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College 8 Ontwikkelingspsychologie

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Information about College 8 Ontwikkelingspsychologie

Published on March 16, 2008

Author: svcontact

Source: slideshare.net

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Door Frank Hakemulder
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Ontwikkelingspsycholgie College 8

Doel Kennismaking met onderzoeksveld Methodologische problemen en oplossingen

Kennismaking met onderzoeksveld

Methodologische problemen en oplossingen

Wat te onthouden? Uses and gratification versus effecten Theory of mind Gebruik van schematheorie Fases van Piaget Rol van Just World

Uses and gratification versus effecten

Theory of mind

Gebruik van schematheorie

Fases van Piaget

Rol van Just World

Opzet Wat media met opgroeiende kinderen doen. Horror Fantasie Wat opgroeiende kinderen met media doen. Morele ontwikkeling (Kohlberg/Piaget)

Wat media met opgroeiende kinderen doen.

Horror

Fantasie

Wat opgroeiende kinderen met media doen.

Morele ontwikkeling (Kohlberg/Piaget)

Overzicht thema’s 1 Agressie Lezen Fantasie en spel Dromen

Agressie

Lezen

Fantasie en spel

Dromen

Overzicht thema’s 2 Begrip van doel van reclame Begrip van ironie Aandacht Kijkstijl Conventies

Begrip van doel van reclame

Begrip van ironie

Aandacht

Kijkstijl

Conventies

Horror

Horror en angst Slaapstoornissen Angst in gerelateerde situaties Lange-termijnseffecten

Slaapstoornissen

Angst in gerelateerde situaties

Lange-termijnseffecten

Horror en angst As far as lasting effects, to this very day, when floating in a body of deep water, I still occasionally have that feeling that something could come and grab me.

As far as lasting effects, to this very day, when floating in a body of deep water, I still occasionally have that feeling that something could come and grab me.

Horror en angst I was very frightened by the film and didn’t ever want to go into the woods again. I still am scared to drive in a car through wooded areas at night.

I was very frightened by the film and didn’t ever want to go into the woods again. I still am scared to drive in a car through wooded areas at night.

Horror en angst I now check under the bed, inside the closet and shower when I get home to make sure no one is there.

I now check under the bed, inside the closet and shower when I get home to make sure no one is there.

Horror en angst Kinderen: Onderscheid feit/fictie Gevoelig voor beelden Regulatieprocessen (fight & flight) Geheugen Kritiek? Zelfrapportage (taalvermogens!)

Kinderen:

Onderscheid feit/fictie

Gevoelig voor beelden

Regulatieprocessen (fight & flight)

Geheugen

Kritiek?

Zelfrapportage (taalvermogens!)

Laatste woord? Verisimilitude als basis voor beleidsadvies

Verisimilitude als basis voor beleidsadvies

Horror en angst

Horror en angst

Fantasie en spel Jeugdhelden, voor en na de komst van televisie: Verschillen vooral op jonge leeftijd Veel meer spelletjes over helden Beperkt aantal eigenschappen Media als bron

Jeugdhelden, voor en na de komst van televisie:

Verschillen vooral op jonge leeftijd

Veel meer spelletjes over helden

Beperkt aantal eigenschappen

Media als bron

Wie zijn de jeugdhelden? Voor en na de komst van televisie

Waar komen ze vandaan?

Fantasievriendje Voor en na invoer van televisie in pioniersstadje Afname aantal fantasievriendjes

Voor en na invoer van televisie in pioniersstadje

Afname aantal fantasievriendjes

Creativiteit in fantasie Groepen: Smurf speelgoed – Cartoon – Smurf speelgoed Smurf speelgoed – Spelletje – Smurf speelgoed Trol speelgoed – Cartoon – Smurf speelgoed

Groepen:

Smurf speelgoed – Cartoon – Smurf speelgoed

Smurf speelgoed – Spelletje – Smurf speelgoed

Trol speelgoed – Cartoon – Smurf speelgoed

2. Wat doen kinderen met media? Kohlberg’s model Uitleg Kritiek Onderzoek Just world: twee voorbeelden

Kohlberg’s model

Uitleg

Kritiek

Onderzoek

Just world: twee voorbeelden

Morele ontwikkeling Moral development (Kohlberg) Reacties op verhalen (Just world)

Moral development (Kohlberg)

Reacties op verhalen (Just world)

Moral development Lawrence Kohlberg

Dilemma A woman is near death from cancer. One drug might save her, a form of radium discovered by a chemist living in the same town, who is selling the drug at ten times what it cost him to manufacture it. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, tried to borrow the money but could raise only half the price. He told the chemist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell the drug more cheaply or, at least, let him pay later, but the chemist refused. The desperate husband broke into the chemist’s shop to steal the drug for his wife. Should he have done that?

