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Published on May 8, 2008

Author: Sigismondo

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The World Trade Organization (WTO) 世界贸易组织(WTO) :  The World Trade Organization (WTO) 世界贸易组织(WTO) ® The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the one and only international organization that deals with the global rules of trade between nations. 世界贸易组织是世界唯一处理国际贸易问题的国际组织 ®    Replaced the General Agreement on Tariff and Trade (GATT) on January 1, 1995. 它于1995年1月1日取代了关税及贸易总协定 Objectives of the WTO世界贸易组织的目标:  Objectives of the WTO世界贸易组织的目标 ®  To ensure the multilateral trading system works as smoothly, predictably and freely as possible by:确保多边贸易系统尽可能平稳的,可预计的,自由的运行 Providing a forum for negotiating trade rights and obligations and提供一个协商贸易权力和责任的论坛 Offering a dispute settlement system for resolving trade issues based on commonly agreed rules. 提供争端解决机制在大多数同意的基础上解决贸易问题。 Objectives of the WTO (Cont’d) 世界贸易组织目标:  Objectives of the WTO (Cont’d) 世界贸易组织目标 ®   Agreements are negotiated and signed by governments, but their ultimate objective is to help producers of goods and services, exporters and importers conduct their business as smoothly and freely as possible 各国政府协商并签署协议,但各国政府的最终目标是帮助商品和服务的生产者,进口商和出口商尽可能的平稳的,自由的进行他们的生意。 ®   By facilitating mutually beneficial trade agreements, the WTO strives to improve the welfare of the peoples of the member countries 通过促进相互收益的贸易协议,世界贸易组织努力改善其成员国的公民收益 How the WTO Functions 世界贸易组织怎么运行:  How the WTO Functions 世界贸易组织怎么运行 ®  Trade agreements between member countries are reached through trade negotiation rounds.成员间的贸易协定由多轮贸易协商决定 ®   WTO trade agreements are negotiated and passed by consensus 世界贸易组织的贸易协定由多数意见协商和通过 The agreements constitute the legal ground-rules for international commerce. 协定为国际商业制定法律法规 How the WTO Functions (Cont’d)世界贸易组织怎么运行:  How the WTO Functions (Cont’d)世界贸易组织怎么运行 ®   Essentially, they are contracts, guaranteeing member countries important trade rights. 本质上,成员签订合同,保证成员国的重要的贸易权力 ®   They also bind governments to keep their trade policies within agreed limits to everybody’s benefit. 他还约束政府保持他们的同意限制每个人利益的贸易政策 ®   The WTO, as part of its function, monitors the consistency of national policies with established trade rules and members’ commitments. 世界贸易组织的部分功能,监管已制定的贸易法规和成员许诺的各国政策的一致性 Structure 组织构成:  Structure 组织构成 ®  The highest governing body of the WTO is the Ministerial Conference. 世界贸易组织的最高统治机构是部门的会议   Meets at least once every two years最少每两年聚会   Can take decisions on all matters under any of the multilateral trade agreements and negotiation processes.可以在各种多边贸易协定和协商过程上作决定 ®   The General Council is the next highest governing body. 常任理事会是第二高的统治机构   Oversees the day-to-day operations of the agreements and ministerial decisions 监管每天协定和部门决定的执行 Branches into subsidiary bodies and special committees辅助机构和特别会议有分支 ®   All WTO members can participate in all the negotiations, council and committee meetings. 所有世界贸易组织的成员可以参加所有协商,理事会和成员会议 The Doha Development Agenda 多哈发展议程:  The Doha Development Agenda 多哈发展议程 ®  The current round, known as the Doha Development Agenda (DDA) was launched in November 2001 at Doha, Qatar. 