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Sports

Published on January 14, 2009

Author: aSGuest10511

Source: authorstream.com

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Sport and social exclusion –introduction and overview : Sport and social exclusion –introduction and overview Mike Collins Visiting Fellow, Universities of Loughborough & Gloucestershire ISRM Loughborough 6 Oct 2006 Young people at risk - context : Young people at risk - context School truancies, exclusions, less stable families; poverty 2 in 5 known offenders aged under 21, 25% under 18 6% of offenders responsible for 70% of known crime, leading to targeting – e.g.Positive Futures ‘Top 50’ Youth crime and sport largest area of growth in international interest –US ‘social problems industry (Pitter & Andrews, 2004; Hartmann & Depro, 2006) Goverenemnt, Sport England believe e.g. Positive Futures –115 projects ,109,000 youth - locals believe 50% reduction in drug use, 68% in crime, 76% in anti-social behaviour (Home Office, 2006) Young people at risk –triggers and causes : Young people at risk –triggers and causes Drawing on sociological, criminological, and leisure studies literature (McCormack, 2001) Cost of custody –75,000+ prisoners in UK External/structural-mediating- internal/agency Interventions: Primary – modifying criminogenic environments Secondary - preventing individuals/groups falling into crime Tertiary - rehabilitating offenders (Brantingham and Faust, 1976) Risk vs protective factors (Witt & Crompton, 1997) But no models with good predictive ability, so Home Office goes for situational factors (e.g., seat belts, lighting) Framework for rationales of leisure based interventions : Framework for rationales of leisure based interventions Primary intervention in Stoke- Streetsport : Primary intervention in Stoke- Streetsport From a single Community Recreation worker in 1971 to 5f/t,10p/t sport leaders in 1999 mobile teams on open space in very deprived estates, Mon-Fri evenings and weekends in vacation c.4,200 drop-in attendances a year in 3 estates –football, basketball Informal interviews on site plus stakeholders – police, teachers, youth workers, residents Street Sport is great …. I don’t get to play a game anywhere else… the rest of the week it’s just kick around with mates (Male aged 18, Bentilee, July 1999).  I play for the team now and train more seriously with them but I still like to come here to meet my mates and have a bit of fun (Male aged 17, Stanfields, July 1999). Streetsport outcomes : Streetsport outcomes Meeting needs of youth and supporting them The Street Sport team helped us to form a football team, we have now played for two seasons and are a strong team on and off the field,….we needed their help to get motivated”(Stanfields, interview 1999) Positive contribution to reducing crime and vandalism (providing Sports Courts) Visible attempt to divert and provide activities for young people (sports sessions) Worked with communities through residents, schools and community centres (continual consultation, Youth Forum) Reduced nuisance, opened community debate Provided education,diversion Conclusions on primary intervention : Conclusions on primary intervention Streetsport needs to consider - widening activities - involving more girls - cost effectiveness - more partners - greater incorporation of youth - cost effectiveness and evaluation The importance of early intervention childhood and youth leisure socialisation are crucial. Most people base the rest of their leisure lives on interests, which may be subsequently built upon, to which they were initially introduced when young (Roberts,1999) Tertiary intervention in Hants- Solent Sports Counselling : Tertiary intervention in Hants- Solent Sports Counselling Begun 1983 by Methodist minister, Sports Council funding, Home Office praise, transfer to Hants Probation, reduced and then stopped 1998 One-to-one appraisal and accompaniment in wide range of indoor and outdoor sports, Leisure Pass, general support by 2f/t ,10p/t workers 40 in-depth interviews plus counsellors, POs; followed up 21 for 18 months 7 of 10 over 21; 50% alcohol,drug abuse, poor health; sometimes/ frequently in care (60%) or custody (23%) Tertiary intervention- outcomes : Tertiary intervention- outcomes low, fragmented leisure and sports participation, matching fragmented social life, lack of support a minority group with extremely ’impoverished’ leisure (McCormack, 2000) The intervention/mentoring more important than the activity (also Positive Futures) Improved health, less booze,drugs Increased self-esteem More sociable 2/3 still playing after 6 months, some involved with clubs,teams Matt I found the benefits to be immense.. …increased health and fitness…self-esteem and self-confidence Some lose touch - get a job! But unable to follow up adequately Young people at risk –Midnight Basketball : Young people at risk –Midnight Basketball Standifer in Washington DC -for 17-20 year olds, 10pm-2am, police present Rapidly copied and funded, Chicago & elsewhere Criticised as small scale, diversionary (DC only 160 of 6,600 youth – Pitter & Andrews,1997) also crime falling in 1985-2001 Comparing 28 schemes in cities 100,000+ with 171 without showed no relationship re violent crime but 5% fall in property- related crime, greater in early adopters, blacker low home-owner areas (Hartmann & Depro, 2006) – attribute to a) bundling with other crime prevention initiatives, and b) publicity effects re interventions and communities expecting results/ trust No transfer to Britain (EBBA pilots) Young people at risk - conclusions : Young people at risk - conclusions Short term diversion can be achieved e.g. SPLASH - but can it be sustained? (Nichols,2004; Renewal Net,2005) Longer term investment needed as part of bundle(social responsibility education, literacy/numeracy/IT/job skills) –Positive Futures learning, but little transfer (Sport England, 2002; Home Office, 2005) Sport a major ‘hook’ – but mentoring/support more crucial than activity Most schemes too short, no follow up in community (Collins,2003) Can improve health, sociability, educational performance - cf Sports of the streets and sports in the suburbs programmes in France, self managed skateboarding in Cardiff (Gough, 2003) Proof of reducing re-offending needs more longitudinal monitoring and rigorous evaluation (Coalter, 2001, Nichols & Crow, 2004) References : References Brantingham, P. and Faust, F. (1976) A Conceptual Model of Crime Prevention Crime and Delinquency, 22, 248-296 Coalter, F. (2001) Realising the potential of cultural services: the case for sport London: Local Government Association Collins, M.F. (2003) Sport and social exclusion London: Routledge Gough, T. (2003) Sport and regeneration paper to British Urban Regeneration conference, Cardiff Hartmann, D. & Depro, B.(2006) Rethinking sports-based community crime prevention: A preliminary analysis of the relationship between Midnight Basketball and urban crime rates Jnl of Sport & Social Issues 30:2, 180-96 Home Office (2005) Positive Futures impact report: Staying in touch London: Home Office Home Office (2005) Positive Futures impact report: Impacting on young people’s lives London: Home Office McCormack, F. (2000) Leisure exclusion? Analysing interventions using active leisure with young people offending or at-risk unpublished PhD, Loughborough University Pitter, R. and Andrews,D. (1997) Serving America’s underserved youth : Reflections on sport and recreation in a growing social problems industry Quest 49,85-99 Nichols, G. and Crow, I. (2004) Measuring the impact of crime reduction interventions involving sports activities for young people Howard Jnl of Criminal Justice 43:3, 267-83 Renewalnet ( 2005) Youth offending: SPLASH interventions accessed 2.10.05 Sport England (2002) Positive Futures: A review of impact and good practice London: SpE Taylor, P. and Nichols, G. (1996) West Yorkshire Probation Service Sports Counselling Project Final Evaluation Report Sheffield: Sheffield University Witt, P.A. and Crompton, J. (1997) The protective factors framework: a key to programming for benefits and evaluating for results Jnl of Park & Recreation Admin 15.3, 1-18

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