Coevolution

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Information about Coevolution

Published on February 6, 2009

Author: sherylwil

Source: slideshare.net

Which Came First the Flower or the Bee? Landscapes West 2009 Sheryl Williams [email_address]

Co-evolution Flowering plants have co-evolved with their pollinator partners over millions of years producing a fascinating and interesting diversity of floral strategies and pollinator adaptations. The great variety in color, form, and scent we see in flowers is a direct result of the intimate association of flowers with pollinators.

Flowering plants have co-evolved with their pollinator partners over millions of years producing a fascinating and interesting diversity of floral strategies and pollinator adaptations.

The great variety in color, form, and scent we see in flowers is a direct result of the intimate association of flowers with pollinators.

80% of plants are pollinated with other organisms 20% without 98% wind 2% water http://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/pollinators/plantstrategies/index.shtml

20% without

98% wind

2% water

The pollen from an anther must make contact and be physically and chemically correct in order to be taken into the stigma Anther Stigma

 

Pollen Grains Extraordinary Microscopic – the size of dust particles Unimaginable numbers One birch catkin can contains 5 ½ million pollen grains One birch tree will have thousands of catkins

Extraordinary

Microscopic – the size of dust particles

Unimaginable numbers

One birch catkin can contains 5 ½ million pollen grains

One birch tree will have thousands of catkins

Scanning Electron Microscope image of English Daisy pollen and lily pollen http://www.vcbio.science.ru.nl/en/virtuallessons/pollination/

http://www.vcbio.science.ru.nl/en/virtuallessons/pollination/

Wind Pollination

Pollination History “ The first fossil record for abiotic pollination is from fern-like plants in the late Carboniferous period(350 mya). Gymnosperms show evidence for biotic pollination as early as the 251-199 mya Many fossilized pollen grains show characteristics similar to the biotically-dispersed pollen today. The gut contents, wing structures, and mouthpart morphologies of fossilized beetles and flies suggest that they acted as early pollinators. “ Purdue 1-7-08 Plant Reproduction General

“ The first fossil record for abiotic pollination is from fern-like plants in the late Carboniferous period(350 mya).

Gymnosperms show evidence for biotic pollination as early as the 251-199 mya

Many fossilized pollen grains show characteristics similar to the biotically-dispersed pollen today.

The gut contents, wing structures, and mouthpart morphologies of fossilized beetles and flies suggest that they acted as early pollinators. “

“ The association between beetles and angiosperms during the early Cretaceous (145-65.5 mya) period led to parallel radiations of angiosperms and insects into the late Cretaceous. The evolution of nectaries in late Cretaceous flowers signals the beginning of the mutualism between hymenopterans* and angiosperms.” *Those with membranous wings Purdue 1-7-08 Plant Reproduction General

“ The association between beetles and angiosperms during the early Cretaceous (145-65.5 mya) period led to parallel radiations of angiosperms and insects into the late Cretaceous.

The evolution of nectaries in late Cretaceous flowers signals the beginning of the mutualism between hymenopterans* and angiosperms.”

*Those with membranous wings

Purdue 1-7-08 Plant Reproduction General

Wind Pollination - oldest If a flowering plant is to reproduce sexually, it must ensure that its pollen reaches the style of another individual of the same species Smallest can be carried by the wind Grasses, sedges, conifers and many broadleaved trees Walnut, oak, birch, poplar and hazel

If a flowering plant is to reproduce sexually, it must ensure that its pollen reaches the style of another individual of the same species

Smallest can be carried by the wind

Grasses, sedges, conifers and many broadleaved trees

Walnut, oak, birch, poplar and hazel

Cottonwood Catkins Catkins appear in early spring before the leaves emerge to prevent interference with wind dispersal http://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/pollinators/plantstrategies/index.shtml

Catkins appear in early spring before the leaves emerge to prevent interference with wind dispersal

Stigmas on a Black Walnut are relatively large to catch pollen http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/pages/pollination.htm

http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/pages/pollination.htm

Dandelion “ Parachute” dispersal

“ Parachute” dispersal

Blue grama grass anthers releasing pollen http://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/pollinators/plantstrategies/images/bouteloua_gracilis_lg.jpg

http://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/pollinators/plantstrategies/images/bouteloua_gracilis_lg.jpg

