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Published on December 15, 2008

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Individual Behaviour, Values, and Personality : Individual Behaviour, Values, and Personality Employee Engagement at FHA : Courtesy of Fraser Health Authority Employee Engagement at FHA Fraser Health Authority (FHA), the organization that oversees public health care facilities in eastern Vancouver and the Fraser Valley, is making employee engagement a cornerstone of its organizational effectiveness strategy Employee Engagement Defined : Courtesy of Fraser Health Authority Employee Engagement Defined The employee’s emotional and cognitive (rational) motivation, ability to perform the job, clear understanding of the organization’s vision and his/her specific role in that vision, and a belief that he/she has the resources to get the job done MARS Model of Individual Behaviour : Individual Behaviourand Results Values Personality Perceptions Emotions Attitudes Stress MARS Model of Individual Behaviour Employee Motivation : M A R S BAR Employee Motivation Internal forces that affect a person’s voluntary choice of behaviour direction intensity persistence Employee Ability : M A R S BAR Employee Ability Natural aptitudes and learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task competencies ? personal characteristics that lead to superior performance person ? job matching select qualified people develop employeeabilities through training redesign job to fit person's existing abilities Employee Role Perceptions :  M A R S BAR Employee Role Perceptions Beliefs about what behaviour is required to achieve the desired results understanding what tasks to perform understanding relative importance of tasks understanding preferredbehaviours to accomplish tasks Situational Factors : M A R S BAR Situational Factors Environmental conditions beyond the individual’s short-term control that constrain or facilitate behaviour time people budget work facilities Types of Behaviour in Organizations : Organizational Citizenship Performance beyond the required job duties Task Performance Goal-directed behaviours under person’s control Types of Behaviour in Organizations Types of Behaviour in Organizations : Maintaining Work Attendance Performance beyond the required job duties Joining/staying with the Organization Goal-directed behaviours under person’s control Types of Behaviour in Organizations Counterproductive Work Behaviours Voluntary behaviour that potentially harms the organization Values in the Workplace : Values in the Workplace Stable, evaluative beliefs that guide our preferences Define right or wrong, good or bad Value system -- hierarchy of values Espoused vs. enacted values: Espoused -- the values we say we use and often think we use Enacted -- values we actually rely on to guide our decisions and actions Schwartz’s Values Model : Schwartz’s Values Model Conservation Self-enhancement Self-transcendence Openness to Change Values Congruence : Values Congruence Values congruence -- where two or more entities have similar value systems Consequences of incongruence Incompatible decisions Lower satisfaction and commitment Increased stress and turnover Benefits of incongruence Better decision making (diverse values) Enhanced problem definition Prevents “corporate cults” Hyundai Crosses Cultures in Alabama : Hyundai Crosses Cultures in Alabama When Korean automobile giant Hyundai Motor Company recently opened its manufacturing plant in Montgomery, Alabama, local residents and Hyundai executives alike paid close attention to differences in Korean and American cultural values. © AP Photo/Yonhap Individualism- Collectivism : Individualism- Collectivism Peru Chile Italy Portugal Turkey Canada/ U.S.A. Japan Egypt Korea France China Zimbabwe Mexico Hong Kong Taiwan Collectivism High Low Individualism High Low Power Distance : Power Distance The degree that people accept an unequal distribution of power in society Japan Israel Canada Venezuela High Power Distance Malaysia Low Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance : Uncertainty Avoidance High U. A. Low U. A. Japan Greece Canada The degree that people tolerate ambiguity (low) or feel threatened by ambiguity and uncertainty (high uncertainty avoidance). Italy Singapore Achievement-Nurturing : Achievement-Nurturing Achievement Nurturing Japan Canada Sweden The degree that people value assertiveness, competitiveness, and materialism (achievement) versus relationships and well-being of others (nurturing) China Chile Canadian vs American Values : Canadian vs American Values Canadian Question authority Egalitarian Moral permissiveness Cultural mosaic Collective rights valued American Deference to authority Patriarchal Conservative, moralistic Melting pot Individual rights paramount Canadian Subcultures : Canadian Subcultures Francophone values Shifted from more conservative to more liberal than English Canadians on social issues First Nations values Strong collectivist values Lower power distance Low uncertainty avoidance Relatively nurturing values orientation Three Ethical Principles : Utilitarianism Individual Rights Greatest good for the greatest number of people Fundamental entitlementsin society Distributive Justice People who are similar should receive similar benefits Three Ethical Principles Influences on Ethical Conduct : Influences on Ethical Conduct Moral intensity degree that issue demands ethical principles Ethical sensitivity ability to recognize the presence and determine the relative importance of an ethical issue Situational influences competitive pressures and other conditions affect ethical behaviour Supporting Ethical Behaviour : Supporting Ethical Behaviour Ethical code of conduct Establishes standards of behaviour Problem: Limited effect alone on ethical behaviour Ethics training Awareness and clarification of ethics code Practice resolving ethical dilemmas Ethics officers Educate and counsel; hear about wrongdoing Ethical leadership Demonstrate integrity and role model ethical conduct Defining Personality : Defining Personality Relatively stable pattern of behaviours and consistent internal states that explain a person's behavioural tendencies Big Five Personality Dimensions : Big Five Personality Dimensions Outgoing, talkative Sensitive, flexible Careful, dependable Courteous, caring Anxious, hostile Myers-Briggs Type Indicator : Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Locus of Control and Self-Monitoring : Locus of Control and Self-Monitoring Locus of control Internals believe in their effort and ability Externals believe events are mainly due to external causes Self-monitoring personality Sensitivity to situational cues, and ability to adapt your behaviour to that situation Holland’s Occupational Choice Theory : Holland’s Occupational Choice Theory Career success depends on fit between the person and work environment Holland identifies six “themes” Represent work environment and personality traits/interests A person aligned mainly with one theme is highly differentiated A person has high consistency when preferences relate to adjacent themes Individual Behaviour, Values, and Personality : Individual Behaviour, Values, and Personality Chapter TwoExtras : Chapter TwoExtras Long/Short-Term Orientation : Japan Netherlands Russia Long-Term Orientation Short-Term Orientation China The degree that people value thrift, savings, and persistence (long-term) versus past and present issues, respect for tradition and fulfilling social obligations (short-term). Long/Short-Term Orientation Canada

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