A woman is near death from cancer. One drug might save her, a form of radium discovered by a chemist living in the same town, who is selling the drug at ten times what it cost him to manufacture it. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, tried to borrow the money but could raise only half the price. He told the chemist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell the drug more cheaply or, at least, let him pay later, but the chemist refused. The desperate husband broke into the chemist’s shop to steal the drug for his wife. Should he have done that?

Kohlberg Cognitieve ontwikkeling Complexiteit Inleving Meting (dilemma’s)

Cognitieve ontwikkeling

Complexiteit

Inleving

Meting (dilemma’s)

Kohlberg Three levels of moral development (Amoral orientation) Preconventional level Conventional level Postconventional level

Three levels of moral development

(Amoral orientation)

Preconventional level

Conventional level

Postconventional level

1. Preconventional Stage 1. Morality of punishment and obedience Stage 2. Morality of naïve instrumental hedonism Avoidance of punishment Egocentric perspective; weighing of potential risks and benefits

Stage 1. Morality of punishment and obedience

Stage 2. Morality of naïve instrumental hedonism

Avoidance of punishment

Egocentric perspective; weighing of potential risks and benefits

Voorbeelden He shouldn’t have done that. (Why?) Because they will catch him and put him in jail. (stage 1) He should steal the drug for his freind. (Why?) Because he may need his friend’s help someday. (stage 2)

He shouldn’t have done that. (Why?) Because they will catch him and put him in jail. (stage 1)

He should steal the drug for his freind. (Why?) Because he may need his friend’s help someday. (stage 2)

2. Conventional Stage 3. Morality of maintaining good relations Stage 4. Morality of maintaining social order Morality based on approval from others Rules and laws define morality

Stage 3. Morality of maintaining good relations

Stage 4. Morality of maintaining social order

Morality based on approval from others

Rules and laws define morality

Voorbeelden The rich man should help the poor person. …If the (rich person) helped the poor person, the poor person would be glad and grateful and the rich person would have a good feeling inside because he had done a good thing. (stage 3)

The rich man should help the poor person. …If the (rich person) helped the poor person, the poor person would be glad and grateful and the rich person would have a good feeling inside because he had done a good thing. (stage 3)

Voorbeelden The (chemist) should report Heinz. (why?) It’s the dut of a citizen to report a lawbreaker to the authorities. Heinz did break the law and should pay his debt to society. (stage 4).

The (chemist) should report Heinz. (why?) It’s the dut of a citizen to report a lawbreaker to the authorities. Heinz did break the law and should pay his debt to society. (stage 4).

3. Postconventional Stage 5. Morality of social contracts Stage 6. Morality of universal ethical principles Obey societal rules for the common good, although individual rights sometimes outweigh laws Societal laws and rules based on ethical values

Stage 5. Morality of social contracts

Stage 6. Morality of universal ethical principles

Obey societal rules for the common good, although individual rights sometimes outweigh laws

Societal laws and rules based on ethical values

Voorbeelden Yes, Heinz should steal the drug. (Why?) Because there right to live is a basic human right and even though he must break the law in this case the right to life takes precendence over property rights. (stage 5)

Yes, Heinz should steal the drug. (Why?) Because there right to live is a basic human right and even though he must break the law in this case the right to life takes precendence over property rights. (stage 5)

Voorbeelden Heinz should steal to save the life. (Why?) It was legally wrong, but morally right. All persons have a moral duty to save a life when they are in a position to do so. (stage 6).

Heinz should steal to save the life. (Why?) It was legally wrong, but morally right. All persons have a moral duty to save a life when they are in a position to do so. (stage 6).

Kritiek Sekse verschillen? (Gilligan) Eurocentristisch? (Shweder) Hiërarchie is niet waardevrij Fases komen simultaan voor

Sekse verschillen? (Gilligan)

Eurocentristisch? (Shweder)

Hiërarchie is niet waardevrij

Fases komen simultaan voor

Just World

Just World Independent Age similarity Gender similarity Character valence Outcome Dependent

Independent

Age similarity

Gender similarity

Character valence

Outcome

Dependent

Just World Independent Age similarity Gender similarity Character valence Outcome Just World Dependent Perceived similarity Like character Become character Suspense Like outcome Like story

Independent

Age similarity

Gender similarity

Character valence

Outcome

Just World

Dependent

Perceived similarity

Like character

Become character

Suspense

Like outcome

Like story

Just World

Just World

Just World

Just World 2 Waardering voor drama

Waardering voor drama

Just World 2 Piaget (1948): Voor 7 jaar: Straf niet ter discussie Consequenties bepalen de stafmaat Geen aandacht voor intenties Algemeen: hoe strenger hoe beter Na 7 jaar: Aandacht motivatie Straf niet te mild niet te zwaar