Grass anthers and stigma extended  http://mac122.icu.ac.jp/gen-ed/higher-plants-etc.html http://www.vcbio.science.ru.nl/en/virtuallessons/pollination/

http://mac122.icu.ac.jp/gen-ed/higher-plants-etc.html

http://www.vcbio.science.ru.nl/en/virtuallessons/pollination/

Wind is an effective transporter. It can take the tiny dry grains as high as 19,000 feet and carry them for 3,000 miles Totally haphazard Most will not reach the stigma of another and therefore be wasted Pollen is rich in oils and proteins and producing it constitutes a significant loss to the plant

Wind is an effective transporter.

It can take the tiny dry grains as high as 19,000 feet and carry them for 3,000 miles

Totally haphazard

Most will not reach the stigma of another and therefore be wasted

Pollen is rich in oils and proteins and producing it constitutes a significant loss to the plant

Flowering Plants

Magnolia Magnolia is an ancient genus Having evolved before bees appeared, the sturdy flowers developed to encourage pollination by beetles Magnolia flowers do not produce nectar but they do produce large quantities of pollen, which is high in protein and good food for beetles http://www.lsa.umich.edu/mbg/see/inbloom_summer.asp

Magnolia is an ancient genus

Having evolved before bees appeared, the sturdy flowers developed to encourage pollination by beetles

Magnolia flowers do not produce nectar but they do produce large quantities of pollen, which is high in protein and good food for beetles

Magnolia grandiflora flower (Southern Magnolia) http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/biohires/m/hmagr4-fl10949.jpg

http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/biohires/m/hmagr4-fl10949.jpg

Magnolia Family There are no specialized adaptations to exploit pollinators Insects simply crawl around on the flowers looking for the nectar reward and become dusted by pollen if they crawl over the strap-like anthers “ Relatively unintelligent insects like beetles can act as pollinators.” 1   1 http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/pages/pollination.htm

There are no specialized adaptations to exploit pollinators

Insects simply crawl around on the flowers looking for the nectar reward and become dusted by pollen if they crawl over the strap-like anthers

“ Relatively unintelligent insects like beetles can act as pollinators.” 1  

http://flickr.com/photos/oroboros72/2578117137/ Beetle covered with pollen on Magnolia http://farm1.static.flickr.com/151/436570953_91be748c40.jpg?v=0

http://flickr.com/photos/oroboros72/2578117137/

HIGHER EVOLUTION PLANTS AND POLLINATORS

Bees – the Major Pollinator of Flowering Plants Bees are adapted for feeding on nectar for energy and pollen for protein and other nutrients Most pollen is used as food for larvae Have a long proboscis – a complex “tongue” that enables them to obtain the nectar from flowers

Bees are adapted for feeding on nectar for energy and pollen for protein and other nutrients

Most pollen is used as food for larvae

Have a long proboscis – a complex “tongue” that enables them to obtain the nectar from flowers

 

Bees that are deliberately gathering pollen are more efficient pollinators It is estimated that one third of the human food supply depends on insect pollination, most of which is accomplished by bees http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bee

Bees that are deliberately gathering pollen are more efficient pollinators

It is estimated that one third of the human food supply depends on insect pollination, most of which is accomplished by bees

Wasp->Bee Bees, like ants, are a specialized form of wasp Change from predator to collecting pollen “ The switch from insect prey to pollen may have resulted from the consumption of prey insects that were flower visitors and were partially covered with pollen when they were fed to the wasp larvae.” 2 2 ^ Poinar, G.O. Jr., Danforth, B.N. 2006. A fossil bee from early Cretaceous Burmese am 4. ber. Science 314: 614.

