College English Book 2 Unit 9

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Information about College English Book 2 Unit 9

Published on February 24, 2008

Author: ozturk


Unit 9:  Unit 9 What Is Intelligence, Anyway? 智力到底是什么? I. Word Study and Word Building:  I. Word Study and Word Building 1. aptitude n. 能力,才能:  1. aptitude n. 能力,才能 e.g. She has an aptitude for dealing with people. He showed an aptitude for music at an early age. Note: aptitude for: …才能 2. figure n. (1) 数字;位数:  2. figure n. (1) 数字;位数 e.g. She got a starting salary of six figures. The Government Yearbook is full of statistical figures (2) 外形,轮廓,隐约可见的人影:  (2) 外形,轮廓,隐约可见的人影 e.g. I saw a figure 20 feet away from me in the dim street light. There is a figure of a chimney in the distance. (3) 人物,名人:  (3) 人物,名人 e.g. The young students argued over who was the most influential figure in the 20th century. (4) human form 体型,风姿:  (4) human form 体型,风姿 e.g. The fashion model exercises daily to keep her figures. The woman in the portrait had a graceful figure. Note: keep one’s figure: 保持体形 (5) (插)图,图形:  (5) (插)图,图形 e.g. The figures in the book will help you understand the theories better. cf: figure out: 计算出;想出;理解,领会 3. register (v.) 登记,注册:  3. register (v.) 登记,注册 e.g. I have registered for four courses for next semester. The two staff members there are busy registering new students. (n.) 登记,注册;登记表,注册薄:  (n.) 登记,注册;登记表,注册薄 e.g. You might find some Chinese names on the US immigration register of the 19th century. 4. academic a. (1) 学术的,学究的:  4. academic a. (1) 学术的,学究的 e.g. Academic exchanges are an important part of cultural exchanges between two countries. His theory received little attention because he was unknown in the academic world. (2) 学院的:  (2) 学院的 e.g. This is the school calendar for academic year 2002 – 2003. Note: academic year: 学年 academic exchanges: 学术交流 the academic world: 学术界 academic freedom: 学术自由 5. explore v. (1) 探索,探究,仔细查阅:  5. explore v. (1) 探索,探究,仔细查阅 e.g. To write his graduation paper the sociology student explored all the major libraries in the city. The multi-national company sent a group to China to explore business possibilities. (2) 勘探,勘查,探测:  (2) 勘探,勘查,探测 e.g. A robot was recently sent to explore the surface of Mars. Rigorous physical training is needed if one wants to explore the Arctic regions. Note: exploration n. 探索,勘探,勘察 explorer n. 探险者 6. determine v. (1) decide (on) 决定:  6. determine v. (1) decide (on) 决定 e.g. I found it hard to determine which side was right just by hearing them quarrel. Have you determined the date for your wedding? Note: determination n. 决定,决心,确定 determined a. 坚决的,决意的 (2) find out precisely 确定:  (2) find out precisely 确定 e.g. Investigators have not yet determined the cause of the air crash. The explorer determined his location by using the compass. (3) make up one’s mind 决意,决心:  (3) make up one’s mind 决意,决心 e.g. We determined on an early start / on starting early. He (was) determined to learn how to operate the machine in two days’ time. Note: determine on sth. : 决定做某事 determine to do sth. : 决心做某事 be determined to do sth. :决心做某事 7. joke n. 笑话,玩笑:  7. joke n. 笑话,玩笑 e.g. He didn’t laugh because he did not see / get the joke. Don’t play jokes on him. He can’t take jokes. Note: play a joke on sb. : 开某人的玩笑 not take jokes: 经不起开玩笑 (v.) make jokes 说笑话,开玩笑:  (v.) make jokes 说笑话,开玩笑 e.g. This is no joking matter. Don’t take it seriously. He is only joking with you. Note: joke with sb. : 和某人开玩笑 8. dumb a. (1) 哑的,不能说话的:  8. dumb a. (1) 哑的,不能说话的 e.g. She was dumb from birth and was very kind to dumb animals. (2) temporarily silent 不说话的,沉默寡言的:  (2) temporarily silent 不说话的,沉默寡言的 e.g. The audience was struck dumb when the magician ate fire. The actors put on a dumb show. Note: strike sb. dumb: 使某人愣住,吓得某人发愣 a dumb show: 哑剧 9. worthy (of) a. deserving 值得的:  9. worthy (of) a. deserving 值得的 Suffix –y : 1) like…, having…, full of…, characterized by … 如…的,具有…的,多… 的 2) inclined to … 心向,有意 Ex. 8 P179 10. subsection n. 