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Published on December 23, 2008

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The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting and the IMLS Digital Collections & Content Project at the University of Illinois : The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting and the IMLS Digital Collections & Content Project at the University of Illinois Timothy W. Cole (t-cole3@uiuc.edu) Mathematics Librarian & Professor of Library Administration University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Friday 12 November 2004 MCN 2004, Minneapolis, MN http://imlsdcc.grainger.uiuc.edu/Cole_MCN2004_OAI.ppt The Digital Information Landscape : OAI-PMH & The IMLS DCC ProjectMCN 2004, 12 November 2004 t-cole3@uiuc.eduUniversity of Illinois at UC The Digital Information Landscape The information landscape can be seen as a contour map in which there are mountains, hillocks, valleys, plains and plateaus…. A specialized collection of particular importance is like a sharp peak. Upon a plateau there might be undulations representing strengths and weaknesses…. The landscape is, however, multidimensional. Where one scholar may see a peak another may see a trough. The task is to devise mapping conventions which enable scholars to read the map of the landscape fruitfully, at the appropriate level of generality or specificity. Michael Heaney (2000), “An Analytical Model of Collections and their Catalogues.” Users & Uses of Digital Libraries : OAI-PMH & The IMLS DCC ProjectMCN 2004, 12 November 2004 t-cole3@uiuc.eduUniversity of Illinois at UC Users & Uses of Digital Libraries From Bibusages study (French National Library): Digital Libraries are used in conjunction with Web search engines, generalist portals, commercial sites Mix of intensive & casual users DL users skew somewhat older, higher degree level than average French Internet user population DL users seeking answer for specific information need; most time spent discovering, viewing, & downloading documents “Digital Libraries … are now attracting a new type of public, bringing about new, unique and original ways for reading and understanding texts.”Houssem Assadi, et al. “Users & Uses of Online Digital Libraries in France,” ECDL 2003 Managing Digital Collections & Content : OAI-PMH & The IMLS DCC ProjectMCN 2004, 12 November 2004 t-cole3@uiuc.eduUniversity of Illinois at UC Managing Digital Collections & Content How do mandates translate & change in digital world? Content & collections as virtual ‘information landscapes’ New users, uses, & metrics Increased emphasis on interoperability & sharing New models for sharing & resource discovery Harvesting – e.g., OAI-PMH Federated searching – e.g., Z39.50 / ZNG, DiGIR, ... New Emphasis on ‘Shareable’ metadata Reconciling different descriptive metadata practices New metrics for metadata quality (for interoperability) IMLS Digital Library Forum (2001) : OAI-PMH & The IMLS DCC ProjectMCN 2004, 12 November 2004 t-cole3@uiuc.eduUniversity of Illinois at UC IMLS Digital Library Forum (2001) Framework of Guidance for Building Good Digital Collectionshttp://www.niso.org/framework/forumframework.html Stresses reusability, persistence, interoperability, verification, and documentation of digital collections & content Accompanying report included recommendations encouraging: Creation of an IMLS Collection Registry Implementation of the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting by IMLS projects creating digital content Development of infrastructure to facilitate interoperability between IMLS projects and initiatives like NSDL IMLS DCC Project Overview : OAI-PMH & The IMLS DCC ProjectMCN 2004, 12 November 2004 t-cole3@uiuc.eduUniversity of Illinois at UC IMLS DCC Project Overview Collection description & prototype registry for IMLS National Leadership Grant projects with associated digital content Enhance discoverability of collections & content Provide alternative view of one output of IMLS NLG program Prototype item level metadata repository via OAI-PMH Demonstrate potential of metadata for interoperability Serve as testbed for IMLS projects interested in OAI-PMH Facilitate reuse of information resources paid for by IMLS Research question:How can resource developers best