Bees, like ants, are a specialized form of wasp

Change from predator to collecting pollen

“ The switch from insect prey to pollen may have resulted from the consumption of prey insects that were flower visitors and were partially covered with pollen when they were fed to the wasp larvae.” 2

Which Came First? Flowers But the bees and the flowers and other pollinators have all evolved – Co-evolution Benefit of the flower Mutually beneficial Dependent – very specialized

Flowers

But the bees and the flowers and other pollinators have all evolved –

Co-evolution

Benefit of the flower

Mutually beneficial

Dependent – very specialized

Examples of Co-evolution Dependence - Yucca and moth Gentian and Carpenter Bee – Floral sonication Benefit to the flower; defenses against herbivores – Passionflower and Butterfly Benefit to the flower – Mimicry and fakery – Orchid and bee Mutual – Moth and orchid Mutual – Ant and Acacia Mutual – Fly and the Flower Mutual – Columbines and shape shifts

Dependence - Yucca and moth

Gentian and Carpenter Bee – Floral sonication

Benefit to the flower; defenses against herbivores – Passionflower and Butterfly

Benefit to the flower – Mimicry and fakery – Orchid and bee

Mutual – Moth and orchid

Mutual – Ant and Acacia

Mutual – Fly and the Flower

Mutual – Columbines and shape shifts

Dependent Partnerships Some are so dependent upon one another that were one to disappear, the other would very likely either starve or remain sterile. Secret Life of Plants

Some are so dependent upon one another that were one to disappear, the other would very likely either starve or remain sterile.

YUCCA AND THE YUCCA MOTH - DEPENDENCY

http://cornellcollege.edu/biology/insects2003/ianpat/images/yucmoth2.jpg

The pistil (female part) of each flower ends in a three-lobed stigma. In order for pollination to occur, masses of pollen must be forced down into this central stigmatic hole. The female yucca moth gathers pollen from the flower anthers by using her specially adapted mouthparts. She forms the sticky pollen into a ball. The pollen ball is then "stuffed" or "combed" into the stigma of the various flowers she visits .

The pistil (female part) of each flower ends in a three-lobed stigma.

In order for pollination to occur, masses of pollen must be forced down into this central stigmatic hole.

The female yucca moth gathers pollen from the flower anthers by using her specially adapted mouthparts.

She forms the sticky pollen into a ball. The pollen ball is then "stuffed" or "combed" into the stigma of the various flowers she visits .

Central Stigmatic Orifice Mojave Yucca Yucca shidigera Chaparral Yucca Yucca whipplei Feathery stigma lobes

Mojave Yucca Yucca shidigera

Chaparral Yucca Yucca whipplei

Feathery stigma lobes

Head of a female yucca moth showing the prominent, coiled, maxillary palpi Used to collect, compact and carry a pollen ball Only in females Pollen masses and a stamen from the chaparral yucca

Head of a female yucca moth showing the prominent, coiled, maxillary palpi

Used to collect, compact and carry a pollen ball

Only in females

A female yucca moth pushing pollen into the stigma tube of the yucca flower while visiting the flower to deposit her eggs http://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/pollinators/moths.shtml

http://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/pollinators/moths.shtml

Without this process, the yucca flower will not develop into the fruit or pod with seeds. When the female moth visits the flower, she backs up to the flower base and inserts her ovipositor to lay an egg in one or more of the six chambers. The chamber protects the egg while it develops.

Without this process, the yucca flower will not develop into the fruit or pod with seeds.

When the female moth visits the flower, she backs up to the flower base and inserts her ovipositor to lay an egg in one or more of the six chambers.

The chamber protects the egg while it develops.

Yucca moth larvae feeding on seeds in the yucca fruit. The cost of some of the fruit is outweighed by having such an efficient pollinator

Yucca moth larvae feeding on seeds in the yucca fruit.

The cost of some of the fruit is outweighed by having such an efficient pollinator

By the time the egg hatches into a larvae the yucca will have begun to develop a pod with little seeds. The yucca and the yucca moth both benefit in the relationship.

By the time the egg hatches into a larvae the yucca will have begun to develop a pod with little seeds.

The yucca and the yucca moth both benefit in the relationship.

MULTIPLE DEFENSES AGAINST HERBIVORES Passionflower and Zebra Longwing Butterflies

Passionflower and Zebra Longwing Butterflies

http://www.stetson.edu/~pmay/woodruff/passiflora.htm Passion vines produce beautiful, large flowers that are easy to find once they open.