小组,分部:  10. subsection n. 小组,分部 sub-: under; smaller or less important than 在…下面;次,亚,准,再,副,分支,下级 Ex. 9 P180 11. automobile n. 汽车 :  11. automobile n. 汽车 Clipping: 裁减法 front clipping; back clipping Ex. 10 P180 Slide25:  II. Language Points (Reference背景知识) 1. against prep. in contrast to or with 衬托;相映;对照:  1. against prep. in contrast to or with 衬托;相映;对照 e.g. She looked pale against the dim light in the room. The building is very beautiful against the glow of the sunset sky. 2. normal (n.) 正常的状态或水平:  2. normal (n.) 正常的状态或水平 e.g. Things in the house returned to normal after the guests had left. Sam was scolded because he got a score below normal in the math midterm. Note: above / below normal: 标准以上 / 以下 (a.) usual; regular 正常的,平常的;正规的,规范的:  (a.) usual; regular 正常的,平常的;正规的,规范的 e.g. His behaviors do not seem normal to me. Vegetables are cheap at normal times. But after the flood the price went up quickly. Note: norm n. 标准 abnormal a. (反义词) normally adv. 3. make a fuss over (about / of): 为…大惊小怪:  3. make a fuss over (about / of): 为…大惊小怪 e.g. This is only a small cut. Don’t make a fuss. He asked himself why he had made such a big fuss about so simple a matter. 4. highly ad. 高度地,非常,极:  4. highly ad. 高度地,非常,极 e.g. It is highly probable that he changed his name to avoid being tracked down by the police. The film was highly praised by critics. Note: speak highly of: 称赞某人 think highly of: 对… 评价很高 5. simply ad. (1) 仅仅;只不过:  5. simply ad. (1) 仅仅;只不过 e.g. I took that job simply because the office is near my home. Don’t worry. It is simply a scratch. (2) in a plain manner 简单地;朴素地:  (2) in a plain manner 简单地;朴素地 e.g. The old man lives simply and is dressed simply. (3) completely; absolutely 完全,简直:  (3) completely; absolutely 完全,简直 e.g. I simply can’t understand you. She looks simply wonderful. Note: simple a. 简单的;朴素的;简朴的 simplify v. 使简单化 simplicity n. 简单;朴素;简朴 6. worthy of: deserving 值得,配得上,相称:  6. worthy of: deserving 值得,配得上,相称 e.g. I don’t think this problem is worthy of serious consideration. It is an occasion well worthy of the most elaborate celebration. cf. be worthy to – v.:  cf. be worthy to – v. e.g. I think it is a performance worthy to be remembered forever. He was not worthy to be respected because he was very irresponsible with English teaching. cf.:  cf. be worth + money; be worth doing (worth: 值…的,相当于… 的价值的,用作表语,后跟宾语) worthy of 值得; worthy to – v. : 值得做; worthy (有价值的,值得的,配得上的,相称的)和 worthwhile (值得花时间或精力的)可作定语,但常作表语 考题::  考题: In the meantime, the question facing business is whether such research is _____ the costs. A. worth B. worth of C. worthy D. worthwhile Answer: A. 译文:同时,生意面临的问题是这项研究是否值得。 7. by one’s estimate: 据某人估计:  7. by one’s estimate: 据某人估计 estimate (n.) 估计,估量;评价,看法 e.g. According to the official estimate, over 100 people were killed in the armed conflict. Can you give me a rough estimate of the cost? They held totally different estimates of her character. Note / cf.(固定短语或词组)::  Note / cf.(固定短语或词组): make an estimate of sth.: 对…进行估计、估价 give sb. an estimate of sth. : 替某人对…估一下价 by rough estimate: 根据粗略的估计 estimate: 强调个人的估计或判断。 assessment: 确定,估价;评价。表示对财产等进行估价作为征税根据或确定税款、罚款电能的金额。也可表示对任务或工作进行估价、评价。 evaluation: 评估,评价,更正式些。 (v.) form a judgment about估计,估量;评价:  (v.) form a judgment about估计,估量;评价 e.g. The writer estimated that she would need three more months to finish her novel. An estimated 80,000 tons of grains are needed to relieve the refugees. She was highly estimated by her friends. 8. take sth. for granted: 认为某事当然:  8. take sth. for granted: 认为某事当然 e.g. The father often told his children not to take things for granted. A teacher cannot take (it) for granted that his students always do their homework as required. Note: take (it) for granted that … 9. hasten vi. 赶快;急忙:  9. hasten vi. 