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Information about color

Published on March 6, 2008

Author: Freedom


COLORS (Dyes):  COLORS (Dyes) Classified as Certified and Exempt from certification Certified dyes are snthetic Natural colors are those exempt from certification Where ever possible, natural colors are preferred for “clean” labeling LISTING OF COLOR SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION (21CFR74):  LISTING OF COLOR SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION (21CFR74) 74.101 FD&C Blue No. 1. 74.102 FD&C Blue No. 2. 74.203 FD&C Green No. 3. 74.250 Orange B. Sausage casings only 74.302 Citrus Red No.2. Oranges only 74.303 FD&C Red No. 3. 74.340 FD&C Red No. 40. 74.705 FD&C Yellow No.5. 74.706 FD&C Yellow No.6. CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS (21CFR82):  CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS (21CFR82) 82.51 Lakes (FD&C). 82.101 FD&C Blue No. 1. 82.102 FD&C Blue No. 2. 82.203 FD&C Green No. 3. 82.304 FD&C Red No. 4. Cosmetic only 82.705 FD&C Yellow No. 5. 82.706 FD&C Yellow No. 6. COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION (21CFR73):  COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION (21CFR73) 73.30 Annatto extract. 73.35 Astaxanthin. added to the fish feed only as a component of a stabilized color additive mixture. 73.40 Dehydrated beets (beet powder). 73.50 Ultramarine blue. used for coloring salt intended for animal feed 73.75 Canthaxanthin. 73.85 Caramel. 73.90 b -Apo-8'-carotenal. 73.95 b-Carotene. 73.100 Cochineal extract; carmine. COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION (21CFR73):  COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION (21CFR73) 73.140 Toasted partially defatted cooked cottonseed flour. 73.160 Ferrous gluconate. coloring of ripe olives. 73.165 Ferrous lactate. coloring of ripe olives. 73.169 Grape color extract. Non-beverage foods 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina). still and carbonated drinks and ades, beverage bases, and alcoholic beverages 73.200 Synthetic iron oxide. Sausage casings, pet foods 73.250 Fruit juice. 73.260 Vegetable juice. COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION (21CFR73):  COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION (21CFR73) 73.275 Dried algae meal. enhance the yellow color of chicken skin and eggs. 73.295 Tagetes (Aztec marigold) meal and extract. enhance the yellow color of chicken skin and eggs. 73.300 Carrot oil. 73.315 Corn endosperm oil. 73.340 Paprika. 73.345 Paprika oleoresin. 73.450 Riboflavin. 73.500 Saffron. 73.575 Titanium dioxide. 73.600 Turmeric. 73.615 Turmeric oleoresin. Dyes:  Dyes Soluble in water Color by being dissolved Generally good heat and light stability Color proportional to concentration Advantages And Disadvantages Of Various Forms Of Certified Color Additives:  Advantages And Disadvantages Of Various Forms Of Certified Color Additives Form Advantage Disadvantage Primary Ease of dissolving, Dusty suitable for dry mixes Granular Dustless, free flowing Slower dissolving, not suitable for dry mixes Wet dry No flashing in dry More costly blends blends when wetted Aqueous Ready to use, More costly liquid colors ease of handling, accurate measurement Cut blends Permits larger weighings More costly with more accuracy for small amounts of added color Lakes:  Lakes Dyes are made insoluble by coating on alumina Coloring strength not proportional to concentation Used when you don’t want bleeding & Used to color powders Color by dispersion Improved light and heat stability Particle size has big effect on coloring power Average Dye Content of Foods:  Average Dye Content of Foods Category (ppm) Candy and confections 100 Beverages (liquid and powdered) 75 Dessert powders 140 Cereals 350 Marachino cherries 200 Pet foods 200 Bakery goods 50 Ice cream and sherbets 30 Sausage (surface) 125 Snack foods 200 Chemical Classification of Dyes:  Chemical Classification of Dyes AZO Triphenylmethane Sulfonated IndigoFluorescein Red #4 Blue #1 Blue #2 Red #3 Red. #40 Green #3     Yellow #5       Yellow #6 Orange B     Chemical Classification of Dyes:  Chemical Classification of Dyes AZO ‘s Yellow 5 Yellow 6 Chemical Classification of Dyes:  Chemical Classification of Dyes AZO ‘s Orange B Red 40 Triphenylmethane:  Triphenylmethane Blue # 1 Green 3 Sulfonated Indigo:  Sulfonated Indigo Blue #2 Fluorescein:  Fluorescein Red # 3 AZO DYES:  AZO DYES METAL IONS - Losses due to Al, Zn, Fe, Sn Color changes with copper REDUCING AND OXIDIZING AGENTS - Rapid losses LIGHT - Reduced stability Triphenylmethane Dyes:  Triphenylmethane Dyes Light - Fair stability Acid Some losses Oxidation- Poor stability PROBLEM CAUSES :  PROBLEM CAUSES Fading due to microorganisms Color preparing facilities not thoroughly cleaned to avoid contaminating with reducing organisms. Fading due to excessive heat Processing temperature too high. Fading due to oxidizing and reducing Contact of color with oxidizers such as agents ozone or hypochlorites or reducers such as ascorbic acid. Fading due to strong acids or alkalis   Fading due to retorting with protein material   Poor shelf life with colored canned Used an