现在的回合,就是著名的多哈发展议程于2001年在卡塔尔的多哈进行 ®   Include negotiations on a range of subjects including: 协商包括许多不同课题: Agriculture, Non-agricultural market access, Services, trade related intellectual property rights, dispute settlement rules, WTO rules, environment, development and outstanding implementation issues.农业,非农业市场准入,服务业,和贸易相关的知识产权,争端解决机制,世界贸易组织机制,环境,发展和显著的执行问题 ®   Agricultural trade was effectively outside of the GATT until the last round, called the Uruguay round (1986-1994).农业贸易在关税及贸易总协定外指导最后的一轮谈判,即乌拉圭回合 The Doha Development Agenda (Cont’d):  The Doha Development Agenda (Cont’d) ®  In the current WTO negotiations, agricultural trade has proved to be the most problematic area.现在的世界贸易组织协商,农业贸易是问题最多的领域 ®  The negotiations on agricultural trade liberalization focus on three main pillars:  农业贸易自由化的协商集中在3个主要方面 Market access --- tariffs, tariff rate quotas and special safeguard 市场准入—关税,关税率配额和特别保护 Export competition --- export subsidies, export credits, food aid, and state trading enterprise 出口竞争—出口补助,出口信用,食品救援和国营贸易企业 Domestic support ---- Amber, blue, green programs ®  Special and differential treatment for developing countries特别和差异对待发展中国家 Timeline: 时间表:  Timeline: 时间表 ®  A Framework Agreement reached on July 31, 2004 2004年7月31日框架协议达成 ®   Next phase is for establishing Modalities (numerical targets and rules)下个阶段要建立特征(多个目标和法规) ®   Next Ministerial Conference scheduled for Dec 2005. Modalities could be established by then. 下一个部门会议定于2005年12月,特征应该在那时建立 ®   Country concessions and scheduling phase follows 国家让步和行程安排阶段随后 ®   Completion of round --- 2006 or 2007 or 2008 (?) 完成回合-- 2006 or 2007 or 2008 (?) WTO Dispute Settlement Process世界贸易组织争端协调过程:  WTO Dispute Settlement Process世界贸易组织争端协调过程 OBJECTIVE: to settle disputes between Members to ensure that the WTO trading rules are respected and enforced目标:在成员间协调争端以保证世界贸易组织的贸易法规被尊重和执行 WHO CAN INITIATE A DISPUTE: only WTO Member governments谁可以开始一个争端:只有是世界贸易组织的成员国政府 WHAT ARE THE GROUNDS FOR DISPUTE: a violation of a WTO Members rights and obligations covered by the agreement争端的范围是什么:违背世界贸易组织成员协定中包括利益和义务 STRENGTH:优点 Rulings are binding裁决有限定性 Unbiased ruling 裁决没有偏见 Set timelines for process进 程有时间表 Structured process有结构的进行 One set of dispute settlement rules一套争端解决法则 WEAKNESS:缺点 Lengthy process进程长 Highly legal in nature过高的法律性 Costly -- legal expenses法律费用高 No interim relief or compensation for harm suffered during dispute process对于争端进行期间的损失无补偿减轻或补偿 Stages in a Typical WTO Dispute典型的世界贸易组织争端发展进程:  Stages in a Typical WTO Dispute典型的世界贸易组织争端发展进程 Consultation咨询 Panel Established座谈小组确立 Panel Review座谈小组回顾 Panel Report小组报告 Appellate Body Established申诉组织成立 Appellate Body Review申诉组织回顾 Panel/Appellate Body Report Adopted修改小组/受理上诉组织报告 Implementation执行 Appeal申诉 Stages in a Typical WTO Dispute (cont’d)典型的世界贸易组织争端发展进程:  Stages in a Typical WTO Dispute (cont’d)典型的世界贸易组织争端发展进程 In Cases of Non-Implementation 假设没有执行 Complaining member can apply for retaliation上诉成员可以实施报复 Complaining member can request an Implementation panel – follows same process of initial ruling and appeal上诉成员可以要求执行小组—遵循同样的最初的裁决和上诉过程 WTO Disputes (Jan. 1995 to June 2003世界贸易组织争论 1995年1月至2003年6月):  WTO Disputes (Jan. 1995 to June 2003世界贸易组织争论 1995年1月至2003年6月) 295 