CNE430 11 18 04

50 %
50 %
Information about CNE430 11 18 04

Published on February 14, 2008

Author: Paolina


The Fall of Troy, Part 1:  The Fall of Troy, Part 1 ART/CNE 430 11/18/04 Lecture Topics:  Lecture Topics Near Eastern influences on Greek art and literature, focusing on traditions of the fall of Troy (Ilioupersis) Homer and the Iron Age (again, what society do we see reflected in Homeric epic?) City destructions in the Late Bronze Age Near Eastern Influences :  Near Eastern Influences In both her articles read for this week, Sarah Morris explores the influence of Near Eastern art and religions on Greek culture, especially on Homer and representations of the Fall of Troy in art and literature. Ilioupersis:  Ilioupersis Morris points out that the capture of a city occurs in the earliest (Bronze Age) images in Greek art and poetry. Near Eastern songs mourning the fall of cities began in Sumer and Ur 1,000 years before that. Near Eastern City-Sacking in Greek Literature:  Near Eastern City-Sacking in Greek Literature Aristotle, Herodotus, pseudo-Hesiod all speak of the fate of Assyrian Nineveh; Alkaios fr. 48.10-11 references the Greeks helping the Babylonians capture Ashkelon. NE traditions of city-sacking shape the ways the Greeks portray this theme. The Sack of Troy:  The Sack of Troy This ‘was a story which became, in art and poetry, an encyclopedia of human experience refracted through Greek values.’ Morris concentrates especially on the story of Astyanax. Astyanax: Two Different Deaths:  Astyanax: Two Different Deaths In poetry: the child is thrown from the walls of Troy. In art: the child is shown about to be, being, or having been killed by a warrior with a weapon, usually on an altar. Astyanax’s death is incorporated into Priam’s. Morris thinks NE traditions may have helped shape the story. Early Artistic Representations:  Early Artistic Representations Show a warrior seizing or slaying a young child, sometimes near a brick or ashlar (dressed, coursed rectangular blocks)structure. Examples: bronze shield-strap panels and tripod legs The scenes are in a setting that implies sacrifice - the presence of altars, weapons brandished more like knives than swords. The Death of Priam:  The Death of Priam She argues that, according to the tradition of the assassination of royalty, Priam should die on his throne. She asks: “How did the altar become the seat of the king and the locale of his death?” Her answers: 1) visual confusion (Greeks unfamiliar with thrones until Persian exposure) 2) influence of mythology, put the altar in to justify divine involvement in heroic deaths (Achilles, Neoptolemus, etc.) 550 BCE, Attic Black-Figure:  550 BCE, Attic Black-Figure 550 BC, Attic Black Figure:  550 BC, Attic Black Figure Astyanax’ Death in Art:  Astyanax’ Death in Art The strange looking representations of Neoptolemus about to hit Priam with the body of a child are the result of a mixing of traditions. The hurling of bodies/body parts belongs to siege/fall of city narratives; but the child wielded here has bleeding, weapon wounds, not the wounds from a fall. Locating the Tradition:  Locating the Tradition Astyanax’ death belongs to a widespread tradition - the representation of the slaughter of enemy children in the sack of cities. The earliest Greek artistic representation of this is the Mykonos pithos. Near Eastern City Sack Traditions:  Near Eastern City Sack Traditions These include practices that the Greeks don’t experience, such as impaling enemy heads, such as we see in this Assyrian relief (8th c. BCE). Near Eastern Siege Machines:  Near Eastern Siege Machines “The most formidable weapon of the period.” Leather and wood wheeled devices which shield battering rams, manned by warriors within. Widely used in 9th-7th c., first appeared in Greek warfare in 5th c. Trojan Horse:  Trojan Horse Morris argues that such a siege device was transformed in Homeric times to the story of the Trojan Horse, which entered the walls of Troy, disgorged men, and enabled the city’s sack. The earliest representations, like the Mykonos pithos, could perhaps derive from a single prototype by an artist or poet who turned a NE military machine into a Greek ‘invention.’ Near Eastern Influence:  Near Eastern Influence Other Greek stories that may have borrowed elements from the Near East: *legends of Egyptian pharaohs strong enough to pierce bronze with arrows [Odysseus’ contest of the bow and axes]. * The odd, ‘un-Hellenic’ representation of Zeus birthing Athena from his head. City-Sacking Imagery:  City-Sacking Imagery Near Eastern Bronze Age imagery of city-sacking may have influenced Greek imagery as well. Reliefs at Karnak, Luxor, Medinet Habu and Abu Simbel all show the triumphs of Egyptian kings over Syrian and Canaanite cities. Merenptah’s Campaign:  Merenptah’s Campaign His campaign against Canaanite cities such as Ashkelon is depicted in four temple reliefs in Karnak in Egypt. Images include: men defending walls women atop towers despairing acts by the besieged: people with arms upraised, people holding the limp bodies of children from the walls, as if about to drop them. Influence of Semitic Religion:  Influence of Semitic Religion Infant sacrifice was required for specific occasions and rituals. Hebrew Bible: in 2 episodes, fathers vow and offer children in exchange for military victory. Punic topet cemeteries: the rite of molek (regular infant sacrifice) attested in Phoenician & Punic inscriptions as well as Semitic literature. The Greeks transformed this alien ritual into native myth - lots of stories of young people willingly offering themselves as sacrifices to save cities. Transformation into Greek Culture:  Transformation into Greek Culture By having these children willingly die, the Greeks clear the cities of violating the taboo of human sacrifice, while ‘ennobling and Hellenizing a Semitic rite.’ Myth often blames foreigners for human sacrifice (Medea, etc.) The story of Astyanax transforms an alien rite into a narrative device in art and literature. Contact:  Contact The Greeks came into contact with Near Eastern art and stories via trade and contact with Near Easterners themselves living in places like Crete (Kommos). The Context of Bronze Age Epic:  The Context of Bronze Age Epic Many scholars argue that the presence of narrative in palatial art, and of lyre players in banquet contexts, proves the presence of a verbal epic narrative tradition. Thera: Arrival Town Fresco:  Thera: Arrival Town Fresco S. Morris’ Conclusion (NCH):  S. Morris’ Conclusion (NCH) “It may be a greater challenge to isolate and appreciate what is Greek in Homeric poetry than to enumerate its foreign sources. Exploring the many treasures common to Homeric and NE epic, including the Hebrew Bible, enables modern readers to join archaeologists and recover the lost unity of ancient Mediterranean literature and life.” 7th c. BCE:  7th c. BCE Homer and the Iron Age:  Homer and the Iron Age Is Homeric epic just bad history? What does Ian Morris say? I. Morris, p. 558-559:  I. Morris, p. 558-559 ‘In the rituals which produced the archaeological record, Iron Age Greeks manipulated material culture as a nonverbal language through which they debated who they were and where they stood relative to each other, the larger east Mediterranean world, and the lost heroic past. The ritualized performance of epic poetry . . . was also a key part in this process. . . I. Morris, cont.:  I. Morris, cont. Homer uses objects - some contemporaneous, some ancient, some invented - to evoke the past in the present, creating an ‘epic distance.’ Objects were as manipulable as language, religion, and the laws of physics, and there is no point in trying to pull Homer’s picture apart, reassembling it in ‘layers’ which can then be correlated with the artifacts found in discrete archaeological strata. We should rather think of the epics themselves as artifacts . . . Generated in the great upheavals of the 8th c.” I. Morris, cont.:  I. Morris, cont. “The poems and the archaeological record can only be properly understood when read alongside one another and woven together, as remnants of competing 8th c. efforts at self-fashioning, out of which classical Greek civilization was created.” Late Bronze Age Disruptions:  Late Bronze Age Disruptions We can see evidence for destructions in the archaeological record - how to interpret them is the question. This is the heart of the controversy over archaeological proof of the Homeric Trojan War. Evidence for Calamity:  Evidence for Calamity There were destructions on Crete at different times during the MBA - LBA. Sanctuary at Arkhanes, Crete, found in 1979. Four room shrine on Mt. Iouchtas, near Knossos. In the west room, 3 skeletons were found who had all died violently. Time: MBA (MMII) Remains undisturbed since destruction. Human Sacrifice?:  Human Sacrifice? * 18 year-old male, skeleton so tightly contracted that he must have been trussed like the bull on this sarcophagus. Lying on side, on platform in center of the room. Among his bones was a bronze dagger. Close by, a trough for collecting blood from the sacrifice. His bones were discolored showing that he died of blood loss. Priestess?:  Priestess? 28 year old female, spread-eagled in SW corner of the room. Priest:  Priest Male in his late 30s, 6 feet tall, found on his back near the sacrificial platform with his hands raised as if to protect his face, legs broken by falling debris. In corridor, poorly preserved skeleton, with shattered remains of clay vessel with bull on it. Interpretation:  Interpretation The sanctuary was destroyed by fire, probably as a result of earthquake, perhaps the one that destroyed the Old Palaces. The collapsing roof killed the three; young male was already dead. Human sacrifice to avoid destruction? Influence of Near Eastern religion? Destruction of Minoan New Palaces (c. 1450 BCE):  Destruction of Minoan New Palaces (c. 1450 BCE) Happen ‘at the same time’ archaeologically, when the same style of pottery was in use at all sites. So, the destructions could have happened within a generation of each other, or all in the same year. Archaeology can’t narrow it down more than that. Destructions occur over the entire island. Causes:  Causes At same time: Major natural disaster (earthquake)? 25 years apart: 1) internal conflict: palaces fighting each other 2) external conflict: Mycenaeans swept in and plundered. Knossos was destroyed c. 1450, immediately rebuilt with new pottery styles, new tomb styles, new styles of fresco painting, and Linear B tablets. Only Knossos was rebuilt. Signs of Stress:  Signs of Stress At Knossos, c. 1450 - evidence for child sacrifice. Off the royal road, 327 children’s bones were found in a burnt deposit in the basement of a building called North House - remains of 4 children between 8-12 years old. Bones show fine knife marks, comparable to butchery marks on animal bones, from the removal of meat. Cannibalism is indicated. Knossos Cannibalism:  Knossos Cannibalism In a nearby room, there were some finger and toe bones from children, a human vertebra with a knife cut, some marine shells, some edible snail shells, and burnt earth were found in a pithos, suggesting that portions of children were cooked together with a variety of other foodstuffs. Mycenaean Invasion?:  Mycenaean Invasion? Is this evidence for Minoan response to a Mycenaean invasion? Was this a drastic ritual by Knossians trying to please their gods? We can’t tell. We have archaeological evidence of action, but interpreting it is difficult. Since Phoenicians lived at places like Kommos, one would not be surprised to see the influence of Levantine religion on the locals. Aegean-wide Destructions:  Aegean-wide Destructions LBA Aegean civilizations were multicultural and interconnected. It is not surprising that we see LBA destructions affecting areas from Greece, to Anatolia, to Egypt. Next week: the fall of Troy, the fall of Mycenaean palaces