excessive amount of azo carbonated beverages dyes Precipitation from color solution Exceeded solubility limit or colored liquid food Insufficient solvent. Chemical reaction. Low temperatures, especially for concentrated color solution. Problems Causes:  Problems Causes Dulling effects instead of bright, Excessive color. pleasing shades Exposure to high temperatures Specking and spotting during coloring Color not completely dissolved of bakery and confectionery products making a solution. Employed liquid color containing sediment. Attempted dispersion in an containing excessive fat Fading due to light Poor packaging Fading due to metals Color solutions or colored products were in contact with zinc, tin, aluminum, etc. during dissolving, handling or storing. Caramel Color:  Caramel Color Produced from heat treatment of: Sugars Alkali Acids Salts Glucose Ammonium hydroxide. Acetic acid. Ammonium, sodium, Fructose Calcium hydroxide Citric acid potassium carbonate, Lactose Potassium hydroxide. Phosphoric acid bicarbonate Malt Syrup Sodium hydroxide. Sulfuric acid.. Phosphate (including Molasses   Sulfurous acid dibasic phosphate and Starch Hydrolysates    monobasic phosphate),           Caramel Color  :  Caramel Color   Complex colloid with a charge Must carry a strong negative charge to remain soluble Types Uses Acid proof (pka 2.0) Carbonated beverages Bakers and confectioners Baked products Dry caramel Dry mixes Carotenoids:  Carotenoids Fat souble synthetically produced natural pigments. Colors range from yellow to red. Sensitive to oxygen (note the conjugated double bonds). Isomerized during heat processing. b -CAROTENE (0.6 ug = 1IU) b -APO-8’- CAROTENAL (0.83 ug = 1IU) CANTHAXINTHIN (No Vit A activity) BIXIN (ANNATTO EXTRACT) (No Vit A activity) LYCOPENE (No Vit A activity) Used in Europe but not yet approved in the US Carotenes:  Carotenes Commercial Forms of Carotenioids Available::  Commercial Forms of Carotenioids Available: Liquid suspension in vegetable oil Semi-solid suspension -25% in hydro  genated vegetable oil Beadlet-water dispersible Emulsion, beverage type Commercial Forms of Carotenioids Available::  Commercial Forms of Carotenioids Available: STABILITY Crystalline B-carotene is sensitive to air and light. Vegetable fat and oil solutions and suspensions are quite stable during customary handling. SUGGESTED USE LEVELS OF CAROTENOIDS TO OBTAIN CERTAIN COLORS:  SUGGESTED USE LEVELS OF CAROTENOIDS TO OBTAIN CERTAIN COLORS COLOR CANTHAXANTHIN APOCAROTENAL B-CAROTENE YELLOW 2.5   2 ORANGE 5 2 5 ORANGE-RED 10 8 * STRAWBERRY 12 10 * RASPBERRY 15 12 * CHERRY 25 15 * * DOES NOT GIVE RED COLOR mg/pt Some Carotenoid Applications:  Some Carotenoid Applications Food Product Carotenoid Comments Simulated dairy products b-carotene beadlets Provides color and Vit A Meat And Simulated Meat Products 10% Canthaxanthin beadlets Enhances Color Tomato Products 10% Canthaxanthin beadlets Restore Color Frozen And Dried Egg Yolk Products b -carotene suspensions, Improves color of foods beadlets made from these products Juices & beverages b -carotene Beadlets Yellow color, adds Vit A Frostings b -carotene Beadlets Lighter colors like lemon, peach Some Carotenoid Applications:  Some Carotenoid Applications Food Product Carotenoid Comments Margarine b -carotene suspensions Uniform color, Vit A Butter b -carotene Suspensions Standard color,Vit A Cheese Annatto Color only, No Vit A Popcorn b -carotene Suspensions Uniform color Process Cheese b -carotene Suspensions Uniform color ,Vit A Bakery Products b -carotene Beadlets Canthaxanthin Beadlets Yellow Color Annatto (Bixin):  Annatto (Bixin) Carotenoid Plant pigment permitted for coloring cheese (Cheddar) Stable to oxidations Unstable to heat and light Betalins:  Betalins Dried beet juice 0.2-1.0% betanin Betanin useful at ~ 50 ppm Betanin has 2.5 times coloring strength cf red #2 Most stable between ph 4.0-5.0 Heat, oxygen and light labile Most often in sauces (frozen pizza sauces), dried products, some yogurts Betanin:  Betanin MEAT PIGMENTS:  MEAT PIGMENTS PIGMENT COLOR IRON GLOBIN Myoglobin Purple-red +2 N Oxymyoglobin Bright red +2 N Metmyoglobin Brown +3 N Nitrosomyoglobin Pink +2 N Metmyoglobin nitrite Pink +3 N Green colors -sulfmyoglobin (H2S) Choleglobin (ascorbate, reducing agents) Myoglobin:  Myoglobin Chlorophyll:  Chlorophyll Pyrrole ring with chelated Mg++ Phytol ester Most of the chemistry relates to removal of Mg and replacement with H+, Cu++ or Zn++ Veri-Green process adds ZnCl2 to replace H in pheophytin to form very bright and stable green color, copper will also form a very nice color (but adding copper is not allowed in the US) Phytol ester may also be cleaved. Chlorophyll minus phytol = chlorophyllide (green) Replace Mg with H = Pheophytin (olive) -phytol and Mg=pheophorbide(Qlive) Chlorophyll a:  Chlorophyll a Anthocyanin:  Anthocyanin Anthocyanins:  Anthocyanins pH indicators Heat labile Oxygen labile Enzyme labile Stability is a major limitation for use. Once you remove it from the plant tissue stability is a big problem. Red cabbage "juice" has been used in barbecue sauce and coloring pink lemonade.

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