request for consultation 295 要求咨询 110 Panels established 110 座谈小组建立 71 Panel and 47 Appellate Body reports were adopted 71座谈小组和47受理上诉的团体报告被采用 7 authorizations granted to take retaliatory actions 7个授权被授予采取报复性行动 WTO Disputes Involving Canada与加拿大相关的世界贸易组织争端:  WTO Disputes Involving Canada与加拿大相关的世界贸易组织争端 Canada has been involved in three significant agricultural disputes加拿大有三期显著的农业争端 EU Beef hormones 欧盟荷尔蒙牛肉 Canada dairy 加拿大牛奶品 Canadian Wheat Board加拿大小麦协会 EU Beef Hormone Dispute欧盟荷尔蒙牛肉争端:  EU Beef Hormone Dispute欧盟荷尔蒙牛肉争端 In 1989, the European Union (EU) banned the use of growth-promoting hormones in livestock and imposed a ban on the importation of meat derived from cattle treated with these hormones1989年,欧盟禁止对牲畜使用促进生长的荷尔蒙并对使用这种和恶梦的牛的肉类进口实施了禁止 Both Canada and the United States consistently opposed the EU‘s import ban on the grounds that it was not based on scientific evidence and therefore created an unjustified barrier to trade. 加拿大和美国一致抗议欧盟的进口限制,基于此限制不是基于科学依据因此对贸易造成了阻碍 EU Beef Hormone Dispute欧盟荷尔蒙牛肉争端:  EU Beef Hormone Dispute欧盟荷尔蒙牛肉争端 The WTO agreement became effective in 1995 and gave Canada and the US an opportunity to challenge the ban using the Agreement on sanitary and Phytosanitary measures (SPS Agreement)世界贸易组织协定1995年生效,并给与加拿大和美国用卫生检疫和植物卫生检疫条约挑战欧盟禁令的机会 EU Beef Hormone Dispute欧盟荷尔蒙牛肉争端:  EU Beef Hormone Dispute欧盟荷尔蒙牛肉争端 WTO members, including Canada and the EU, negotiated the SPS Agreement to ensure that, while countries have the right to provide the level of health protection they deem appropriate, sanitary and phytosanitary measures must be based on science and they should not be used as disguised restrictions on trade. 世界贸易组织的成员,包括加拿大和欧盟协商SPS协定以却表,在成员国有权提供他们认为正确健康保护水平的同时,卫生检疫和植物卫生检疫措施必须基于科学的基础并且不能伪装用于限制贸易 EU Beef Hormone Dispute欧盟荷尔蒙牛肉争端:  EU Beef Hormone Dispute欧盟荷尔蒙牛肉争端 Canada conducted a review of all six growth-promoting hormones at issue and found them to be safe when used in accordance with good veterinary practices.加拿大对6种促进生长的荷尔蒙进行了检验,发现根据兽医实践他们都是安全的 In July 1996, Canada held formal WTO consultations with the EU regarding the ban. The consultations were unsuccessful in resolving the dispute, and Canada requested the establishment of a WTO dispute settlement panel. 1996年7月,加拿大对于欧盟的相关禁令举行了世界贸易组织正式的咨询.咨询自解决争端方面没有成功,加拿大要求成立世界贸易组织争端解决小组. EU Beef Hormone Dispute欧盟荷尔蒙牛肉争端:  EU Beef Hormone Dispute欧盟荷尔蒙牛肉争端 The Panel was established in October 1996.1996年10月小组成立 The Dispute Settlement Panel released its final report in August 1997. The report concluded that there was no justification for the ban and that the EU was in violation of its WTO obligations. 1997年8月争端解决小组发表了他们最后的报告.报告指出禁令是没有正当道理的,欧盟违反了世界贸易组织的职责 The EU exercised its right under the WTO dispute settlement procedures and appealed the panel report in September 1998.欧盟行使了其在世界贸易组织争端解决程序中的权力,于1998年9月向小组报告申诉 EU Beef Hormone Dispute欧盟荷尔蒙牛肉争端:  EU Beef Hormone Dispute欧盟荷尔蒙牛肉争端 The Appellate Body, which released its report on January 16, 1998, also concluded that there was no scientific basis for the ban and that the EU was in violation of its WTO obligations.受理上诉的团体,在1998年1月16日发表了报告,总结了禁令没有科学依据,欧盟违反了世界贸易组织的职责。 