Published on March 5, 2014
LNG as Marine Fuel Conferenza GNL – III Workshop Civitavecchia – 25th February 2014 Andrea COGLIOLO Deputy General Manager Marine
Index Regulation Laws & Authorizations Technical Solutions Logistic Scenario Financial Issues Social Perception
Regulations MARPOL Annex VI IMO require a progressive reduction of emissions from ships NOX SOX - ECAs (Baltic and North Sea, English Channel and USA /Canada coastal Global CO2 1. 2. Technical measures: Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) new ship Operational measures : Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP)
Means to reduce emission are available NITROUS OXIDES NOX • Dual fuel engines (LNG) • Exhaust gas treatment (SCR Selective Catalytic Reduction) SULPHUR OXIDES SOX Regulation CARBON DIOXIDE CO2 • Dual fuel engines (LNG) • Dual fuel engines (LNG) • Sulphur content in fuel • Exhaust Gas Treatment (scrubber)
LNG Carrier IACS – UR 1996 Control and Safety Systems for Dual Fuel Diesel Engines Pt.C , Ch 1, App 2 RINA Rules – 2000 DUAL FUEL DIESEL ENGINES Regulation
Present and future Regulations IGC ??? Regulation
Present and future Regulations Regulation Ship’s Flag Administration authorization IGF Code Exp. 2014
Future Regulations Low temperature of liquid gas freezing - cold leak/jets brittle cracks Gas tanks: large energy content Regulation flammability after vaporization - hazardous area - electrical equipment
Future Regulations Regulation Hazard Identification and Risk Ranking Hazard Control Technological Safety – Safety Management - ERP
Technical Solutions Source Ship spotting
Technical Solutions by courtesy of Lauro Shipping SPA
Technical Solutions by courtesy of Rosetti Marino SPA
Technical Solutions LNG tanks fixed longitudinal position transversal position vertical position portable Engines gas only dual fuel high and low pressure Propulsion Diesel Electric Diesel Fuel (LNG) automation alarm systems control systems safety systems LNG storage delivery bunkering New design solutions new training needs
Technical Solution Training needs RINA - Lloydlist Safety first in the dash for gas Monday 25 July 2011, 16:53 As more vessel types take up the cost and environmental benefits of gas-powered shipping, it is becoming increasingly important that crew are trained properly in its use. GAS-fuelled ships are one way forward to reduce air emissions. But in the dash for gas we must ensure that lower emissions don't mean less safety. Carrying and using gas at sea requires a culture that is present on gas carriers, but which is not found on most other ship types. We need to take great care when we extend gas power to other ship types. Substantial changes are needed to the structure and outfit of the vessel, and the crew need to be trained to understand the new fuel and its risks.
Training needs Logistic scenario A13 – I13 Lack of skilled seafarers Depending on the number of LNG propelled ships in 2020/2030 the number of seafarers can be (…) a significant fraction of the more than 1,2 millions seafarers demanded in 2020 (…). The likelihood of the issue not to be solved is judged low since it will be demand driven and passage to LNG will occur gradually. The direct impact of not having the necessary workforce trained is high since it directly affects the possibility to safely operate LNG fuelled ships. The possibility to manage the issue is judged high since training programmes can be established in due time before 2020. Aspects related to this issue are: - lack of training infrastructures - training of ashore personnel
Where is LNG ? Small scale distribution: Logistic Scenario Norwegian solution not existing in other countries Source Marino Rosetti
Logistic Scenario Where is LNG ?
Logistic Scenario Fig. is courtesy of The DMA
Laws & Authorizations Authorization Aspects Regulation & authorization procedures for on shore installations On shore rules & local authorization for LNG Terminals
Laws & Authorizations Authorization Aspects Common standards and procedures for LNG bunkering Fig. is courtesy of The DMA A study on LNG bunkering rules and procedure, commisioned by EU, has been just published
Authorization Aspects Laws & Authorizations Common standards and procedures for LNG bunkering
Financial Issue Actual context The market currently does not exist An effective mechanism to create such a market is needed The capital involved has to cover investments for : • new LNG fuelled Fleet • existing ship retrofit • logistic infrastructures Not all existing infrastructures are fit to serve the LNG ship related market
Logistic Scenario Market start up Four Main Actors Shipowners New buildings & retrofits Shipbuilders & Makers Strategic view Regulations Authorizations Governmental Authorities Gas supply & pricing Infrastructure develop. Management of logistic Gas providers
LNG price Financial Issues Price highly dependent on the considered country. Difference: from 3 to 19 $/MMBtu. However… The difference between U.S. and Asian gas is poised to drop by more than 60 percent by 2020. Source Bloomberg Jan 2013
LNG price Financial Issues 650 USD/t (=15.3 USD/mmBTU) for HFO. 900 USD/t (=21.2 USD/mmBTU) for MGO. 13 USD/mmBTU for LNG (considering 4 USD/mmBTU + small scale distribution costs).
Social Perception LNG is flammable LNG is dangerously cold LNG is clean YES but Not In My Back Yard
Social Perception Transparent communication on real facts • Overall, the LNG industry has an excellent safety record • LNG has been safely delivered across the ocean for – over 40 years – over 45,000 LNG carrier voyages – more than 100 million miles, without major accidents or safety problems either in port or on the high seas.
Social Perception Some countries have already solved the NIMBY issue
Coal Oil LNG Wind Are we going to experience a similar epochal change ? Thank You !
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Andrea Cogliolo è Innovation and Research Manager di RINA Service SpA, Italy.
Andrea COGLIOLO. Address Via Corsica, 12 16128 Genova Voice +39 010 ... email@example.com MARINE INNOVATION. Sector Manager. Andrea COGLIOLO.
Innovation; Environment ... Greece, Middle East & Africa from RINA Services, and Andrea Cogliolo, ... Research & Development Manager from RINA Services, ...
Andrea Cogliolo. 30 year experience ... he is presently Head of the Innovation Sector of RINA Services S.p.A. and Deputy General. ... Shipping and the Law ...
RINA Granted Danish LNG Fuel Authority. MarineLink.com. Monday, March 03, 2014. Andrea Cogliolo ... Andrea Cogliolo, head of innovation, RINA Services, ...
Andrea Cogliolo; Andrea ... Andrea Cogliolo. Andrea Cogliolo, ... in charge of Innovation & Research Sector for the development of new marine services ...