Published on March 14, 2014
A cognitive strategy is a mental process or procedure for accomplishing a particular cognitive goal. For example, if students' goals are to write good essays, their cognitive strategies might include brainstorming and completing an outline. The cognitive strategies that students use influence how they will perform in school, as well as what they will accomplish outside of school. Researchers have found that effective learners and thinkers use more effective strategies for reading, writing, problem solving, and reasoning than ineffective learners and thinkers.
Comprehension strategies Text structure Summarizing Elaborating Explaining Comprehension strategies are strategies that help students understand and remember material such as texts and lectures. Most of the research on comprehension strategies has focused on learning from reading texts. Five strategies that have been found to be useful for enhancing comprehension are monitoring. using:
Problem-solving strategies Problems occur when a person has a goal but does not immediately see how to achieve that goal. The person must then apply problem-solving strategies to try to achieve the goal. The mathematician George Polya (1887–1985) devised four effective problem-solving strategies: understanding the problem developing a plan for a solution carrying out the plan looking back to see what can be learned
Writing strategies In a 1986 study John Hayes and Linda Flower developed an influential model of writing that has guided thinking about effective writing strategies. Hayes and Flower identified three basic writing processes: • planning • sentence generation • revising Planning and revising have been the subject of the most research.
Reasoning strategies Reasoning strategies are strategies that help people decide what they believe to be true or correct and what they believe to be false or incorrect. There are several strategies that differentiate more successful reasoners from less successful reasoners: • generating arguments and counterarguments • fair-mindedness in evaluating evidence • control or comparison groups • Sourcing • seeking corroboration.
Strategies Metacognitive •First, a metacognitive strategy is a memorable "plan of action" that provides students an easy to follow procedure for solving a particular math problem. •Second, metacognitive strategies are taught using explicit teaching methods. •Metacognitive strategies include the student's thinking as well as their physical actions. •Some of the most common metacognitive strategies come in the form of mnemonics which are meaningful words where the letters in the word each stand for a step in a problem-solving process or for important pieces of information about a particular topic of interest. •Metacognitive strategies are memorable and it must accurately represent the learning task.
||| Are taught using explicit teaching methods Are accurate and efficient procedures Are memorable Students need ample practice opportunities to master use of a metacognitive strategy. What are the critical elements of this strategy?