赶快;急忙 e.g. Upon learning the news of her son’s injury, she hastened to the hospital. Seeing that the Chairman was to end the discussion, the speaker hastened to his conclusion. Note: hasten to … (to 是个介词) 10. suppose: I suggest; if 假如,假定,假设:  10. suppose: I suggest; if 假如,假定,假设 e.g. Suppose (supposing) we put off the meeting till next week. Suppose (supposing) we are late, what will the teacher say? 11. devise v. think out; plan 想出;设计:  11. devise v. think out; plan 想出;设计 e.g. He devised a system to put Chinese characters into computers. She spent days devising how to make money but never did anything. 12. absolute a. 绝对的:  12. absolute a. 绝对的 e.g. The bill was passed by an absolute majority. There is no absolute truth in the world. 13. foist on: 把… 强加于:  13. foist on: 把… 强加于 e.g. Stores should not foist defective goods on customers. I’m sorry all this has been foisted on you. Note: foist on: 指用欺骗、狡诈的手段把…强加于 同impose on 14.  pick out: select; choose 挑选,选出:  14.  pick out: select; choose 挑选,选出 e.g. John had a lot of roses in the pot. I picked out a big red one just coming into bloom. It took Mary a long time to pick out a new dress at the store. cf. pick out: 指从人或东西中仔细挑选。 single out: 强调为了某种特殊目的从中单单挑出某人或某物进行特别对待或处理。 pick up: 捡起,拾起;用车接某人等 15. whereupon ad. after which; and then 因此,于是:  15. whereupon ad. after which; and then 因此,于是 e.g. The unsuspecting teacher pulled out the drawer; whereupon, a dozen frogs leaped out. 16. for sure: for certain 确切地,肯定:  16. for sure: for certain 确切地,肯定 e.g. From a distance he couldn’t tell for sure whether it was George or Tom. I did not know for sure which bus to take. 同 for certain 17. uneasy a. 局促的;不安的;不安适的:  17. uneasy a. 局促的;不安的;不安适的 e.g. He gave an uneasy smile when he met his mother-in-law for the first time. He passed an uneasy night and finally decided to surrender himself to the police. Note: feel uneasy about: 为某事感到不安/担忧 III.  Group discussion:  III.  Group discussion Topics: Heredity or acquisition Guide to discussion:  Guide to discussion 1. Like father, like son. 2. The genius is born. 3. Intelligence is only one aspect of a person’s total qualities and one element in success. Einstein was considered dull-witted when he was a child. Guide to discussion:  Guide to discussion 4. Great writers, artists, and scientists are far more talented than ordinary people. 5. Some are born mentally retarded. 6. Genius is 2 percent inspiration and 98 percent perspiration. (Edison) Chinese-English Translation:  Chinese-English Translation 1. Everything points to the fact / indicates that something has gone wrong with his project / plan. 2. The author argues that we should not take it for granted that those who score high on intelligence tests will naturally do well in practical work. Chinese-English Translation:  Chinese-English Translation 3. I picked out some English idioms and tried them on my classmates. 4. Three professors were asked to make an evaluation of the teaching plans devised by the new teachers. Chinese-English Translation:  Chinese-English Translation 5. It is a very small loss. Don’t make such a fuss over it. 6. He scored far more points / much higher than any of his rivals and proved himself a worthy winner. Chinese-English Translation:  Chinese-English Translation 7. The two animals are similar in appearance, but they belong to different species. 8. I don’t know for sure whether the bank will grant him the loan he has applied for. English-Chinese Translation:  English-Chinese Translation 1. 他打算给一个学生的物理考题答案打零分,而那位学生却声称,如果现行教育制度不是专门要和学生作对,他就该得满分,也一定会得到满分。 English-Chinese Translation:  English-Chinese Translation 2. 我指出,该生确实有充分的理由得满分,因为他圆满而正确地回答了这道考题。 3. 例如,你可以在一个晴朗的日子把气压表拿到室外,量出气压表的高度及其影长,以及大楼阴影的长度,然后用个简单比例法就可求得大楼的高度。 English-Chinese Translation:  English-Chinese Translation 4. 他承认他知道,但是他说,他厌倦了中学和大学教师们的教学方法,因为他们总想教他如何思考,如何运用“科学方法”,如何用一种学究式的方法探索学科深层的内在逻辑,就像在“新数学”中常做的那样,而不是把这一学科的结构教给他。有了这个念头,他便决定重新搬出中世纪烦琐经院哲学的那一套来开个学术性玩笑,向患有卫星恐惧症的美国课堂教育进行挑战。

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