Published on April 24, 2014
Progressive EnergyCONFIDENTIAL Progressive energy “CCS in the bigger picture” UKCCSRC Biannual Conference Queens College, Cambridge 3rd April 2014 CO2 purity and the EC IMPACTS Project Andy Brown, Engineering Director, Progressive Energy
Progressive EnergyCONFIDENTIAL Project Development Company, established in 1997 Developing technology for removing CO2 from BFG and BOS gas Working to develop a CCS cluster on Teesside, including collection from steel and chemicals processing industries Chosen as one of the four entrants in HM Government’s CCS Commercialisation Programme, on the “reserve list”. Technological expertise in many aspects of CCS Working with NET Power to develop a semi-closed Brayton Cycle design using Supercritical CO2 (Allam Cycle) Active in renewable technologies Progressive Energy CO2 purity and the EC IMPACTS Project
Progressive EnergyCONFIDENTIAL Introduction to the IMPACTS Project Legal requirements for CO2 quality CCS Clusters Potential CO2 impurities Impact of potential CO2 impurities Designing for CCS Conclusion Main points: CO2 purity and the EC IMPACTS Project
Progressive EnergyCONFIDENTIAL Introduction to the IMPACTS project CO2 purity and the EC IMPACTS Project The goal of the IMPACTS project is to close knowledge gaps related to transport and storage of CO2-rich mixtures from various CO2 sources, to enable realisation of safer and more cost-efficient solutions for CCS.
Progressive EnergyCONFIDENTIAL The main problems of impurities in CO2 transport and storage are stated as: Lack of experimental data and verified property models for mixtures of CO2 and impurities related to CO2 capture Understanding the effect of impurities on materials, equipment, processes, operation and safety procedures Understanding how impurities will affect the storage integrity Introduction to the IMPACTS project CO2 purity and the EC IMPACTS Project
Progressive EnergyCONFIDENTIAL What is stored should be “overwhelmingly” CO2. It may contain incidental associated substances from the source material and CCS processes used, but no wastes or other matter may be added. London Convention and Protocol OSPAR Treaty (No storage in water columns) Consequences for marine environment, human health Risk Assessment and Management required Drive a Quality Assurance specification for acceptable levels of impurity within the CO2 CO2 purity and the EC IMPACTS Project Legal Instruments
Progressive EnergyCONFIDENTIAL Requires monitoring to include ETS Imposes “limits on the composition of the CO2 stream” Requires “that the best available techniques to improve the composition of the CO2 have been established and applied” Requires that “pipelines for CO2 transport should, where possible, be designed so as to facilitate access of CO2 streams meeting reasonable minimum composition thresholds” Directive 2009/31/EC CO2 purity and the EC IMPACTS Project Legal Instruments
Progressive EnergyCONFIDENTIAL CO2 sink Power Station M Steelworks, Cement works, Glassworks, Refinery, Requirements: • OSPAR & London treaties • Health (escape, blowdown) • Impact on properties of CO2 • Impact on pipeline materials • Geological impacts • Oilfield impact (EOR) CO2 purity and the EC IMPACTS Project CCS Clusters
Progressive EnergyCONFIDENTIAL Potential CO2 impurities CO2 sink Steelworks, Cement works, Glassworks, Refinery, CO2, N2, Ar, H2, CH4, O2, H2S, CO, H2O, SOx, NOx Ash, NH3, Cl-, SO3, HCN, HF, Hg, As, Se, Be, Cd, V, CS2, NH4Cl, Sb, Dioxins, Furans, PAH, VOCs Power Station MeOH, Amine, NH3, DMEPEG CO2 purity and the EC IMPACTS Project
Progressive EnergyCONFIDENTIAL Establish the “red lines” Water CO2 purity and the EC IMPACTS Project Impact of CO2 impurities o SISCC o HISCC o Corrosion (avoidance of ‘free water’) o Hydrate formation SISCC HISCC CO2 hydrate
Progressive EnergyCONFIDENTIAL Establish the “red lines” Water Oxygen CO2 purity and the EC IMPACTS Project Impact of CO2 impurities Stimulates the formation of Sulphur Reducing Bacteria: o Sours otherwise ‘sweet’ oilfields (eg. Thistle field) o Leads to pore blockage (eg. Katzin aquifer pilot)
Progressive EnergyCONFIDENTIAL Crack propogation rate CO2 purity and the EC IMPACTS Project Establish the “red lines” Water Oxygen Nitrogen Impact of CO2 impurities
Progressive EnergyCONFIDENTIAL Crack travels along pipeline at up to the speed of sound in steel, Vs Pressure front travels along CO2 at decompression velocity, Vco2 Vs < Vco2, decaying pressure at crack tip Vs > Vco2, full pressure at crack tip – greater risk with more N2 CO2 purity and the EC IMPACTS Project
Progressive EnergyCONFIDENTIAL Result: CO2 purity and the EC IMPACTS Project
