Cognitive strategies and metacognitives

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Information about Cognitive strategies and metacognitives
Education

Published on March 9, 2014

Author: MariaPineda95

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Self-Directed Learning.
Cognitive strategies and metacognitives strategies

Metacognitive estrategies Directed attention. when deciding in advance to concentrate on general aspects of a task Selective attention. paying attention to specific aspects of a task . Self-monitoring, i.e., checking one's performance as one speaks . Self-evaluation, i.e., appraising one's performance in relation to one's own standards Self-reinforcement, rewarding oneself for success .. ..

Plan / Organize (Planner) Set goals Preview a text. Before beginning a task. Plan how to accomplish the task (choose strategies). Plan the task or content sequence.

Monitor / Identify Problems While working on a task: (Check) Check your progress on the task. Check your comprehension as you use the language. Do you understand? If not, what is the problem? Check your production as you use the language. Are you making sense? If not, what is the problem?

Evaluate After completing a task: •Assess how well you have accomplished the learning task. •Assess how well you have used learning strategies. •Decide how effective the strategies were. •Identify changes you will make the next time

Manage Your Own Learning Determine how you learn best. Pace Yourself Arrange conditions that help you learn. Seek opportunities for practice. Focus your attention on the task.

USE WHAT YOU KNOW

Use Background Knowledge •Think about and use what you already know to help you do the task. •Make associations between new information and your prior knowledge. •Use new information to clarify or modify your prior knowledge.

Make Inferences (Use Clues) Use context and what you know to figure out meaning. Read and listen between the lines. Go beyond the text to understand it’s meaning.

Make Predictions •Anticipate information to come. •Make logical guesses about what will happen in a written or oral text. •Make an estimate (math). •Make a hypothesis (science).

Personalize • Relate new concepts to your own life, to your experiences, knowledge, beliefs and feelings.

Transfer / Use Cognates •Apply your linguistic knowledge of other languages (including your native language) to the target language. •Recognize cognates.

Substitute / Paraphrase • Use a synonym or descriptive phrase for unknown words or expressions.

Use Images See it in your mind Use or draw a picture or diagram. Use or create an actual or mental image to understand and/or represent information.

Use Sounds •Say or read aloud a word, sentence, or paragraph to help your understanding. •Sound out / vocalize. •Use your “mental tape recorder” to remember sounds, words, phrases, and/or conversations.

Use Your Kinesthetic Sense Act out a role, for example, in Readers’ Theater, or imagine yourself in different roles in the target language. Use real objects to help you remember words, sentences, or content information.

Find/ Apply Patterns •Apply a rule. •Make a rule. •Recognize and apply letter/sound, grammar, discourse, or register rules. •Identify patterns in literature (genre). •Identify patterns in math, science, and social studies.

Classify / Sequence •Categorize words or •ideas according to attributes. •Classify living things; identify natural cycles. Identify order and sequences in math, science, and social studies. •Sequence events in history

Take Notes • Write down important words and ideas while listening or reading. • List ideas or words to include in speaking or writing.

Use Graphic Organizers • Use or create visual representations (such as Venn diagrams, time lines, webs, and charts) of important relationships between concepts.

Summarize • Create a mental, oral, or written summary of information. Use Selective Attention Focus

Use Selective Attention • Focus on specific information, structures, key words, phrases, or ideas.

USE A VARIETY OF RESOURCES Access Information Sources •Use the dictionary, the internet, and other reference materials. •Seek out and use •sources of information. •Follow a model •Ask questions

Cooperate • Work with others to complete tasks, build confidence, and give and receive feedback.

Talk Yourself Through It (Self-Talk) • Use your inner resources. Reduce your anxiety by reminding yourself of your progress, the resources you have available, and your goals.

Repetition, when imitating others' speech Resourcing, i.e., having recourse to dictionaries and other materials. Translation, that is, using their mother tongue as a basis for understanding and/or producing the target language Note-taking.

Deduction, i.e., conscious application of L2 rules Contextualisation, when embedding a word or phrase in a meaningful sequence Transfer, that is, using knowledge acquired in the L1 to remember and understand facts and sequences in the L2 Inferencing, when matching an unfamiliar word against available information (a new word etc). Question for clarification, when asking the teacher to .explain, etc.

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