Passion vines produce beautiful, large flowers that are easy to find once they open.

These large, complex flowers open quickly at about 11 a.m., and last only one afternoon before shriveling and setting fruit. Passion vine is chemically protected by cyanogenic glycosides, which prevent most plant-eating insects from feeding on it.   It is, however, fed upon by the larvae of two specialized butterflies, which feed on no other plants. http://www.stetson.edu/~pmay/woodruff/passiflora.htm

These large, complex flowers open quickly at about 11 a.m., and last only one afternoon before shriveling and setting fruit.

Passion vine is chemically protected by cyanogenic glycosides, which prevent most plant-eating insects from feeding on it.  

It is, however, fed upon by the larvae of two specialized butterflies, which feed on no other plants.

This is Agraulis vanillae, the Gulf Fritillary. These butterflies are often present in large numbers, especially from mid-late summer.  Gulf fritillary caterpillars are more often found on passion vines in open, full sun, and are usually found feeding on older leaves away from the tip of the vine.

These are the eggs and larva of the Zebra Longwing, Heliconius charitonius. These butterflies lay their eggs in clusters at the very tip of the growing vine, and are more often found on plants that are at least partially shaded.  Thus, the two species of butterflies seem to avoid direct competition by feeding on different parts of the plants, and selecting different microhabitats. http://creatures.ifas.ufl.edu/bfly/Zebra_longwing04.htm

These are the eggs and larva of the Zebra Longwing, Heliconius charitonius.

These butterflies lay their eggs in clusters at the very tip of the growing vine, and are more often found on plants that are at least partially shaded. 

Thus, the two species of butterflies seem to avoid direct competition by feeding on different parts of the plants, and selecting different microhabitats.

Multiple Defense Develop trichomes (hairs) on the leaves – hook caterpillars and they bleed to death http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Entomology/courses/en570/papers_2002 http://uts.cc.utexas.edu/~gilbert/teaching/zoo369/lect6.html

Develop trichomes (hairs) on the leaves – hook caterpillars and they bleed to death

False Larvae In some Passiflora the stipules change to look like butterfly larvae

In some Passiflora the stipules change to look like butterfly larvae

Egg Mimic Nectaries Female butterfly egg laying and larval hatch is damaging to the Passiflora One larvae can defoliate and entire juvenile plant or prevent seed formation by devouring the flowers

Female butterfly egg laying and larval hatch is damaging to the Passiflora

One larvae can defoliate and entire juvenile plant or prevent seed formation by devouring the flowers

In order to avoid competition for food and cannibalism, Heliconius butterflies avoid plants that already have eggs on them Passiflora boenderi leaf with egg mimic nectaries . http://www.mobot.org/mobot/research/passiflora/subgenus_Decaloba.shtml Photo: J.M. MacDougal

Extrafloral Nectaries These spots are “extrafloral” because they are found outside the flower The nectar that passion vines secrete attracts ants, as sugar inevitably does. The mercenary ants, in turn, are aggressive defenders of their food sources and will kill or drive off herbivores that would eat those sources. Thus both parties benefit from the relationship

These spots are “extrafloral” because they are found outside the flower

The nectar that passion vines secrete attracts ants, as sugar inevitably does.

The mercenary ants, in turn, are aggressive defenders of their food sources and will kill or drive off herbivores that would eat those sources.

Thus both parties benefit from the relationship

Chameleon shapes Visual Clues can be almost as important as chemical clues Passion vines can escape by looking like other nearby plants The camouflage pays off just often enough for the Passiflora to reproduce http://www.virtualherbarium.org/GardenViews/ShapeShifters.html

Visual Clues can be almost as important as chemical clues

Passion vines can escape by looking like other nearby plants

The camouflage pays off just often enough for the Passiflora to reproduce

Heliconius -egg mimicry in Passiflora and shape camouflage http://www.ucl.ac.uk/~ucbhdjm/courses/b242/Coevol/Coevol.html

THE GENTIAN AND THE CARPENTER BEE FLORAL SONICATION

The flowers of the Orphium frutescens in South Africa have 3 large stamens with a long thick anther that seems to be covered in yellow pollen. But the yellow anther is hollow and the pollen is held inside. The only way it can escape is through a tiny hole right at the top of the anther and there is only one way to extract it. The bee knows how 3 3 Secret Life of Plants by Peter Tompkins

The flowers of the Orphium frutescens in South Africa have 3 large stamens with a long thick anther that seems to be covered in yellow pollen.