Progressive EnergyCONFIDENTIAL CO2 purity and the EC IMPACTS Project Establish the “red lines” Water Oxygen Nitrogen Hydrogen Impact of CO2 impurities Lowers the bubble point in the CO2, increases the potential for pump cavitation and the introduction of two-phase flow
Progressive EnergyCONFIDENTIAL CO2 purity and the EC IMPACTS Project Establish the “red lines” Water Oxygen Nitrogen Hydrogen NOx and SOx Impact of CO2 impurities Lacq basin CCS Pilot plant (Oxycombustion of gas). Compressor impellor rotted out in 3 weeks. 4NO2+2H2O +O2→4NHO3 2SO2+2H2O+O2→2H2SO4
Progressive EnergyCONFIDENTIAL CO2 purity and the EC IMPACTS Project Establish the “red lines” Water Oxygen Nitrogen Hydrogen NOx and SOx Impact of CO2 impurities 4NO2+2H2O +O2→4NHO3 2SO2+2H2O+2O2→H2SO4
Progressive EnergyCONFIDENTIAL CO2 purity and the EC IMPACTS Project Establish the “red lines” Water Oxygen Nitrogen Hydrogen NOx and SOx H2S Impact of CO2 impurities Sulphuric acid Damp sulphur pH=1.0 Photograph: Arne Dugstad, Institute for Energy Technology Kjeller, Norway. In addition to being a toxic gas, the presence of H2S can lead to the deposition of elemental sulphur: 2H2S+O2→Sx+2H2O
Progressive EnergyCONFIDENTIAL Technology is available to remove CO2 from a number of different sources The purity of the CO2 that is captured is not necessarily immediately suitable for transport and storage Need to get it right (capex, opex, impact on efficiency) Additional processing may be required, but to what standard? CO2 purity and the EC IMPACTS Project Designing for CCS
Progressive EnergyCONFIDENTIAL CO2 source Issues where additional processing may be required Coal/gas oxyfuel Oxygen, moisture content, SOx, NOx Coal/gas post-combustion Oxygen Coal/gas pre-combustion Water, hydrogen, (nitrogen) Steelworks: BFG Nitrogen, particulate, hydrogen Steelworks: BOS gas Nitrogen, particulate, oxygen Steelworks: COG Nitrogen, C2+, SO2, water, particulate Refinery stack Oxygen, C2+, nitrogen Cement Plant Various: may result in some fuels being inadmissible CO2 purity and the EC IMPACTS Project Designing for CCS
Progressive EnergyCONFIDENTIAL CO2 purity and the EC IMPACTS Project Designing for CCS The IMPACTS study aims to answer some of these questions: What are the critical issues? What are the limits of impurities in the CO2? What interactions exist within the impurities (eg. H2 and O2)? Where are the “red lines”? Is there a ‘commercial’ balance to be struck? What ‘specification’ for CO2 is required, particularly in a cluster situation? What liaison can be established to bridge some of the knowledge gaps by liaising with academia?
Progressive EnergyCONFIDENTIAL 1. Legal obligations exist that require control to be exercised over the quality of CO2 stored in the North Sea and elsewhere, but there are other, engineering, reasons to assure the quality of the CO2 2. There are “red line” issues that limit the amount of some of the impurities present in the CO2 3. Additional processing is likely to be needed to achieve compliance 4. The challenges are both technical and commercial, but not unassailable: knowledge of impure CO2 is expanding and the EC IMPACTS programme is a part of this. CO2 purity and the EC IMPACTS Project Conclusions
Progressive EnergyCONFIDENTIAL Thank you. Questions? Progressive Energy CO2 purity and the EC IMPACTS Project
Progressive EnergyCONFIDENTIAL Oxygen: Background Subsea formations contain both anaerobic and aerobic bacteria in relatively small numbers. Oxygen allows the aerobic bacteria to reproduce rapidly. Aerobic bacteria + Oxygen = More aerobic bacteria Reservoir waters Injected sea water O2 in CO2 CO2 purity and the EC IMPACTS Project
Progressive EnergyCONFIDENTIAL Oxygen: Background Aerobic bacterial action degrades the oil, and produces organic acids. Aerobic bacteria + Oil = Organic Acids Oil CO2 purity and the EC IMPACTS Project
Progressive EnergyCONFIDENTIAL Oxygen: Formation of SRB The presence of organic acids causes the Sulphate Reducing Bacteria from within the anaerobic population to multiply rapidly. SRB in anaerobic Bacteria + Organic Acids = more SRB CO2 purity and the EC IMPACTS Project
Progressive EnergyCONFIDENTIAL SRB = trouble Sulphate Reducing Bacteria reduces sulphate from the rock matrix to form H2S. H2S in hydrocarbon wells can sour the product, increase corrosion rates and reduce porosity by FeS deposition. The Tartan and Thistle fields in the UK have already become soured as a result of SRB. SRB + Sulphate = H2S CO2 purity and the EC IMPACTS Project
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CONFIDENTIAL Progressive Energy Progressive energy “CCS in the bigger picture” UKCCSRC Biannual Conference . Queens College, Cambridge . 3