coldwar 1

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Information about coldwar 1

Published on December 19, 2007

Author: Chloe


The GI Bill, 1944-1955:  The GI Bill, 1944-1955 4,300,000 home loans to veterans (worth 33 billion dollars) 8 million veterans went back to school with a GI bill scholarship 14.5 billion dollars in federal money going to the nation’s schools and colleges 50 billion in direct or indirect subsidies to the American people 1/3 of the population received some sort of benefit from the GI Bill The Yalta Conference, 1945:  The Yalta Conference, 1945 In exchange the U.S.S.R. will declare war on Japan and hold free elections in Poland. The U.S.S.R. will get three votes in the United Nations General Assembly Slide3:  1939: Einstein and Szilard warn Roosevelt about Nazi research on Atomic weapons Slide4:  August 6 and 9, 1945: Atomic weapons used on Hiroshima and Nagasaki Concerns about the Bomb: Teller: Demonstrate the Bomb first. Eisenhower: Bomb a bad precedent. Office of Strategic Bombing: Japan would surrender even without using the Bomb. The Polish Corridor to Russia:  The Polish Corridor to Russia 15th century Teutonic invasion Napoleon’s 1812 invasion The Kaiser’s 1914 invasion The Nazi invasion of 1941 Nuclear weapons plans (1946):  Nuclear weapons plans (1946) Acheson-Lilienthal Plan: UN would control atomic energy US would stockpile weapons until UN plan set up Baruch Plan: International agency would inspect countries to prevent production of nuclear weapons Countries that did not have nuclear weapons could not develop them Agency’s decisions would be immune to veto power from UN Security Council or General Assembly The Truman Doctrine (1947):  The Truman Doctrine (1947) Massive military aid to all governments fighting communism 400 million dollars in military aid for Greece and Turkey George Kennan’s “containment” thesis, 1946:  George Kennan’s “containment” thesis, 1946 Stalin opposed west in order to justify his dictatorship Soviet Union had to be “contained by the adroit and vigilant application of counterforce at a series of constantly shifting geographical points . . . ” U.S. had to show that it had a better system for prosperity Walter Lippman: “The Cold War” (1947):  Walter Lippman: “The Cold War” (1947) “Containment” basically put the strategic ball in the Soviet Union’s court The amorphousness of Kennan’s strategy will force the U.S. to place all its resources against Russia U.S. should most focus on Russia’s presence in Eastern Europe, not the whole world The Marshall Plan, 1947:  The Marshall Plan, 1947 Massive aid to Europe to reduce the influence of communism and strengthen European consumer markets “ . . . the revival of a working economy in the world so as to permit the emergence of political and social conditions in which free institutions can exist.” 1946-1952: U.S. exports to Europe jump from 9.5 to 15 billion dollars 1960: U.S. corporations have 32 billion dollars invested in Europe Breton-Woods conference, 1944:  Breton-Woods conference, 1944 The World Bank Purpose: to lend money to developing nations for projects that would return investments to the First World The International Monetary Fund Purpose: Oversee international currency and exchange systems Slide12:  The Berlin Airlift, 1948-49 U.S. flies food and supplies to Berlin in defiance of Soviet blockade West Germany declares itself parliamentary democracy. Soviets set up German Democratic Republic in the east. North Atlantic Treaty Organization established in 1949: ten nations establish mutual aid pact against the Communist East NSC-68 (National Security Council document number 68), 1950:  NSC-68 (National Security Council document number 68), 1950 U.S. and the Soviet Union were locked in a struggle for world power The Soviets want world domination Conflict between the two superpowers “endemic” . . . like a disease, inherent The Soviets can only be stopped by military power The Soviet people only supported the communists out of fear; once the U.S. showed its strength, the Russian people would overthrow communism 1954: CIA overthrows democratically elected regime of Guatemala:  1954: CIA overthrows democratically elected regime of Guatemala Jacobo Arbenz supports land reform Offers United Fruit $ for land to be distributed to Guatemalan farmers Secy of State John Foster Dulles accuses him of being a communist CIA chief (and brother) Allan Dulles engineers revolt against Arbenz The abnormally normal 1950s:  The abnormally normal 1950s Family size goes way up in 1950s Marriage rate goes up; average age of marriage goes down Crew cut becomes mandatory sign of masculinity Feminism largely disappears from public discussion Fallout shelters, circa 1954 Alfred Kinsey, 1894-1956:  Alfred Kinsey, 1894-1956 Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, 1948, found that . . . Most men masturbate . . . and that’s fine . . . One third of men have had a homosexual experience . . . and that’s ok too . . . Sexual Behavior in the Human Female, 1953, found that . . . Most women achieve orgasm more “efficiently” via means other than vaginal penetration. And, hey, that’s ok folks, just relax . . . Slide17:  Founded in 1953 by Hugh Hefner Celebrated the bachelor life Celebrated home technology for men Championed civil liberties for both men and women, including the right to choose pregnancy Slide18:  Founded by William Gaines in the mid-1950s Reaction to the Kefauver hearings on comic books in 1954 and the creation of the Comics Code The first popular lampoon magazine in U.S. history Slide19:  Superman, circa 1954 The Twilight Zone, 1959-1964:  The Twilight Zone, 1959-1964 Introduced millions of Americans to popular science fiction Stressed tolerance, the dignity of ordinary people, and challenged the arms race, McCarthyism, corporate greed, and racism in American life Took on serious personal issues such as death, child abuse, and the subjectivity of appearance

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