But the yellow anther is hollow and the pollen is held inside.

The only way it can escape is through a tiny hole right at the top of the anther and there is only one way to extract it.

The bee knows how 3

Orphium frutescens anthers and stigma http://fernkloof.com/species2.mv?Orphium%20frutescens

http://fernkloof.com/species2.mv?Orphium%20frutescens

A Carpenter Bee which has a particular resonance vibrates the pollen from the flower. Bees that do not match this resonance cannot pollinate the flower. One would think with the vibration of the pollen, it would be scattered everywhere and self-pollination would be a problem. Not so. The stigma is not receptive until all the pollen is gone http://bibleprobe.com/pollination.htm

A Carpenter Bee which has a particular resonance vibrates the pollen from the flower.

Bees that do not match this resonance cannot pollinate the flower.

One would think with the vibration of the pollen, it would be scattered everywhere and self-pollination would be a problem. Not so.

The stigma is not receptive until all the pollen is gone

The bee makes a high-pitched buzzing noise with its wings as most bees do. It continues to beat its wings but lowers the frequency so that the note of its buzz suddenly falls to approx. middle C. This causes the anther to vibrate at just the right frequency needed to release the pollen and the grains spout out of the hole at the top in a yellow fountain. The bee gathers it up and packs it into the carrying baskets on its back legs.

The bee makes a high-pitched buzzing noise with its wings as most bees do.

It continues to beat its wings but lowers the frequency so that the note of its buzz suddenly falls to approx. middle C.

This causes the anther to vibrate at just the right frequency needed to release the pollen and the grains spout out of the hole at the top in a yellow fountain.

The bee gathers it up and packs it into the carrying baskets on its back legs.

A Female Carpenter Bee, Xylocopa caffra, buzz-pollinating Orphium frutescens . Cape Peninsula, South Africa http://home.worldonline.co.za/~cpjones/pollination.htm

http://home.worldonline.co.za/~cpjones/pollination.htm

Floral Sonication There are approximately 20,000 flowers that need to be pollinated by vibrations http://gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov/ic/buzzpol/buzzpol.html Here we see a small andrenid bee ( Protandrena mexicanorum ) perched atop a stamen of Buffalo Burr ( Solanum rostratrum ) follwing a vigorous bout of floral sonication.

There are approximately 20,000 flowers that need to be pollinated by vibrations

DEEP COROLLA TUBES Some plants have evolved flowers of extraordinary depth This puzzled Darwin He suggested that this was a response to a kind of ‘race’ with pollinating insects The length of the tongues of pollinating insects could increase to increase nectar foraging efficiency http://www.missouriplants.com/Blueopp/Phlox_amplifolia_page.html

Some plants have evolved flowers of extraordinary depth

This puzzled Darwin

He suggested that this was a response to a kind of ‘race’ with pollinating insects

The length of the tongues of pollinating insects could increase to increase nectar foraging efficiency

ORCHID AND THE MOTH MUTUAL DEPENDENCE ORCHID AND SPECIFIC POLLINATOR

Moth and orchid in Madagascar Angraecum sesquipedale species word means ‘a foot and a half’ Long trailing spurs which hold its nectar

Angraecum sesquipedale species word means ‘a foot and a half’

Long trailing spurs which hold its nectar

Darwin predicted that the flower was pollinated by a moth with tongue long enough to raid the spur. Forty years later, just such a moth was discovered! Long after Darwin's death, the predicted pollinator was discovered, a hawk moth now named Xanthopan morganii praedicta ( praedicta meaning predicted). It had an appropriately long proboscis. This was a perfect example of mutual dependence of an orchid and a specific pollinator It is the only pollinator of this orchid http://www.orchids.mu/Species/Angraecum/Angraecum_sesquipedale.htm

Darwin predicted that the flower was pollinated by a moth with tongue long enough to raid the spur.

