COLLAPSE OF SOVIET UNION IMPACT ON ANGOLA

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Information about COLLAPSE OF SOVIET UNION IMPACT ON ANGOLA
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Published on August 2, 2009

Author: aSGuest23255

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Colonisation is the system whereby a powerfull country uses its economic and political power to take over a weaker country. This resulted in the destruction of African kingdoms and the creation of colonies controlled by Europeans : Colonisation is the system whereby a powerfull country uses its economic and political power to take over a weaker country. This resulted in the destruction of African kingdoms and the creation of colonies controlled by Europeans The diagram below shows the colonisation process C O L O N I S A T I O N Process of acquiring more land and resources by taking control of other countries politically, economically and culturally COLONISATION How can we define colonisation? COLONY A country or power ruled directly or indirectly by a stronger country and exploited for its raw materials, resources etc. COLONIAL POWER European country that adopts policy of colonialism or imperialism ie. Empire building and conquers lands of weaker countries Slide 2: SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA Slide 3: Although this happened in several areas of the world, the most dramatic changes took place in Africa. Many nations took part in what became known as the “Scramble for Africa”. The following pages will show the territory gained by each nation, and will explain why the race to gain colonies played a part in the build-up of international tensions which eventually resulted in World War One. One of the major reasons for bad relations amongst the nations of Europe in the years before 1914 was that they were engaged in a struggle to obtain overseas colonies. Slide 4: British Colonies Britain had managed to get some of the most valuable land in Africa. The most important gain was Egypt because of the Suez Canal. This provided a much quicker and safer route to India – the “Jewel in the Crown” of the British Empire. EGYPT SUDAN SOUTH AFRICA BECHUANALAND RHODESIA NIGERIA BRITISHEAST AFRICA French Colonies : French Colonies MADAGASCAR FRENCH WEST AFRICA ALGERIA MOROCCO TUNIS FRENCH EQUATORIAL AFRICA France had also built up a large colonial empire, mostly in the north west of Africa. This had caused problems and there had been serious arguments over colonies such as Morocco and Tunis. Arguments over colonies caused bad feeling between Britain and France. German Colonies : German Colonies KAMERUN GERMANEAST AFRICA GERMAN SOUTH WEST AFRICA Germany did not enter the race for colonies until very late and, as a result, much of the land gained was not very valuable. Despite this, Kaiser William II was determined that Germany should have a major empire. Slide 7: Belgian Colonies Even tiny Belgium had an African colony – the Belgian Congo. This was one of the reasons that Kaiser William II of Germany decided that his country must also have colonies. BELGIANCONGO LAND OCCUPATION BY EUROPEAN POWERS : LAND OCCUPATION BY EUROPEAN POWERS PORTUGUESE COLONIES Slide 9: HOW DID THE COLLAPSE OF THE USSR INFLUENCED POLITICAL EVENTS IN ANGOLA ? BACKGROUND Portuguese contact dates back to 1483 Angola was also a major source of slaves for Portugal Luanda was est. as a Portuguese settlement in 1575 Cabinda came under Portuguese rule in the 1880`s ORGANISED RESISTANCE TO PORTUGUESE RULE STARTED IN 1961 : ORGANISED RESISTANCE TO PORTUGUESE RULE STARTED IN 1961 THE MAIN RESISTANCE MOVEMENTS FNLA - mostly Bakonga, led by H.Roberto - supported by the USA MPLA – mainly Mbundu – led by A. Neto (followed by J. Eduardo dos Santos - supported by the USA UNITA – mostly Ovimbundu people. Led by Jonas Savimbi – supported by the USA and China EVENTS LEADING TO THE CIVIL WAR : EVENTS LEADING TO THE CIVIL WAR 1974 – Portugal announces selfgoverment to its colonies As a result, a transitional gov. established by the 3 rival movements the collapse of the transitional gov. led to CIVIL WAR FOREIGN INTERVENTION INCREASED TENSIONS USA, CHINA supplied arms to UNITA and FNLAUSADEE Cuban troops sent to Angola to support MPLA South African troops entered southern Angola in support of UNITASo uthsesenttroops e Slide 12: SO, HOW REAL WAS THE COMMUNIST THREAT to SA ? THE SOVIET UNION DID CHAMPION THE INTERESTS OF THE THIRD WORLD AGAINST WESTERN IMPERIALISM SOVIET AND CHINESE SUPPORT FOR ROBERT MUGABE IN ZIMBABWE SOVIET AND CUBAN SUPPORT FOR MPLA IN ANGOLA USSR ALSO HAD CLOSE LINKS WITH THE ANC THIS COMM ACTIVITY IN COUNTRIES CLOSE TO SA ALARMED THE SA GOV Slide 14: Destabilisation War of the 1980`s Slide 15: MPLA Increased support from CUBA UNITA Increased support from USA Savimbi even visited the White House Slide 17: By 1987 the Cubans had 50,000 soldiers in Angola and And the USSR a war debt of $1 Billion : Cuban withdrawal from Angola and SA withdrawal from Namibia The BATTLE OF CUITO CUANAVALE in 1988 led to negotiations Slide 20: END OF COLD WAR IMPACT ON ANGOLA END OF COLD WAR THAWED RELATIONS BETWEEN THE USA AND USSR : END OF COLD WAR THAWED RELATIONS BETWEEN THE USA AND USSR RICHARD NIXON (USA) AND LEONID BREZHNEV(USSR) , BITTER RIVALS ………..BUT REALISED A NUCLEAR WAR WOULD DESTROY BOTH NATIONS!!! : RICHARD NIXON (USA) AND LEONID BREZHNEV(USSR) , BITTER RIVALS ………..BUT REALISED A NUCLEAR WAR WOULD DESTROY BOTH NATIONS!!! USA also sold 750 million dollars worth of grain to the Soviets ENTERED INTO PERIOD OF “DÉTENTE” “ Easing of tensions between nations” ( In this case the USA and USSR) Signed Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT 1) agreeing to limit nuclear weapons Détente continued through most of the 1970`s Slide 23: Reagan (USA) BETWEEN 1985 AND 1991 ONCE AGAIN DETENTE Between Gorbachev (ussr) Slide 24: THE USSR HAD MANY PROBLEMS……… -the economy was collapsing -the USSR was spending more money than it could afford on the COLD WAR arms race -There were tensions with the West -The USSR was losing the war in Afghanistan -the people of the USSR was angry about their poor standard of living and the long queues for basic goods.They did not think that their government could solve the problem Slide 27: -”PERESTROIKA” (or restructuring) Improving the way the economy worked So, what did Gorbachev do about the situation ? He introduced …. “GlASTNOST” (openenes) people were allowed to speak openly and criticize the goverment Slide 28: USA only superpower left After collapse of the USSR, the USA and former Soviet Union decided to press the MPLA and UNITA to begin talks Talks between Baker and Shevadnadze Believed they could facilitate independence as happened in Namibia Both countries offered diplomatic rewards if peace process successful USA and USSR became directly involved – Savimbi informed by USA that he would receive no further aid The former rivals no longer provided military aid, but collaborated in the peace process The USA,former Soviet Union and Portugal formulated main documents Bicesse Peace Accord signed 1991- signed by Dos Santos and Savimbi MPLA won first election- rejected by Savimbi- returned to war International community remained involved in Angolan situation Slide 29: A second peace accord , the LUSAKA PROTOCOL, signed in 1994 Savimbi returned to war in 1998 After his death in 2002, UNITA declared itself a political party and officially demolished its armed forces The civil war was over.

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