represent collections and itemsto meet the needs of service providers and end users? IMLS Grantees – A Diverse Community : OAI-PMH & The IMLS DCC ProjectMCN 2004, 12 November 2004 t-cole3@uiuc.eduUniversity of Illinois at UC IMLS Grantees – A Diverse Community Mix of library, museum, and archive traditions Wide variation in technical skills, technology infrastructure & information management policy Diverse perspectives on intellectual property; use and presentation of metadata & primary resources Diverse embedded knowledge structures Results in wide variability in: Metadata formats Content resource types Controlled vocabularies Descriptive metadata practices Broad Categories of InstitutionsRepresented in Collection Registry : Broad Categories of InstitutionsRepresented in Collection Registry Detailed Institution TypesRepresented in Collection Registry : Detailed Institution TypesRepresented in Collection Registry Broad Categories of InstitutionsRepresented in Metadata Repository : Broad Categories of InstitutionsRepresented in Metadata Repository Detailed Institution TypesRepresented in Metadata Repository : Detailed Institution TypesRepresented in Metadata Repository Metadata Formats : Metadata Formats Types of Resources : Types of Resources Controlled Vocabularies : OAI-PMH & The IMLS DCC ProjectMCN 2004, 12 November 2004 t-cole3@uiuc.eduUniversity of Illinois at UC Controlled Vocabularies Descriptive Practice : OAI-PMH & The IMLS DCC ProjectMCN 2004, 12 November 2004 t-cole3@uiuc.eduUniversity of Illinois at UC Descriptive Practice Different traditions regarding Inclusion of interpretive information Granularity of description Presentation of information resources Shared problems / issues How to provide context & collection description What exactly to describe Which metadata scheme(s) to use Illustration – Coverlets (1 of 2) : OAI-PMH & The IMLS DCC ProjectMCN 2004, 12 November 2004 t-cole3@uiuc.eduUniversity of Illinois at UC Illustration – Coverlets (1 of 2) Description: Digital image of a single-sized cotton coverlet for a bed with embroidered butterfly design. Handmade by Anna F. Ginsberg Hayutin. Source: Materials: cotton and embroidery floss. Dimensions: 71 in. x 86 in. Markings: top right hand corner has 1 1/2 in. x 1/2 in. label cut outs at upper left and right hand side for head board; fabric is woven in a variation of a rib weave; color each of yellow and gray; hand-embroidered cotton butterflies and flowers from two shades of each color of embroidery floss - blue, pink, green and purple and single top 20 in. bordered with blue and black cotton embroidery thread; stitches used for embroidery: running stitch, chain stitch, French knot and back stitches; selvage edges left unfinished; lower edges turned under and finished with large gray running stitches made with embroidery floss. Format: Epson Expression 836 XL Scanner with Adobe Photoshop version 5.5; 300 dpi; 21-53K bytes. Available via the World Wide Web. Coverage: — Date Created: 2001-09-19 09:45:18; Updated: 20011107162451; Created: 2001-04-05; Created: 1912-1920? Type: Image Illustration – Coverlets (2 of 2) : OAI-PMH & The IMLS DCC ProjectMCN 2004, 12 November 2004 t-cole3@uiuc.eduUniversity of Illinois at UC Illustration – Coverlets (2 of 2) Description: Materials: Textile--Multi, Pigment—Dye; Manufacturing Process: Weaving--Hand, Spinning, Dyeing, Hand-loomed blue wool and white linen coverlet, worked in overshot weave in plain geometric variant of a checkerboard pattern. Coverlet is constructed from finely spun, indigo-dyed wool and undyed linen, woven with considerable skill. Although the pattern is simpler, the overall craftsmanship is higher than 1934.01.0094A. - D. Schrishuhn, 11/19/99 This coverlet is an example of early "overshot" weaving construction, probably dating to the 1820's and is not attributable to any particular weaver. -- Georgette Meredith, 10/9/1973 Source: — Format: 228 x 169 x 1.2 cm (1,629 g) Coverage: Euro-American; America, North; United States; Indiana? Illinois? Date: Early 19th c. CE Type: cultural; physical object; original OAI Protocol for Metadata Harvesting : OAI-PMH & The IMLS DCC ProjectMCN 2004, 12 November 2004 t-cole3@uiuc.eduUniversity of Illinois at UC OAI Protocol for Metadata Harvesting ‘Harvesting’ approachto interoperabilityat