Coastlines Yr 11 Revision Class For Ocr Spec A

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Information about Coastlines Yr 11 Revision Class For Ocr Spec A

Published on August 15, 2007

Author: KateW

Source: slideshare.net

COASTLINES What do you need to know?

The unit can be divided into two parts: Processes and features What people do to protect sections of coastline that are vulnerable to erosion

Processes and features

What people do to protect sections of coastline that are vulnerable to erosion

Key ideas about waves: How are they formed? What affects their size and strength? What happens when they reach shallow water? What happens when they break on the beach? Key words Fetch Prevailing wind Wave refraction Swash Backwash Constructive waves Destructive waves

How are they formed?

What affects their size and strength?

What happens when they reach shallow water?

What happens when they break on the beach?

Key words

Fetch

Prevailing wind

Wave refraction

Swash

Backwash

Constructive waves

Destructive waves

Erosion What affects the rate of coastal erosion? Rock type Geology of the coastline Shape of the coastline Key words Discordant coastline Concordant coastline

What affects the rate of coastal erosion?

Rock type

Geology of the coastline

Shape of the coastline

Key words

Discordant coastline

Concordant coastline

 

How does the sea erode? What are the processes at work? Corrasion or abrasion Attrition Scouring Hydraulic action Solution You also need to know: How the sea sorts material on the beach? What weathering processes are at work on the cliffs?

What are the processes at work?

Corrasion or abrasion

Attrition

Scouring

Hydraulic action

Solution

You also need to know:

How the sea sorts material on the beach?

What weathering processes are at work on the cliffs?

What features are produced by these processes of erosion? 1 More resistant rock types e.g. chalk What is the sequence of their formation? Headlands Caves Arches Stacks Stumps Wave-cut platforms 2 Less resistant rock types e.g. clay What is the sequence of their formation? rotational cliff slumping 3 And don’t forget the bays!

1 More resistant rock types e.g. chalk

What is the sequence of their formation?

Headlands

Caves

Arches

Stacks

Stumps

Wave-cut platforms

2 Less resistant rock types e.g. clay

What is the sequence of their formation?

rotational cliff slumping

3 And don’t forget the bays!

 

How does the sea move material ( transportation )? You need to understand how longshore drift works along a stretch of coastline In what ways does the sea transport its sediment? Solution Suspension Saltation Traction What influences the size of sediment being transported?

You need to understand how longshore drift works along a stretch of coastline

In what ways does the sea transport its sediment?

Solution

Suspension

Saltation

Traction

What influences the size of sediment being transported?

Beach Sea Cliff Direction of longshore drift

When does the sea deposit material? What features are produced by the process of deposition? Beaches Sand dunes Spits Bars Tombolos What is the sequence of their formation?

Beaches

Sand dunes

Spits

Bars

Tombolos

How can the different processes of erosion alter or damage an area of coastline? What do people do to protect the coastline, or deal with the consequences of erosion?

You need to learn a case study of how the sea is eroding part of the UK coastline. You will need to know what is being done to protect or ‘ manage ’ this stretch of coastline.

What are the causes of erosion on this part of the coastline?

Key ideas: Type of rock? Geological structure of the coastline? Prevailing wind direction? Rate of longshore drift? Global changes in sea levels? Human influences?

Type of rock?

Geological structure of the coastline?

Prevailing wind direction?

Rate of longshore drift?

Global changes in sea levels?

Human influences?

What are the effects of coastal erosion on this part of the coastline?

Key ideas: How much land has been lost, since when? How many villages and farms have disappeared? What towns and villages are under threat at the moment? What specific roads or important industrial sites are at risk? What tourist or leisure facilities are under threat? What about the natural (physical) features that are being eroded away?

How much land has been lost, since when?

How many villages and farms have disappeared?

What towns and villages are under threat at the moment?

What specific roads or important industrial sites are at risk?

What tourist or leisure facilities are under threat?

What about the natural (physical) features that are being eroded away?

What is being done to ‘ manage ’ or control coastal erosion along this coastline?

Key ideas: Hard engineering e.g. revetments, sea walls, groynes, tetrapods, gabions, rip-rap Soft engineering e.g. beach nourishment ‘ Do nothing’ or managed retreat How are the decisions made? Who or what ends up getting protected?

Hard engineering

e.g. revetments, sea walls, groynes, tetrapods, gabions, rip-rap

Soft engineering

e.g. beach nourishment

‘ Do nothing’ or managed retreat

How are the decisions made?

Who or what ends up getting protected?

What are the consequences of coastal management schemes along this coastline?

Key ideas: Knock-on effects further along the coastline accelerated cliff erosion accelerated erosion of natural features (Spurn Head?) prevention of sediment being carried to other coastlines, both nationally and internationally Visual impact of hard engineering schemes

Knock-on effects further along the coastline

accelerated cliff erosion

accelerated erosion of natural features (Spurn Head?)

prevention of sediment being carried to other coastlines, both nationally and internationally

Visual impact of hard engineering schemes

Remember: This case study has to be in the UK You can use a case study that is local to you (e.g. Seaford for coastal management schemes)

This case study has to be in the UK

You can use a case study that is local to you (e.g. Seaford for coastal management schemes)

To get maximum marks for a case study question: You must include some real ‘place knowledge’ in your answer It therefore should not be vague and so could really be about anywhere along the UK coastline! You should therefore learn some relevant facts and figures about the stretch of coastline such as the place names, and so on You must also develop the points you make (explain what you mean) and write fluently and in sentences You must try and use geographical terminology wherever you can

You must include some real ‘place knowledge’ in your answer

It therefore should not be vague and so could really be about anywhere along the UK coastline!

You should therefore learn some relevant facts and figures about the stretch of coastline such as the place names, and so on

You must also develop the points you make (explain what you mean) and write fluently and in sentences

You must try and use geographical terminology wherever you can

Good luck, thanks for listening, see you next week!

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