques...
Read more

Organizational Change: The DVP>C Formula | CaseWorks ...

When are the forces for organizational change greater than the cost of change-and how does this "formula" apply to an automotive plant in need of process ...
Read more


©2006 ersatzteil-vertrieb dobisch ----3 5 Besucher online/ 278 Besucher heute/ 5591328 Besucher gesamt 26.12.2015 - 11:55 Uhr gazaudelgrumpf
Read more

Columbia Dvb-t2, China Columbia Dvb-t2 Suppliers Directory ...

China Columbia Dvb-t2, Columbia Dvb-t2 from China Supplier - Find Variety Columbia Dvb-t2 from view more categories, view more categories Suppliers Located ...
Read more

Student Organization List | Student Services | Students ...

Student Organizations. Columbia Law School’s more than 80 student organizations and activities reflect the range of interests and experiences within the ...
Read more


COLUMBIA FTA (free to air) - fully DVB/MPEG-2 compliant system - electronic program guide (EPG) - SCPC and MCPC - 5 language OSD
Read more

Sony: Drei neue DVD-Player mit DivX-Unterstützung (15.10 ...

Sony bietet mit den neuen Modellen DVP-NS765P, DVP-LS785 und DVP-NS955 die ersten eigenen DVD-Player mit DivX-Playback an. Auf den ersten Blick erscheint ...
Read more