metadata level Divides world intoMetadata Providers& Service Providers Builds on HTTP,XML, & Community Metadata Standards Metadata Harvesting Model : Metadata Harvesting Model How OAI-PMH Works : OAI-PMH & The IMLS DCC ProjectMCN 2004, 12 November 2004 t-cole3@uiuc.eduUniversity of Illinois at UC How OAI-PMH Works OAI “VERBS” Identify ListMetadataFormats ListSets ListIdentifiers ListRecords GetRecord Why OAI-PMH for IMLS DCC Project : OAI-PMH & The IMLS DCC ProjectMCN 2004, 12 November 2004 t-cole3@uiuc.eduUniversity of Illinois at UC Why OAI-PMH for IMLS DCC Project Offers low technical barrier options; primary cost is metadata e.g., OAI-PMH itself, OAI Static Repository, mod_oai Is a cross-domain, non-proprietary approach to interoperability Already used by NSDL, OAIster, etc. Seen as a way to bring content to attention of wider audience 37% of visits to State Library of New South Wales image collection via PictureAustralia (a OAI-PMH based portal) Facilitates metadata & metadata services research What makes for good ‘shareable’ metadata? Contrast & compare metadata designs & workflows Explore normalization, enhancement, aggregated searching issues OAI-PMH Issues : OAI-PMH & The IMLS DCC ProjectMCN 2004, 12 November 2004 t-cole3@uiuc.eduUniversity of Illinois at UC OAI-PMH Issues Harvesting vs. federated Harvested metadata aggregation always out of date, butFederated real-time performance dependent on weakest link Sorting, ranking, & de-dupping easier with harvesting model Potential scale issues Largest OAI-PMH provider serves 4 million records Largest OAI-PMH service provider < 10 million records Integration into existing metadata workflow requires some investment – cost-to-benefit ratio still unclear Practical metadata sharing issues: Persistent identifiers, date stamps, proper application of protocol Metadata quality, consistency, context, cross-walking, ... Federated Searching Model : Federated Searching Model Alternative Approaches for Interoperability : OAI-PMH & The IMLS DCC ProjectMCN 2004, 12 November 2004 t-cole3@uiuc.eduUniversity of Illinois at UC Alternative Approaches for Interoperability Federated search models Library: NISO Z39.50 Specimen / Natural History: DiGIR More homogeneous metadata schemes, query rules Collaborative, sometimes proprietary project portals RLG Cultural Materials ArtStor GBIF, MaNIS, ... Generally higher technical threshold; rely on higher level of metadata homogeneity & compliance OAI-PMH as Complement to Other Approaches : OAI-PMH & The IMLS DCC ProjectMCN 2004, 12 November 2004 t-cole3@uiuc.eduUniversity of Illinois at UC OAI-PMH as Complement to Other Approaches OAI-PMH provides a lowest-common-denominator approach to sharing & interoperability Insufficient for some high-level, domain-specific applications, But useful for sharing across more heterogeneous communities & allowing participation with less technology Portals can exploit combination of approaches OAI-PMH metadata harvesters can normalize & augment metadata before sharing on with domain-specific federated search portals IMLS DCC Collection Registry (alpha) : OAI-PMH & The IMLS DCC ProjectMCN 2004, 12 November 2004 t-cole3@uiuc.eduUniversity of Illinois at UC IMLS DCC Collection Registry (alpha) Features: Searchable Browseable An entry point foritem-level searching IMLS DCC Metadata Repository (alpha) : OAI-PMH & The IMLS DCC ProjectMCN 2004, 12 November 2004 t-cole3@uiuc.eduUniversity of Illinois at UC IMLS DCC Metadata Repository (alpha) Currently Harvesting: 27 Collections 193,677 Records Ongoing analysis of metadata Documenting practices Potential for normalization Implications for interface & search engine design More Information : OAI-PMH & The IMLS DCC ProjectMCN 2004, 12 November 2004 t-cole3@uiuc.eduUniversity of Illinois at UC More Information This presentation: http://imlsdcc.grainger.uiuc.edu/Cole_MCN2004_OAI.ppt Project Website: http://imlsdcc.grainger.uiuc.edu/ Project PI: Tim Cole, t-cole3@uiuc.edu Project Coordinator: Sarah Shreeves, sshreeve@uiuc.edu OAI-PMH resources: http://www.openarchives.org/ Online OAI-PMH tutorial: http://www.oaforum.org/tutorial/ DLF OAI-PMH & shareable metadata best practices (under development): http://oai-best.comm.nsdl.org/

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