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

Hier sollte eine Beschreibung angezeigt werden, diese Seite lässt dies jedoch nicht zu.
Read more

25.06.2016 - 01.07.2016 - Anders Fernsehen |

Wöchentlich ANDERE Tipps (18.04.2015 - 24.04.2015) Wöchentlich ANDERE Tipps (11.04.2015 - 17.04.2014) Wöchentlich ANDERE Tipps [04.04.2015 - 10.04.2015)
Read more

Schalke 04 -

Fr. bis So. (05.11.2016) FC Schalke 04-SV Werder Bremen-:- (-:-) ... 18: Fr. bis So. (28.01.2017) FC Schalke 04-Eintracht Frankfurt-:- (-:-) ...
Read more

BAG – 5 AZR 248/11 |

Darlegungs- und Beweislast im Vergütungsprozess. Bundesarbeitsgericht, Urteil vom 18.04.2012, 5 AZR 248/11 Leitsätze des Gerichts Klagt ein Arbeitnehmer ...
Read more

Fussball Bundesliga 11.04.2015 – 12.04.2015

Beginn-Zeit: 11.04.2015 – 18:30 Uhr Fussball-Stadion: Imtech-Arena. Bundesliga Spiele am Sonntag, den 12.04.2015. 1. FC Köln gegen TSG Hoffenheim
Read more

Lottozahlen vom Samstag (11.04.2015) -

Sie lauten 2, 11, 15, 36, 46, 47, die Superzahl ist die 6. Der Gewinnzahlenblock. ... 11.04.2015 | 19:31 (2.523 Leser) Schrift ändern: (7 Bewertungen)
Read more

EuGH, 18.04.2013 - C-463/11 -

Informationen zur Entscheidung EuGH, 18.04.2013 - C-463/11: Volltextveröffentlichungen, Kurzfassungen/Presse, Besprechungen u.ä.
Read more

BSG, 18.12.2003 - B 11 AL 35/03 R -

Informationen zur Entscheidung BSG, 18.12.2003 - B 11 AL 35/03 R: Volltextveröffentlichungen, ... September 2004 - B 7 AL 18/04 R - veröffentlicht in juris).
Read more

Lottozahlen am Samstag, 18.04.15: Alle neuen Lotto ...

Die aktuellen Lottozahlen, Infos zur Live-Ziehung sowie Lotto-Quoten finden Sie hier. In dieser Woche lagen bei Lotto am Samstag, 18.04.2015, 19 Millionen ...
Read more