CMC IR1001

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Information about CMC IR1001

Published on September 27, 2007

Author: Barbara


The Cuban Missile Crisis:  The Cuban Missile Crisis The United States and Latin America:  The United States and Latin America 1823 Monroe Doctrine Monroe Doctrine – The US wishing to prevent any foreign power becoming involved in Latin America – after the collapse of the Spanish Empire Soviet Global Policy:  Soviet Global Policy Soviet foreign policy changes with the death of Stalin & the Soviet Union becomes interested in the Third World – backing national liberation movements Cuba perfect example - “We did not know what type of revolution had taken place” Cuban Missile Crisis:  Cuban Missile Crisis January 1959 victory of the Cuba Revolution As Cuban-US relations deteriorate Havana’s relationship with Moscow improves Cuba perfect example of what Moscow hoped to achieve in the Third World Cuban Missile Crisis:  Cuban Missile Crisis Propaganda gold dust – Cold War at its height & due to shared history/geography with US Cuban Missile Crisis:  Cuban Missile Crisis April 1961 - Bay of Pigs Dec 1961 – Castro proclaims himself Marxist-Leninist Deployment:  Deployment Summer 1962 missiles begin to be sent to Cuba Politburo divided Wanted to announce to world as fait accompli when at UN 13 Days in October:  13 Days in October 14th – photographs of missiles on Cuba 22nd – Kennedy decides to blockade Cuba 24th – Soviet ships turn back 24th – message from Khrushchev saying must find peaceful solution 25th – U2 spy plane shot down 26th – 2nd message from Khrushchev 28th – agreement reached ExComm Reasons:  ExComm Reasons Bargaining chip for Jupiters in Turkey Diverting trap – real goal was Berlin Rebalance Cold War Close Nuclear imbalance – cost Cuban defence Excomm Options:  Excomm Options 3 possible options: Attack Cuba Trade missiles for those in Turkey Quarantine Much pressure on JFK from hawks after Bay of Pigs 11 voted for quarantine/6 for invasion Soviet Aims:  Soviet Aims Idea came to Khrushchev while going for a walk in Bulgaria! Nuclear parity – been proven by 1961 Weapons in Turkey – 10 mins to hit Soviet Union but 20 mins to hit US Virgin Land campaign – poor results Soviet Aims:  Soviet Aims (4) Reduce military spending – more “bang for your buck” on “rumble for your rouble” (5) Tension with China (6) Problems with the West – U2 & Vienna/Berlin Soviet Aims:  Soviet Aims (7) Believe JFK weak (8) Khrushchev’s character (9) Cuban defence - another Bay of Pigs but 40,000 Soviet troops already on Cuba Solutions:  Solutions What other options open to JFK & Khrushchev? – pressures from within own governments Both fought in World War 2 Analysis:  Analysis Nye – 3 ideas Domestic level International level – distribution of power Military technology – relative standing in international system Analysis:  Analysis Graham Allison – Essence of Decision. Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis Model I – security and stability Model II – Organisations within governments have own reasons Model III – Individuals with own reasons but careful consideration of political situation in own country Outcomes:  Outcomes Perceived as great humiliation for Soviet Union Outcomes:  Outcomes “Eyeball to eyeball, they blinked first” – Dean Rusk, US Secretary of State Hotline between Washington and Moscow created 1963 - Limited test Ban Treaty 1968 – Non Proliferation Treaty Outcomes:  Outcomes US promise not to invade Cuba – Monroe Doctrine dead 1963 Jupiter missiles in Turkey 1964 cost Khrushchev his job – overseas adventures Conclusions:  Conclusions Moscow takes decision to station nuclear weapons for a variety of different internal and foreign policy reasons – not just Cuban defence “special” relationship between Washington & Havana increases tension Nye - analysis Allison – Essence of Decision Conclusions:  Conclusions Perceived as humiliation for Moscow – cost Khrushchev his job Legacy for rest of Cold War “Eyeball to eyeball, they blinked first.”

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