The Dispute Settlement Body of the WTO adopted the Panel and Appellate Body reports on February 13, 1998.1998年2月13日世界贸易组织的争端解决机构采取了小组和受理上诉团体的报告 EU Beef Hormone Dispute欧盟荷尔蒙牛肉争端:  EU Beef Hormone Dispute欧盟荷尔蒙牛肉争端 Following the adoption of the reports, the EU requested four years to implement the rulings. Canada did not agree since the time requested was well in excess of the 15-month guideline given to WTO members to implement rulings, and the matter was referred to an arbitrator.报告采用后,欧盟要求4年的时间去实行其规则。加拿大不同意,因为欧盟要求的时间超过了15个月的方正,根据世界贸易组织成员国执行的规则,此事件提交给仲裁机构 The WTO Arbitrator concluded that there were no particular circumstances to justify giving the EU more than 15 months to implement the rulings and gave the EU until May 13, 1999, to comply with its WTO obligations.世界贸易组织仲裁机构决定没有特殊情况合理的给欧盟超过15个月的时间去执行规则,并要求欧盟在1999年5月13日之前遵从其世界贸易组织的义务。 EU Beef Hormone Dispute欧盟荷尔蒙牛肉争端:  EU Beef Hormone Dispute欧盟荷尔蒙牛肉争端 The EU did not meet the May 13, 1999, deadline for implementation.欧盟没有达到1999年5月13日的最终限制去实现。 On May 14, 1999, the Canada announced that it would be requesting authorization from the WTO Dispute Settlement Body to retaliate against the EU for its continued ban. 1999年5月14日,加拿大宣布其相会要求世界贸易组织争端解决小组的授权报复欧盟仍在实行的禁令。 EU Beef Hormone Dispute欧盟荷尔蒙牛肉争端:  EU Beef Hormone Dispute欧盟荷尔蒙牛肉争端 On July 12, 1999, the WTO Arbitrators determined that the value of Canada‘s nullification or impairment suffered as a result of the EU ban was $11.3 million annually. 1999年7月12日,欧盟冲裁机构决定加拿大因欧盟禁令的损失达1.13千万元 On July 29, Canada announced the list of products that will be subject to a 100-percent duty beginning on August 1, 1999. 7月29日,加拿大宣布了100%关税的产品清单,将越1999年8月1日实行 Canada Dairy加拿大牛奶业:  Canada Dairy加拿大牛奶业 Canada has a system of domestic supply management for dairy products that has three major components加拿大有国内牛奶产品的供应管理系统,有3个主要成分 Production limiting quotas for milk牛奶生产限制配额 Administered domestic prices (milk classes)管理的国内价格(牛奶种类) Tariffs on imported dairy products对进口牛奶产品有关税 Since 1996 (?) Canada also exported dairy products through the Special Milk Class system自从1996 (?)加拿大通过特别牛奶种类系统也出口牛奶产品 Canada Dairy加拿大牛奶业:  Canada Dairy加拿大牛奶业 Two of the Special milk classes (Classes 5d and 5e) provided milk to dairy processors at prices significantly below domestic prices and were for export only两个特别牛奶种类(种类5d和5e)提供牛奶给牛奶也加工者已显著低于国内价格的价格而且借给出口者 New Zealand and the United States objected to these special classes on the grounds that they were prohibited export subsidies 新西兰和美国抗议这种特殊种类是禁止性出口补助 Canada Dairy加拿大牛奶业:  Canada Dairy加拿大牛奶业 Timeline of dispute 争端时间表 Consultations – November 1997, January 1998咨询--- 1997年11月, 1998年1月 Panel established – March 25, 1998小组建立—1998年3月15日 Panel Ruling – March 17, 1999 小组结论—1999年3月17日 The Panel finds Canada‘s exports of dairy products under Special Milk Classes 5(d) and 5(e) to be subsidized. 