Forty years later, just such a moth was discovered!

Long after Darwin's death, the predicted pollinator was discovered, a hawk moth now named Xanthopan morganii praedicta ( praedicta meaning predicted).

It had an appropriately long proboscis. This was a perfect example of mutual dependence of an orchid and a specific pollinator

It is the only pollinator of this orchid

http://www.geocities.com/pennypoint9/longicalc.jpg

http://www.geocities.com/pennypoint9/longicalc.jpg

http://www.orchidspecies.com/angsesesquipe.htm

COLUMBINES - SHAPE SHIFTING

Justen Whittall and Scott Hodges  University of California, Santa Barbara Studied the evolution of the Columbine Spurs are from 1 to 12 cm Changes in length based on change in pollinator

University of California, Santa Barbara

Studied the evolution of the Columbine

Spurs are from 1 to 12 cm

Changes in length based on change in pollinator

Bumblebees – short tongue Hummingbirds – longer tongue Hawkmoths – longest tongue More variety in North America No hawkmoths in Eurasia thus shorter spurs in Eurasia Reference:  Whittall & Hodges. 2007. Pollinator shifts drive increasingly long nectar spurs in columbine flowers .  Nature 447: 706-709.

Bumblebees – short tongue

Hummingbirds – longer tongue

Hawkmoths – longest tongue

More variety in North America

No hawkmoths in Eurasia thus shorter spurs in Eurasia

 

http://pollinator.com/queen_bumblebee.htm http://www.pbase.com/mroper/image/71250086 http://www.wunderground.com/data/wximagenew/n/novembergale/214.jpg

http://fireflyforest.net/firefly/2005/12/15/golden-columbine/ http://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/pollinators/plantstrategies/images/black-chin_hummingbird_yellow_columbine_lg.jpg http://www.fortnet.org/NCBA/Columbine1.jpg

THE FLOWER AND THE FLY

Nectar Attracts animals that carry pollen Corolla spurs are a hollow, hornlike extension of a flower that holds nectar in its base. The length has to be longer or matched to the pollinator to force contact and transfer pollen

Attracts animals that carry pollen

Corolla spurs are a hollow, hornlike extension of a flower that holds nectar in its base.

The length has to be longer or matched to the pollinator to force contact and transfer pollen

Meganosed fly Pollination benefits from long floral tubes Nectar-seeking insects must press their bodies closely against pollen-bearing floral parts to reach nectar pools at the end of the floral tube Cycle of lengthening organs in both flower and fly

Pollination benefits from long floral tubes

Nectar-seeking insects must press their bodies closely against pollen-bearing floral parts to reach nectar pools at the end of the floral tube

Cycle of lengthening organs in both flower and fly

http://www.naturalhistorymag.com/master.html?http://www.naturalhistorymag.com/0305/0305_feature.html Photo © Steven D. Johnson

Meganosed Fly Moegistorhynchus longirostris of southern Africa has the longest mouthpart of any know fly 4 inches from it’s head 5 times the length of its body

Moegistorhynchus longirostris of southern Africa has the longest mouthpart of any know fly

4 inches from it’s head

5 times the length of its body

Plant Guild A group of unrelated plant species that benefit each other In this case the meganosed fly is the sole pollinator to a guild of species All have long, straight floral tubes or spurs Brightly colored flowers open during the day and no scent

A group of unrelated plant species that benefit each other

In this case the meganosed fly is the sole pollinator to a guild of species

All have long, straight floral tubes or spurs

Brightly colored flowers open during the day and no scent

The Guild Iris – Lapeirousia anceps African Corn Lily - Ixia paniculata Orchid - Disa draconis Geranium- Pelarbonium suburbanum

Differences within the Guild Each deposits their pollen on differing parts of the nectar-seeking fly http://picasaweb.google.com/Marland.CapeTown/GERANIUMSOfTheCapePeninsula#5149176058538116722

Each deposits their pollen on differing parts of the nectar-seeking fly

MIMICRY AND DECEPTION THE ORCHID AND THE BEE

Ophrys speculum http://www.plata.gr/chania/flaura.asp http://www.treknature.com/gallery/Europe/Spain/Extremadura/photo49863.htm

The Mediterranean orchid Ophrys speculum manufactures whiffs of the same scent that the female wasp Campsoscolia ciliata does. The flower misleads male wasps into mating attempts that benefit the plant by spreading pollen The orchids produce the fragrance more abundantly than female wasps do, and males prefer the stronger bouquet

The Mediterranean orchid Ophrys speculum manufactures whiffs of the same scent that the female wasp Campsoscolia ciliata does.