Piaget (1948):

Voor 7 jaar:

Straf niet ter discussie

Consequenties bepalen de stafmaat

Geen aandacht voor intenties

Algemeen: hoe strenger hoe beter

Na 7 jaar:

Aandacht motivatie

Straf niet te mild niet te zwaar

Just World 2 2 x 3 factorial design: Ontwikkelingsfase (boete doen vs. rechtvaardigheid) Strafmaat (te laag, eerlijk, te hoog). 30 vierjarigen, 30 zeven/achtjarigen

2 x 3 factorial design:

Ontwikkelingsfase (boete doen vs. rechtvaardigheid)

Strafmaat (te laag, eerlijk, te hoog).

30 vierjarigen, 30 zeven/achtjarigen

Just World 2 Een sprookje, drie ontknopingen Candid camera: gezichten

Een sprookje, drie ontknopingen

Candid camera: gezichten

Just World 2

Just World 2

Vragen?

Dilemma 1 Joey wanted to go sled riding, but he could not go until he apologized to his sister for calling her a liar. He reluctantly and resentfully apologized, took out his sled and began his fun. He turned the sled runners too far and broke one of the runners. Soon his sister returned from the store, and disguising the snap in the runner, Joey allowed his sister to take a running flop on the sled. Even though she was hurt, she apologized over and over for breaking the sled. Joey felt sorry, but he didn’t confess that the sled was already broken. His sister went into the house and Joey wished he had not gone sled riding.

Joey wanted to go sled riding, but he could not go until he apologized to his sister for calling her a liar. He reluctantly and resentfully apologized, took out his sled and began his fun. He turned the sled runners too far and broke one of the runners. Soon his sister returned from the store, and disguising the snap in the runner, Joey allowed his sister to take a running flop on the sled. Even though she was hurt, she apologized over and over for breaking the sled. Joey felt sorry, but he didn’t confess that the sled was already broken. His sister went into the house and Joey wished he had not gone sled riding.

Verder lezen Harris, M. en P.M. Pexman. (2003). Children’s perception of the social functions of verbal irony. Discourse Processes , 36 , 147-165. Shweder, R.A., Mahapatra, M., Miller, J.G.(1990). Cultural and moral development. J.W. Stigler et al. (Eds.).. Cultural psychology; Essays on comparative human development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Zillmann, D. & Bryant, J. (1975). Viewer’s moral sanction of retribution in the appreciation of dramatic presentations. Journal of experimental social psychology , 11 , 572-582.

Harris, M. en P.M. Pexman. (2003). Children’s perception of the social functions of verbal irony. Discourse Processes , 36 , 147-165.

Shweder, R.A., Mahapatra, M., Miller, J.G.(1990). Cultural and moral development. J.W. Stigler et al. (Eds.).. Cultural psychology; Essays on comparative human development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Zillmann, D. & Bryant, J. (1975). Viewer’s moral sanction of retribution in the appreciation of dramatic presentations. Journal of experimental social psychology , 11 , 572-582.

Tweede voorbeeld dilemma Joey wanted to go sled riding, but he could not go until he apologized to his sister for calling her a liar. He reluctantly and resentfully apologized, took out his sled and began his fun. He turned the sled runners too far and broke one of the runners. Soon his sister returned from the store, and disguising the snap in the runner, Joey allowed his sister to take a running flop on the sled. Even though she was hurt, she apologized over and over for breaking the sled. Joey felt sorry, but he didn’t confess that the sled was already broken. His sister went into the house and Joey wished he had not gone sled riding.

Joey wanted to go sled riding, but he could not go until he apologized to his sister for calling her a liar. He reluctantly and resentfully apologized, took out his sled and began his fun. He turned the sled runners too far and broke one of the runners. Soon his sister returned from the store, and disguising the snap in the runner, Joey allowed his sister to take a running flop on the sled. Even though she was hurt, she apologized over and over for breaking the sled. Joey felt sorry, but he didn’t confess that the sled was already broken. His sister went into the house and Joey wished he had not gone sled riding.

Wat moet je onthouden? Methodologie Dependent en independent Double blind Factorial design Subject variabele Ontwikkelingsperspectief Kohlberg en de kritiek “ Just world” concept Piaget

Methodologie

Dependent en independent

Double blind

Factorial design

Subject variabele

Ontwikkelingsperspectief

Kohlberg en de kritiek

“ Just world” concept

Piaget

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