小组发现加拿大的特别牛产种类5d和5e牛奶产品的出口是补助的 Canada Dairy加拿大牛奶业:  Canada Dairy加拿大牛奶业 Canada files notice of appeal – July 15, 1999加拿大提出申诉通知—1999年7月15 WTO Appellate body report released – October 13, 1999世界贸易组织受理上诉的机构报告发布—1999年10月13日 Appellate body upholds original panel finding受理上诉小组支持原来的小组的发现 Canada Dairy加拿大牛奶业:  Canada Dairy加拿大牛奶业 Canada takes steps to implement WTO ruling加拿大采取政策实施世界贸易组织的法规 Eliminates Class 5e exports Creates Commercial Export Milk (CEM) system取消种类5e出口创造商业出口牛奶政策 A system of contracts where farmer agrees to produce and sell milk to processor at world prices, processor exports all products produced from this milk一个农民同意的生产和销售牛奶给加工者以世界价格, 加工者出口以这种牛奶生产的产品的合同系统 No marketing boards are involved in establishing contracts or setting prices没有市场协会参与建立合同或设定价格 Canada Dairy加拿大牛奶业:  Canada Dairy加拿大牛奶业 US and NZ do not accept CEM system claiming that it is also an illegal export subsidy美国和新西兰不接受CEM系统,声称系统还是不合法的出口补助 US and NZ request Compliance panel – February 16, 2001美国和新西兰要求依从小组—2001年2月16日 Compliance panel report – July 11, 2001依从小组报告—2001年7月11日 Report finds that CEM system is an illegal export subsidy- 报告发现CEM系统是一个不合法的出口补助 Canada Dairy加拿大牛奶业:  Canada Dairy加拿大牛奶业 Canada appeals Compliance panel finding – September 4, 2001加拿大上诉依从小组的发现—2001年9月4日 Appellate body releases report – December 3, 2001受理上诉的团体发表报告—2001年12月3日 Finds that US and NZ did not prove that CEM system was an illegal export subsidy发现美国和加拿大没有证明CEM系统是不合法的出口补助 Canada Dairy加拿大牛奶业:  Canada Dairy加拿大牛奶业 US and NZ maintain that Canada has not properly implemented the original panel decision and request a second compliance panel – December 18, 2001美国和西西兰坚持加拿大没有合理的执行原来小组的决定,要求第二个依从小组—2001年12月18日 Second WTO Compliance Panel established – February 18, 2001第二个世界贸易组织依从小组建立—2001年2月18日 Canada Dairy加拿大牛奶业:  Canada Dairy加拿大牛奶业 Second compliance panel report released – July 26 ,2002 第二个依从小组报告发表—2002年7月26日 The panel finds that Canada’s CEM system is an illegal export subsidy小组发现加拿大CEM系统是一个不合法的出口补助 Canada appeals this finding – September 23, 2002加拿大申诉这个发现—2002年9月23日 Appellate body hold hearing – October 31, 2002受理上诉的小组听取诉讼—2002年10月31日 Canada Dairy加拿大牛奶业:  Canada Dairy加拿大牛奶业 Appellate body submits its report – December 20, 2002受理上诉团体提交报告—2002年12月20日 Upholds Compliance panel finding that CEM system is an illegal export subsidy支持依从小组的发现,CEM系统是不合法的出口补助 The Bottom line 底线:  The Bottom line 底线 ®  The WTO is a strictly member driven organization 世界贸易组织是一个严格的成员组织 ®   Unlike other known international organizations, such as the World Bank, and IMF is not governed by a board of directors 不同于其他所知的国际组织,例如世界银行和国际货币基金组织,世界贸易组织部被一个委员会所统治 ®   The WTO has no power of its own to enforce rules and sanctions. Such power belongs to individual countries through their ability to apply retaliatory measures that are sanctioned by the WTO DSB. 世界贸易组织没有其权力去加强法规和制裁.这种权力归于各国通过他们的能力去实施经WTO DSB批准的报复措施 The Bottom line (Cont’d) 底线:  The Bottom line (Cont’d) 底线 ®  The WTO creates the platform for Members to reach a collective understanding about what is admissible and what is not in international trade relations and to resolve trade conflicts by legal means, which, otherwise, could spill over into political conflict.世界贸易组织给成员国创造了一个平台去达到关于什么是可容许的,什么不再国际贸易关系的集体的理解和用法律的办法解决贸易矛盾,否则,会造成外溢以至成为政治矛盾 ®   By lowering trade barriers, and other trade-related impediments, the WTO system helps break down other social, cultural, and political barriers between peoples and nations.通过降低关税壁垒和其他的贸易相关的阻碍,世界贸易组织系统帮助分解人们和国家间的其他的社会,文化和政治壁垒

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 | 28/03/15

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