The flower misleads male wasps into mating attempts that benefit the plant by spreading pollen

The orchids produce the fragrance more abundantly than female wasps do, and males prefer the stronger bouquet

With brushy red hairs, the Ophryrs speculum blooms look vaguely like the wasps that pollinate them.

With brushy red hairs, the Ophryrs speculum blooms look vaguely like the wasps that pollinate them.

http://www.guenther-blaich.de/fmd/ospecwas.jpg Campsoscolia ciliata

http://www.guenther-blaich.de/fmd/ospecwas.jpg

Ophrys speculum Mirror Orchid In an extreme case of sex fakery, an orchid produces oddball chemicals that mimic a female wasp's allure so well that males prefer the floral scents to the real thing, scientists say.

ACACIA AND THE ANT MUTUALLY BENEFICIAL

Bullhorn Acacia

Acacia and the Ant Acacia’s defense against browsing animals are long, strong thorns. Soon after the acacia grows a thorn a queen ant who has already mated lands upon it and gnaws a hole near the tip, just big enough to allow her to crawl into the hollow base. There she lays her eggs

Acacia’s defense against browsing animals are long, strong thorns.

Soon after the acacia grows a thorn a queen ant who has already mated lands upon it and gnaws a hole near the tip, just big enough to allow her to crawl into the hollow base.

There she lays her eggs

Bullhorn acacia and ant mutualism: thorn and extra-floral nectary, Costa Rica http://ecolibrary.cs.brandeis.edu/display.php?id=Ant_w_bullhorn_acacia_thorn_DP162

http://ecolibrary.cs.brandeis.edu/display.php?id=Ant_w_bullhorn_acacia_thorn_DP162

The young works come out of their thorn home every day and patrol the stems and leaves hunting for insects that may land on the acacia trying to nibble its leaves The ants eats these insects

The young works come out of their thorn home every day and patrol the stems and leaves hunting for insects that may land on the acacia trying to nibble its leaves

The ants eats these insects

Nectary Hole in the thorn The acacia produces nectar from glands along the lower part of the leaf-stalks The nectar flows all year round

http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/images/tropseas/20dimg_1253cu.jpg

http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/images/tropseas/20dimg_1253cu.jpg

The ants also destroy seedlings of other kinds of plants that might germinate within a radius of about a foot. They also mutilate leaves from other plants that touch the acacia causing the branch of the other plant to die back.

The ants also destroy seedlings of other kinds of plants that might germinate within a radius of about a foot.

They also mutilate leaves from other plants that touch the acacia causing the branch of the other plant to die back.

The plant also provides solid food in the form of small orange beads, rich in fat on the tips of the leaflets. A worker cuts up the beads into pieces and places into a pocket below the head of the larva – available to eat later. These are called Beltian Bodies , formed particularly on the tips of newly developed leaves. 

The plant also provides solid food in the form of small orange beads, rich in fat on the tips of the leaflets.

A worker cuts up the beads into pieces and places into a pocket below the head of the larva – available to eat later.

These are called Beltian Bodies , formed particularly on the tips of newly developed leaves. 

 

Beltian bodies http://pick5.pick.uga.edu/mp/20p?see=EL_DP161

http://pick5.pick.uga.edu/mp/20p?see=EL_DP161

Conclusion The flower did come first These are just a few examples of the fascinating modifications among plants and pollinators Co-evolution is all around us Observe and enjoy!

The flower did come first

These are just a few examples of the fascinating modifications among plants and pollinators

Co-evolution is all around us

Observe and enjoy!

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